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1.
Phytomedicine ; 90: 153635, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening diseases and could occur in severe COVID-19 patients. Re-Du-Ning injection (RDN) is a tradition Chinese medicine preparation which has been clinically used for treatment of respiratory diseases including COVID-19. PURPOSE: To elucidate the potential mechanisms of RDN for the treatment of ALI. METHODS: Female C57BL/6J mice were used to establish ALI model by intraperitoneal injection 10 mg/kg LPS, and RDN injection was intraperitoneally administered with the dose of 5 and 10 ml/kg. The cytokines were measured by ELISA and qPCR. The data related to NETs were analyzed by ELISA, immunofluorescence, Western blotting and network pharmacological approach. RESULTS: RDN robustly alleviated LPS-induced ALI. Meanwhile, RDN downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α. Specifically, RDN treatment inhibited the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and remarkably suppressed the protein of PAD4. The active compound from RDN decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that RDN ameliorates LPS-induced ALI through suppressing MAPK pathway to inhibit the formation of NETs.

2.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-8, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256666

RESUMO

Implementation intention is a kind of behaviour choice strategy in which individuals adopt specific and definite behaviour patterns to achieve behavioural goals. The standard form is 'if something happens, then I will do something'. Previous studies have shown that implementation intention strategy is a fast and effective mental skill with notable advantages. However, adding the requirement of 'deliberate' to the implementation plan will increase the probability of decision adjustment to a certain extent. In this study, the classic Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) was selected as the evaluation index of risk decision-making, and the 'deliberate' implementation intention was adopted to explore the impact of this behavioural strategy on risk selection. The recruited medical students were divided into two groups: the implementation intention group (n = 37) and the control group (n = 34). The baseline assessment for the BART was performed by all participants, and the intensive training of 'deliberate' implementation intention to 'make as much money as possible' was conducted before the post-test decision-making after one week. The adjusted BART (adj BART) value and AvgIncome were significantly higher than those at baseline in the implementation intention group(adj BART value: baseline 12.63 ± 2.90, post-test: 14.78 ± 2.66, F = 15.978, p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.307; AvgIncome: baseline 12.43 ± 2.56, post-test 15.00 ± 2.57, F = 20.953, p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.368). The mixed-model ANOVAs showed that there was a significant interaction between test time and group (adj BART value: F = 4.859, p = 0.031, η 2 = 0.066; AvgIncome: F = 4.261, p = 0.043, η 2 = 0.058). Conclusion: The implementation of 'deliberate' intention can help medical students make more rational judgements in risk decision-making tasks, avoid over conservative behaviour and obtain more benefits.

3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1208: 131-173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260026

RESUMO

Macroautophagy is an important biological process in eukaryotic cells by which longevity proteins, misfolded proteins, and damaged organelles are degraded. The autophagy process consists of three key steps: (1) the formation of autophagosomes; (2) the fusion of the autophagosomes with lysosomes; and (3) the degradation of the contents of autolysosomes. If any of the three steps is impaired, autophagy will not be able to complete its biological function. Dysfunctional or blocked autophagy is closely involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. The accurate determination of the autophagy activity in vivo and in vitro has become a challenge in the field of autophagy research. At present, the most widely used detection method to determine autophagy activity in mammalian cells is to quantify LC3B in the cells by Western blot, or to observe the formation and changes of autophagosomes and autolysosomes by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. However, ignoring the dynamic characteristics of autophagy and only evaluating the number of autophagosomes or the presence of LC3B cannot completely reflect the activation or a blockage of the autophagy system, and objectively analyze its real role in the occurrence and development of a disease. For example, the accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes can occur through an increase in substrate to be degraded after the activation of autophagy, or it may be caused by the partial obstruction or blockage of autophagy. In this chapter, new and familiar ways to detect the autophagic flux are methodically summarized to provide researchers with a multi-angled viewpoint.

4.
Phytomedicine ; 90: 153635, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening diseases and could occur in severe COVID-19 patients. Re-Du-Ning injection (RDN) is a tradition Chinese medicine preparation which has been clinically used for treatment of respiratory diseases including COVID-19. PURPOSE: To elucidate the potential mechanisms of RDN for the treatment of ALI. METHODS: Female C57BL/6J mice were used to establish ALI model by intraperitoneal injection 10 mg/kg LPS, and RDN injection was intraperitoneally administered with the dose of 5 and 10 ml/kg. The cytokines were measured by ELISA and qPCR. The data related to NETs were analyzed by ELISA, immunofluorescence, Western blotting and network pharmacological approach. RESULTS: RDN robustly alleviated LPS-induced ALI. Meanwhile, RDN downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α. Specifically, RDN treatment inhibited the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and remarkably suppressed the protein of PAD4. The active compound from RDN decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that RDN ameliorates LPS-induced ALI through suppressing MAPK pathway to inhibit the formation of NETs.

5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 214, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cartilage injury and pathological degeneration are reported in millions of patients globally. Cartilages such as articular hyaline cartilage are characterized by poor self-regeneration ability due to lack of vascular tissue. Current treatment methods adopt foreign cartilage analogue implants or microfracture surgery to accelerate tissue repair and regeneration. These methods are invasive and are associated with the formation of fibrocartilage, which warrants further exploration of new cartilage repair materials. The present study aims to develop an injectable modified gelatin hydrogel. METHOD: The hydrogel effectively adsorbed proteoglycans secreted by chondrocytes adjacent to the cartilage tissue in situ, and rapidly formed suitable chondrocyte survival microenvironment modified by ε-poly-L-lysine (EPL). Besides, dynamic covalent bonds were introduced between glucose and phenylboronic acids (PBA). These bonds formed reversible covalent interactions between the cis-diol groups on polyols and the ionic boronate state of PBA. PBA-modified hydrogel induced significant stress relaxation, which improved chondrocyte viability and cartilage differentiation of stem cells. Further, we explored the ability of these hydrogels to promote chondrocyte viability and cartilage differentiation of stem cells through chemical and mechanical modifications. RESULTS: In vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that the hydrogels exhibited efficient biocompatibility. EPL and PBA modified GelMA hydrogel (Gel-EPL/B) showed stronger activity on chondrocytes compared to the GelMA control group. The Gel-EPL/B group induced the secretion of more extracellular matrix and improved the chondrogenic differentiation potential of stem cells. Finally, thus hydrogel promoted the tissue repair of cartilage defects. CONCLUSION: Modified hydrogel is effective in cartilage tissue repair.

6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(2): 649-656, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275842

RESUMO

Studied the optimum extraction process of polysaccharide from Phaeoporus obliquus and the effect of Phaeoporus obliquus polysaccharide on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- or alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice. The main factor in influencing the extraction rate of Phaeoporus obliquus polysaccharide were extraction power and time, which was a kind of pyran glucose by infrared spectroscopy. CCl4 and alcohol were employed respectively to establish CCl4 and alcohol-induced acute liver injury mouse models. Compared with model groups mice, Phaeoporus obliquus polysaccharide treatment at the doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg exhibited an obvious reduction liver index, ALP, ALT, AST levels, MDA content and TNF-α level (p<0.01) and SOD activity was increased, which was in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the model group, the necrosis degree of hepatocytes was obviously reduced and the small fat droplets were formed in some cytoplasm, especially in high dose group, which the liver cells recovered to the level of normal group. Rt-PCR results showed that the expression of CYP2E1 mRNA in liver tissues of Phaeoporus obliquus polysaccharide groups were significantly reduced, and the difference were statistically significant compared with the model group (p<0.05). These results demonstrated that Phaeoporus obliquus polysaccharide has significantly hepatoprotective effect on CCl4 and alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice.

7.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(3): 469-474, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238425

RESUMO

FAM60A,a cell cycle protein,is a subunit of the SIN3 transcription regulator family member A/histone deacetylase(SIN3-HDAC)complex and plays an important role in cell cycle regulation,cell morphology change,cell proliferation,differentiation and migration,early embryogenesis and so on.Studies in recent years have shown that FAM60A plays a role in the occurrence and development of tumors including human osteosarcoma,esophageal cancer,gastric cancer,lung cancer and liver cancer,providing a new research direction for tumor diagnosis and treatment.Based on the research results in recent years at home and abroad,this paper discussed the effects of FAM60A on cellular functions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Complexo Correpressor Histona Desacetilase e Sin3
8.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18358, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herein, we aimed to determine whether DAPK1 and its post-transcriptional regulator miR-361 were implicated in high glucose (HG)-induced podocyte injury and renal damage in db/db mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Podocytes were incubated with normal glucose (NG; 5 mM) or HG (30 mM). Podocyte apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL staining. Lentiviral-delivered specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was designed to silence DAPK1 expression in podocytes. miR-361 agomir was administrated by tail intravenous injection in db/db diabetic mice to investigate the renoprotection of miR-361 in vivo. RESULTS: Exposure of podocytes to HG led to a significant increase in DAPK1 mRNA and protein levels and a decrease in miR-361 expression levels. Knockdown of DAPK1 attenuated HG-triggered growth inhibition, apoptosis, DNA damage and cell membrane damage in podocytes. Mechanically, DAPK1 was a direct target of miR-361. Transfection with miR-361 mimics into podocytes resulted in a significant decrease in the DAPK1 protein expression level. In addition, HG-induced the up-regulation of the DAPK1 protein expression level in podocytes was restrained by miR-361 mimics transfection. Intriguingly, overexpression of DAPK1 in HG-stimulated podocytes muted miR-361-mediated cytoprotection, including anti-apoptosis, resistance to DNA and membrane damage. In vivo, overexpression of miR-361 protected against hyperglycemia-induced podocyte loss, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney of db/db mice. Moreover, overexpression of miR-361 inhibited the protein expression of DAPK1 in the kidney of db/db mice. CONCLUSION: Our research presented a novel mechanism of HG-induced podocyte damage or renal lesion, supporting the miR-361/DAPK1 signaling pathway that could be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of DN.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2101729, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263560

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic halide perovskites have demonstrated significant light detection potential, with a performance comparable to that of commercially available photodetectors. In this study, a general design guideline, which is applicable to both inverted and regular structures, is proposed for high-performance perovskite photodiodes through an interfacial built-in electric field (E) for efficient carrier separation and transport. The interfacial E generated at the interface between the active and charge transport layers far from the incident light is critical for effective charge carrier collection. The interfacial E can be modulated by unintentional doping of the perovskite, whose doping type and density can be easily controlled by the post-annealing time and temperature. Employing the proposed design guideline, the inverted and regular perovskite photodiodes exhibit the external quantum efficiency of 83.51% and 76.5% and responsivities of 0.37 and 0.34 A W-1 , respectively. In the self-powered mode, the dark currents reach 7.95 × 10-11 and 1.47 × 10-8 A cm-2 , providing high detectivities of 7.34 × 1013 and 4.96 × 1012 Jones, for inverted and regular structures, respectively, and a long-term stability of at least 1600 h. This optimization strategy is compatible with existing materials and device structures and hence leads to substantial potential applications in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.

10.
Microb Cell Fact ; 20(1): 131, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thermotolerant yeast has outstanding potential in industrial applications. Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris) is a common cell factory for industrial production of heterologous proteins. RESULTS: Herein, we obtained a thermotolerant K. phaffii mutant G14 by mutagenesis and adaptive evolution. G14 exhibited oxidative and thermal stress cross-tolerance and high heterologous protein production efficiency. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and lipid peroxidation in G14 were reduced compared to the parent. Oxidative stress response (OSR) and heat shock response (HSR) are two major responses to thermal stress, but the activation of them was different in G14 and its parent. Compared with the parent, G14 acquired the better performance owing to its stronger OSR. Peroxisomes, as the main cellular site for cellular ROS generation and detoxification, had larger volume in G14 than the parent. And, the peroxisomal catalase activity and expression level in G14 was also higher than that of the parent. Excitingly, the gene knockdown of CAT encoding peroxisomal catalase by dCas9 severely reduced the oxidative and thermal stress cross-tolerance of G14. These results suggested that the augmented OSR was responsible for the oxidative and thermal stress cross-tolerance of G14. Nevertheless, OSR was not strong enough to protect the parent from thermal stress, even when HSR was initiated. Therefore, the parent cannot recover, thereby inducing the autophagy pathway and resulting in severe cell death. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate the importance of peroxisome and the significance of redox balance in thermotolerance of yeasts.

11.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105134, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246970

RESUMO

In this work, to check the effect of the transposition of the rings in typical patterns, a series of pyrazoline derivatives 3a-3t bearing the characteristic 3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl and thiophene moieties were synthesized and evaluated as tubulin polymerization inhibitors. Basically, as the concise output of our design, a majority of the synthesized compounds showed potency in inhibiting the tubulin polymerization. The top hit, 3q, exhibited potent anti-proliferation activity on cancer cell lines. It was comparable on tubulin-polymerization inhibition with the positive control Colchicine but lower toxic. The VEGFR2 inhibitory potency was introduced occasionally. The flow cytometry assay confirmed the apoptotic procedure and the confocal imaging revealed the tubulin-microtubule dynamics pattern. The anti-cancer mechanism of 3q was similar to Colchicine but not exactly the same on forming multi-polar spindles. The docking simulation visualized the possible binding patterns of 3q into tubulin and VEGFR2, respectively. The results inferred that further investigations on the transposition of the rings might lead to the improvement of tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity and the steadily introduction of the VEGFR2 inhibition.

12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 223: 113678, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218083

RESUMO

Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response, caused by pathogenic factors including microorganisms, has high mortality and limited therapeutic approaches. Herein, a new soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor series comprising a phenyl ring connected to a memantyl moiety via a urea or amide linkage has been designed. A preferential urea pharmacophore that improved the binding properties of the compounds was identified for those series via biochemical assay in vitro and in vivo studies. Molecular docking displayed that 3,5-dimethyl on the adamantyl group in B401 could make van der Waals interactions with residues at a hydrophobic pocket of sEH active site, which might indirectly explain the subnanomolar level activities of memantyl urea derivatives in vitro better than AR-9281. Among them, compound B401 significantly improved the inhibition potency with human and murine sEH IC50 values as 0.4 nM and 0.5 nM, respectively. Although the median survival time of C57BL/6 mice in LPS-induced sepsis model was slightly increased, the survival rate did not reach significant efficacy. Based on safety profile, metabolic stability, pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy, B401 demonstrated the proof of potential for this class of memantyl urea-based sEH inhibitors as therapeutic agents in sepsis.

13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 908: 174346, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270985

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cancer in the world. Gefitinib, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, is highly effective in treating NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations (L858R or Ex19del). However, despite excellent disease control with gefitinib therapy, innate resistance and inevitable acquired resistance represent immense challenges in NSCLC therapy. Gefitinib potently induces cytoprotective autophagy, which has been implied to contribute to both innate and acquired resistance to gefitinib in NSCLC cells. Currently, abrogation of autophagy is considered a promising strategy for NSCLC therapy. In the present study, YC-1, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, was first found to significantly inhibit the autophagy induced by gefitinib by disrupting the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes and thereby enhancing the proapoptotic effect of gefitinib in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells. Furthermore, the combinational anti-autophagic and pro-apoptotic effect of gefitinib and YC-1 was demonstrated to be associated with an enhanced of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) transcriptional activity which resulted from an increase in the p-FOXO1 protein level in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells. Our data suggest that inhibition of autophagy by targeting FOXO1 may be a feasible therapeutic strategy to overcome both innate and acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283016

RESUMO

Two halophilic archaeal strains, Gai3-2T and NJ-3-1T, were isolated from salt lake and saline soil samples, respectively, collected in PR China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 97.5% similar to each other. Strains Gai3-2T and NJ-3-1T had the highest sequence similarities to 'Halobonum tyrrellense' G22 (96.7 and 97.8%, respectively), and displayed similarities of 91.5-93.5% and 92.3-94.7%, respectively, to Halobaculum members. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two strains formed different branches and clustered tightly with 'H. tyrrellense' G22 and Halobaculum members. The average nucleotide identity (ANI), in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) and amino acid identity (AAI) values between the two strains were 83.1, 26.9 and 77.9%, respectively, much lower than the threshold values proposed as a species boundary. These values between the two strains and 'H. tyrrellense' G22 (ANI 77.9-78.2%, isDDH 22.5-22.6% and AAI 68.8-69.3%) and Halobaculum members (ANI 77.53-77.63%, isDDH 21.8-22.3% and AAI 68.4-69.4%) were almost identical, and much lower than the recommended threshold values for species delimitation. These results suggested that strains Gai3-2T and NJ-3-1T represent two novel species of Halobaculum. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strains Gai3-2T (=CGMCC 1.16080T=JCM 33550T) and NJ-3-1T (=CGMCC 1.16040T=JCM 33552T) represent two novel species of the genus Halobaculum, for which the name Halobaculum halophilum sp. nov. and Halobaculum salinum sp. nov. are proposed.

15.
Acupunct Med ; : 9645284211028873, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 15% of all stroke cases. Previous studies suggested that acupuncture may improve ICH-induced neurological deficits. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acupuncture on neurological deficits in an animal model of ICH. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with autologous blood (50 µL) into the right caudate nucleus. Additional rats underwent sham surgery as controls. ICH rats either received acupuncture (GV20 through GB7 on the side of the lesion) or sham acupuncture (1 cm to the right side of the traditional acupuncture point locations). Some ICH rats received acupuncture plus rapamycin injection into the right lateral ventricle. Neurological deficits in the various groups were assessed based on composite neurological score. The perihemorrhagic penumbra was analyzed by histopathology following hematoxylin-eosin staining. Levels of autophagy-related proteins light chain (LC)3 and p62 as well as of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related proteins, and phosphorylated (p)-mTOR and p-S6K1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1), were assessed by Western blotting. RESULTS: Acupuncture significantly improved composite neurological scores 7 days after ICH (17.7 ± 1.49 vs 14.8 ± 1.32, p < 0.01). Acupuncture augmented autophagosome and autolysosome accumulation based on transmission electron microscopy. Acupuncture significantly increased expression of LC3 (p < 0.01) but decreased expression of p62 (p < 0.01). Acupuncture also reduced levels of p-mTOR and p-S6K1 (both p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture improved neurological deficits in a rat model of ICH, possibly by inhibiting the mTOR pathway and activating autophagy.

16.
J Virol ; : JVI0110421, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232734

RESUMO

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) was derived by repeated passaging in chick fibroblasts, during which deletions and mutations rendered the virus unable to replicate in most mammalian cells. Marker rescue experiments demonstrated that the host range defect could be overcome by replacing DNA that had been deleted from near the left end of the genome. One virus isolate, however, recovered the ability to replicate in monkey BS-C-1 cells but not human cells without added DNA suggesting it arose from a spontaneous mutation. Here we showed that variants with enhanced ability to replicate in BS-C-1 cells could be isolated by blind passaging MVA and that in each there was a point mutation leading to an amino acid substitution in the D10 decapping enzyme. The sufficiency of these single mutations to enhance host range was confirmed by constructing recombinant viruses. The D10 mutations occurred at N- or C-terminal locations distal from the active site, suggesting an indirect effect on decapping or on another previously unknown role of D10. Although increased amounts of viral mRNA and proteins were found in BS-C-1 cells infected with the mutants compared to parental MVA, the increase was much less than the one to two logs higher virus yields. Nevertheless, a contributing role for diminished decapping in overcoming the host range defect was consistent with increased replication and viral protein synthesis in BS-C-1 cells infected with an MVA engineered to have active site mutations that abrogate decapping activity entirely. Optimal decapping may vary depending on the biological context. IMPORTANCE Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated virus that is approved as a smallpox vaccine and is in clinical trials as a vector for other pathogens. The safety of MVA is due in large part to its inability to replicate in mammalian cells. Although, host-range restriction is considered a stable feature of the virus, we describe the occurrence of spontaneous mutations in MVA that increase replication considerably in monkey BS-C-1 cells but only slightly in human cells. The mutants contain single nucleotide changes that lead to amino acid substitutions in one of the two decapping enzymes. Although the spontaneous mutations are distant from the decapping enzyme active site, engineered active site-mutations also increased virus replication in BS-C-1 cells. The effects of these mutations on the immunogenicity of MVA vectors remain to be determined.

17.
Schizophr Res ; 233: 89-96, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The symptom-related neurobiology characteristic of schizophrenia in the brain from a network perspective is still poorly understood, leading to a lack of potential biologically-based markers and difficulty identifying therapeutic targets. We aim to test the dysregulated cross-network interactions among the Salience Network (SN), Central Executive Network (CEN) and Default Mode Network (DMN) and how they contributed to different symptoms in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We examined network interactions among the SN, CEN and DMN in 76 patients with schizophrenia vs. 80 well-matched controls using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). We further analyzed the relation between network dynamics and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). RESULTS: We observed that the DMN, CEN and SN across healthy controls and schizophrenia patients showed several similarities within or between-network pattern in the resting state. Comparing schizophrenia to controls, SN-centered cross-network interactions were most significantly reduced. Crucially, the strength of connections from CEN subnetwork 1 to DMN subnetwork 1 was positively correlated with the Positive Score of PANSS. The connection from the DMN subnetwork 2 to CEN subnetwork 2 was negatively correlated with the Negative Score of PANSS. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence for the dysregulation among SN, CEN and DMN in a triple-network perspective in schizophrenia. The connection between DMN and CEN could be clinically-relevant neurobiological signature of schizophrenia symptoms. Our study indicated that the description of brain triple network hypothesis could be a novel and possible bio-marker for schizophrenia.

18.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200257

RESUMO

Water content is an important factor in lipase-catalyzed reactions in organic media but is frequently ignored in the study of lipases by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In this study, Candida antarctica lipase B, Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizopus chinensis lipase were used as research models to explore the mechanisms of lipase in micro-aqueous organic solvent (MAOS) media. MD simulations indicated that lipases in MAOS systems showed unique conformations distinguished from those seen in non-aqueous organic solvent systems. The position of water molecules aggregated on the protein surface in MAOS media is the major determinant of the unique conformations of lipases and particularly impacts the distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids on the lipase surface. Additionally, two maxima were observed in the water-lipase radial distribution function in MAOS systems, implying the formation of two water shells around lipase in these systems. The energy landscapes of lipases along solvent accessible areas of catalytic residues and the minimum energy path indicated the dynamic open states of lipases in MAOS systems differ from those in other solvent environments. This study confirmed the necessity of considering the influence of the microenvironment on MD simulations of lipase-catalyzed reactions in organic media.

19.
Mar Drugs ; 19(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205503

RESUMO

Microbial oligosaccharides have been regarded as one of the most appealing natural products attributable to their potent and selective bioactivities, such as antimicrobial activity, inhibition of α-glucosidases and lipase, interference of cellular recognition and signal transduction, and disruption of cell wall biosynthesis. Accordingly, a handful of bioactive oligosaccharides have been developed for the treatment of bacterial infections and type II diabetes mellitus. Given that naturally occurring oligosaccharides have increasingly gained recognition in recent years, a comprehensive review is needed. The current review highlights the chemical structures, biological activities and divergent biosynthetic origins of three subgroups of oligomers including the acarviosine-containing oligosaccharides, saccharomicins, and orthosomycins.

20.
Chem Biol Interact ; : 109570, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217686

RESUMO

Verapamil is reported to prevent scar formation. However, whether verapamil is involved in the ureteral stricture scar and the underlying mechanism need further investigation. Fibroblasts were isolated from ureteral scar tissues. TGF-ß1 stimulation was used to induce fibrosis of fibroblasts. Inhibition of CaMK II was achieved by shRNA transfection. CCK-8 was performed to evaluate cell viability. qRT-PCR was applied to determine the level of mRNA while western blotting was used to determine the level of proteins. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the level of vimentin, collagen I and collagen III. Primary fibroblasts was successfully isolated from ureteral scar tissues. TGF-ß1 stimulation was capable to induce collagen production and fibrosis in primary fibroblasts while inhibition of CaMK II attenuate collagen production. Overexpression of wild type CaMK II lead to further increase of collagen production upon TGF-ß1 stimulation while the mutated CaMK II did not exert this promotion. Treatment of verapamil inhibits TGF-ß1 induced collagen production via inhibiting CaMK II. In present study, we revealed a vital role of Verapamil and CaMK II in the formation of ureteral scar. Verapamil inhibited TGF-ß1 induced collagen fiber formation by regulating CaMK II. Our finding might provide new insight into mechanism of prevention and treatment of ureteral scar.

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