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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 630(Pt B): 403-414, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334477

RESUMO

The SnSb and TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly embedded into continuous and conductive carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are successfully fabricated through facile electrospinning combined with calcination treatments. The characterization results of the targeted composite nanofibers (Sb-SnSb/TiO2@CNFs-2) confirm that the presence of TiO2 is of significant importance to construct the elaborately designed and intact fiber structure, in which the optimal dosage of the TiO2 precursor is precisely controlled at 2 mmol. Moreover, high theoretical specific capacity of SnSb, available inhibitory effect of TiO2, and great electronic conductivity of CNFs are cooperatively integrated into the Sb-SnSb/TiO2@CNFs-2 composite nanofibers, guaranteeing the enhanced lithium storage capacity and cycling performance when being employed as the anode electrodes. Specifically, the Sb-SnSb/TiO2@CNFs-2 electrode can not only deliver initial discharge specific capacity of 1146.6 mAh/g at 100 mA/g and reversible discharge specific capacity of 580.4 mAh/g after 100 cycles, but also retain discharge specific capacity of 561.3 mAh/g after rate cycles along with recovering the current density to 100 mA/g. Importantly, the Sb-SnSb/TiO2@CNFs-2 electrode is also endowed with prominent advantages in the pseudocapacitive contribution of 66.89 % at 0.8 mV/s. Those investigations and findings of the Sb-SnSb/TiO2@CNFs-2 composite electrodes with facile fabrication process and excellent electrochemical performance can contribute to the practical application of the alloy anodes in the field of the energy storage.

2.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 162: 110131, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166887

RESUMO

Icariin, the most effective bioactive component in Epimedium, is also the index component of Epimedium quality control in Pharmacopoeia. It was a very attractive approach for bioconversion from epimedin C to icariin. However, its potential was impeded by poor stability and non-recyclable properties of free enzymes. In this study, we have fused the linker (4LP) to α-L-rhamnosidase BtRha and successfully prepared the immobilized enzyme (incubated 4LP-BtRha@Na-Y) to produce icariin from epimedin C. The activity recovery of 4LP-BtRha@Na-Y was 79.6 %, and enzyme activity was 209.8 U/g, which was 1.75-fold and 1.6-fold higher than that of immobilized BtRha (BtRha@Na-Y), respectively. The optimal reaction temperature and pH of 4LP-BtRha@Na-Y was 55 °C and 6.5, respectively. The thermal stability of immobilized enzyme was significantly improved by incubation in phosphate buffer containing 20 % glycerol and 10 % fructose. The kcat/Km value of incubated 4LP-BtRha@Na-Y was 7.98 × 105 s-1M-1, which increased by 8 % compared with free BtRha. Finally, under suitable conditions, 1 g/L epimedin C was transformed into icariin with icariin yield 75.1 %, and the relative conversion rate retained 74.9 % after reused 13 cycles. This experiment provides a new idea for one-step purification and immobilization of α-L-rhamnosidase for direct biotransformation from epimedin C to icariin, which will have great prospects in food and pharmaceutical production.


Assuntos
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Biotransformação
3.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(5): 1033-1039, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254989

RESUMO

We previously reported that postsynaptic density-93 mediates neuron-microglia crosstalk by interacting with amino acids 357-395 of C X3 C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1) to induce microglia polarization. More importantly, the peptide Tat-CX3CL1 (comprising amino acids 357-395 of CX3CL1) disrupts the interaction between postsynaptic density-93 and CX3CL1, reducing neurological impairment and exerting a protective effect in the context of acute ischemic stroke. However, the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. In the current study, we found that the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype increased and the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype decreased at different time points. The M1 phenotype increased at 6 hours after stroke and peaked at 24 hours after perfusion, whereas the M2 phenotype decreased at 6 and 24 hours following reperfusion. We found that the peptide Tat-CX3CL1 (357-395aa) facilitates microglial polarization from M1 to M2 by reducing the production of soluble CX3CL1. Furthermore, the a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 17 (ADAM17) inhibitor GW280264x, which inhibits metalloprotease activity and prevents CX3CL1 from being sheared into its soluble form, facilitated microglial polarization from M1 to M2 by inhibiting soluble CX3CL1 formation. Additionally, Tat-CX3CL1 (357-395aa) attenuated long-term cognitive deficits and improved white matter integrity as determined by the Morris water maze test at 31-34 days following surgery and immunofluorescence staining at 35 days after stroke, respectively. In conclusion, Tat-CX3CL1 (357-395aa) facilitates functional recovery after ischemic stroke by promoting microglial polarization from M1 to M2. Therefore, the Tat-CX3CL1 (357-395aa) is a potential therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke.

4.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(3): 475-487, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939719

RESUMO

Mutations of PSEN1 have been reported in dilated cardiomyopathy pedigrees. Understanding the effects and mechanisms of PSEN1 in cardiomyocytes might have important implications for treatment of heart diseases. Here, we showed that PSEN1 was downregulated in ischemia-induced failing hearts. Functionally, cardiovascular specific PSEN1 deletion led to spontaneous death of the mice due to cardiomyopathy. At the age of 11 months, the ratio of the heart weight/body weight was slightly lower in the Sm22a-PSEN1-KO mice compared with that of the WT mice. Echocardiography showed that the percentage of ejection fraction and fractional shortening was significantly reduced in the Sm22a-PSEN1-KO group compared with the percent of these measures in the WT group, indicating that PSEN1-KO resulted in heart failure. The abnormally regulated genes resulted from PSEN1-KO were detected to be enriched in muscle development and dilated cardiomyopathy. Among them, several genes encode Ca2+ ion channels, promoting us to investigate the effects of PSEN1 KO on regulation of Ca2+ in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. Consistently, in isolated adult cardiomyocytes, PSEN1-KO increased the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ and reduced Ca2+ concentration inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) lumen at the resting stage. Additionally, SR Ca2+ was decreased in the failing hearts of WT mice, but with the lowest levels observed in the failing hearts of PSEN1 knockout mice. These results indicate that the process of Ca2+ release from SR into cytoplasm was affected by PSEN1 KO. Therefore, the abnormalities in Ca2+ homeostasis resulted from downregulation of PSEN1 in failing hearts might contribute to aging-related cardiomyopathy, which might had important implications for the treatment of aging-related heart diseases.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Homeostase , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Retículo Sarcoplasmático
5.
Ann Transl Med ; 10(20): 1131, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388784

RESUMO

Background: Since the first case reported in December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. The global case count continued to rise and the WHO declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), causing a growing risk of imported COVID-19 infection. This study aimed to provide descriptive and quantitative epidemiological characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases in China. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined all imported COVID-19 cases in Mainland China from 22 January to 21 April 2020. Ratios, Median and percentile were used for descriptive analysis. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed between daily new imported cases in Mainland China and the country of origin. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the difference between home quarantine and compulsory centralized quarantine on native transmission. Results: A total of 1,610 cases of COVID-19 were imported from 49 countries to 27 provincial administrative regions in China; 79.8% were from European countries and the United States of America (the USA). Before 29 March 2020, the imported cases were mainly from the USA (27.7%) and United Kingdom (UK; 42.6%). After 29 March 2020, the daily newly imported cases from Russia rapidly grew. After 12 April 2020, the number of daily newly imported cases gradually decreased and remained at a low level (12±7 cases per day). Airport entry was encouraged, and ground border crossing was limited. Among the 1,610 cases, 54.0% were in the asymptomatic incubation period on arrival in Mainland China. Conclusions: The transmissions by imported COVID-19 were gradually and effectively curbed in Mainland China, despite a disproportionally high number of cases worldwide. Entry screening measures must be implemented universally to all inbound travelers at a point of entry or targeted to specific travel routes or to specific travelers. Compulsory centralized quarantine should be recommended in the prevention of the imported COVID-19 epidemic.

7.
Chin Herb Med ; 14(4): 494-510, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405059

RESUMO

The application of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) has a history of more than 2000 years, which have the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target, and high safety. Post-infectious cough (PIC) is a respiratory disease with high incidence. It belongs to subacute cough and accounts for as much as 40%-50%. Cough is the main clinical manifestation of PIC. PIC seriously affects people's life quality because of complex etiology, long-term course of disease, treatment difficulties and other characteristics. Western medicines are based on the principle of symptomatic treatment, so they are often difficult to control PIC fundamentally. These factors could due to that PIC is prolonged and unable to heal repeatedly. TCMs have obvious advantages in treating PIC, with accurate curative effects, less side effects and adverse reactions and are effective in improving PIC-related symptoms and indicators, enhancing patients' life quality and reducing pain. TCMs, guided by holistic concept and syndrome differentiation, advocate determine treatment on the basis of pattern types, and have remarkable clinical treatment effects. As for TCMs etiology, pathogenesis and syndrome types of PIC, TCM scholars have not yet reached a unified standard. However, most of them think that wind pathogen can cause PIC alone, or it can be combined with other evils, which might be the main mechanism of PIC. This paper discusses the advantages and limitations of TCMs in PIC treatment from etiology, pathogenesis, distribution of syndrome types and treatment of TCMs. This article focuses on the treatment methods and pharmacodynamic material basis of wind pathogen, providing ideas in treating PIC of TCMs clinically and innovative drug development.

8.
Chin Herb Med ; 14(4): 583-591, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405065

RESUMO

Objective: To elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Reduning Injection (RDN) by analyzing the potential biomarkers and metabolic pathways of the carrageenan-induced inflammatory model from the overall metabolic level. Methods: Rat inflammatory model was established by carrageenan. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was used to detect and analyze changes of endogenous metabolites in the serum and urine of carrageenan-induced inflammatory rats. Combined with multivariate analysis and databases analysis, inflammatory-related potential biomarkers were screened and identified to analyze possible metabolic pathways. The reliability and biological significance of these biomarkers was verified by metabolic network analysis and correlation analysis with pharmacodynamic indicators. Results: A total of 16 potential biomarkers were screened and identified by multivariate analysis and metabolite databases, among which 13 species could be adjusted by RDN. The metabolism pathway analysis revealed that histidine metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and tyrosine metabolism were greatly disturbed. Their biomarkers involved urocanic acid, sphingosine, and norepinephrine, all of which showed a callback trend after RDN treatment. The three biomarkers had a certain correlation with some known inflammatory-related small molecules (histamine, arachidonic acid, Leukotriene B4, and PGE2) and pharmacodynamic indicators (IL-6, IL-1ß, PGE2 and TNF-α), which indicated that the selected biomarkers had certain reliability and biological significance. Conclusion: RDN has a good regulation of the metabolic disorder of endogenous components in carrageenan-induced inflammatory rats. And its anti-inflammatory mechanism is mainly related to the regulation of amino acid and lipid metabolism. This research method is conducive to the interpretation of the overall pharmacological mechanism of Chinese medicine.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1040350, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408254

RESUMO

Fibrosis is the abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix, characterized by accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components, which causes organ dysfunction and even death. Despite advances in understanding fibrosis pathology and clinical management, there is no treatment for fibrosis that can prevent or reverse it, existing treatment options may lead to diarrhea, nausea, bleeding, anorexia, and liver toxicity. Thus, effective drugs are needed for fibrotic diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine has played a vital role in fibrotic diseases, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Astragalus (Astragalus mongholicus Bunge) can attenuate multiple fibrotic diseases, which include liver fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, peritoneal fibrosis, renal fibrosis, cardiac fibrosis, and so on, mechanisms may be related to inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1)/Smads, apoptosis, inflammation pathways. The purpose of this review was to summarize the pharmacology and mechanisms of Astragalus in treating fibrotic diseases, the data reviewed demonstrates that Astragalus is a promising anti-fibrotic drug, its main anti-fibrotic components are Calycosin, Astragaloside IV, Astragalus polysaccharides and formononetin. We also review formulas that contain Astragalus with anti-fibrotic effects, in which Astragalus and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Astragalus and Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels are the most commonly used combinations. We propose that combining active components into new formulations may be a promising way to develop new drugs for fibrosis. Besides, we expect Astragalus to be accepted as a clinically effective method of treating fibrosis.

10.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(11): 1321-6, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397234

RESUMO

Acupoint is the initial response site of acupuncture stimulus and also the source link of the effect onset of acupuncture. Acupuncture is a mechanical physical stimulus. How is the mechanical force of acupuncture transduced into neuroelectrical and biochemical signals at acupoint? How does the physiochemical information of acupoint launch acupuncture effect? All of these remain the common and crucial questions in the study of acupuncture effect mechanism. Physical changes are induced in the local tissue of acupoint by needling techniques, such as the deformation and displacement of muscle fibers, which may act on the nerve ending receptors and produce electroneurographic signals. Besides, these changes may activate the mechanosensitive ion channels of the cytomembrane in acupoint site. Through cellular signal transduction, the physical signals may be transformed into chemical ones to trigger the physiochemical coupling response of acupoint microenvironment. Eventually, acupuncture effect is generated via nerves and body fluids. "The mechanical force of acupuncture", through "the physiochemical transduction", promotes the body's perception and transmits acupuncture signals. It suggests that acupoint is the "transducer" in the physiochemical information coupling response of acupuncture.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365836

RESUMO

Optical transport networks (OTNs) are widely used in backbone- and metro-area transmission networks to increase network transmission capacity. In the OTN, it is particularly crucial to rationally allocate routes and maximize network capacities. By employing deep reinforcement learning (DRL)- and software-defined networking (SDN)-based solutions, the capacity of optical networks can be effectively increased. However, because most DRL-based routing optimization methods have low sample usage and difficulty in coping with sudden network connectivity changes, converging in software-defined OTN scenarios is challenging. Additionally, the generalization ability of these methods is weak. This paper proposes an ensembles- and message-passing neural-network-based Deep Q-Network (EMDQN) method for optical network routing optimization to address this problem. To effectively explore the environment and improve agent performance, the multiple EMDQN agents select actions based on the highest upper-confidence bounds. Furthermore, the EMDQN agent captures the network's spatial feature information using a message passing neural network (MPNN)-based DRL policy network, which enables the DRL agent to have generalization capability. The experimental results show that the EMDQN algorithm proposed in this paper performs better in terms of convergence. EMDQN effectively improves the throughput rate and link utilization of optical networks and has better generalization capabilities.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Software , Algoritmos , Aprendizagem
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(10): 2785-2795, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384615

RESUMO

Eddy covariance method has become a key technique to measure CH4 flux continuously in lakes. A large number of CH4 flux data was missing due to variable reasons. In order to reconstruct a complete time series of CH4 flux, it is necessary to find an appropriate gap-filling method to insert the CH4 flux data gap. Based on the routine meteorological data and CH4 flux data measured at Bifenggang site in the eastern part of the Taihu eddy flux network during 2014 to 2017, we analyzed the control factors of CH4 flux at the half-hour scale and daily scale. With those data, we tested that whether nonlinear regression method and two machine learning methods, random forest algorithm and error back propagation algorithm, could fill the CH4 flux gap at the half-hour scale and daily scale. The results showed that CH4 flux at the half-hour scale was mainly influenced by sediment temperature, friction velocity, air temperature, relative humidity, latent heat flux and water temperature at 20 cm in the growing season, and was mainly affected by relative humidity, latent heat flux, wind speed, sensible heat flux and sediment temperature in non-growing season. The CH4 flux at the daily scale was mainly affected by latent heat flux and relative humidity. Random forest model was the best in CH4 flux data gap filling at both time scales. The random forest model with the input variables of day of year, solar elevation angle, sediment temperature, friction velocity, air temperature, water temperature at 20 cm, relative humidity, air pressure, and wind speed was more suitable for filling the CH4 flux data gap at the half-hour scale. The random forest model with the input variables of day of year, sediment temperature, friction velocity, air temperature, water temperature at 20 cm, relative humidity, air pressure, wind speed, and downward shortwave radiation was more suitable for filling CH4 flux data gap at the day scale. The interpolation models could fill the data gap better at daily scale than that at the half-hour scale.


Assuntos
Lagos , Água , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , China
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19485, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376386

RESUMO

The physical properties of Mg-carbonate at high temperature and pressure are crucial for understanding the deep carbon cycle. Here, we use first-principles calculations to study the physical properties of MgCO3-C2/m and Mg2CO4-P21/c under high pressure. The research shows that the structure and equation of state of MgCO3-C2/m are in good agreement with the experimental results, and the phase transition pressure of Mg2CO4 from pnma to P21/c structure is 44.66 GPa. By comparing the elastic properties, seismic properties and anisotropy of MgCO3-C2/m and Mg2CO4-P21/c, it is found that the elastic modulus and sound velocity of Mg2CO4-P21/c are smaller than those of MgCO3-C2/m, while the anisotropy is larger than that of MgCO3-C2/m. These results indicate that Mg2CO4-P21/c exists in the deep mantle and may be the main reason why carbonate cannot be detected. The minimum thermal conductivity of MgCO3-C2/m and Mg2CO4-P21/c is the largest in the [010] direction and the smallest in the [001] direction. The thermodynamic properties of MgCO3-C2/m and Mg2CO4-P21/c are predicted using the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) method.

14.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 96: 104012, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372389

RESUMO

As a plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) has been listed as a potential endocrine disruptor by The World Health Organization. The toxicity of DEHP has been widely studied, but its toxicity on the digestive tract of birds has not been clarified. Female quail were treated by gavage with DEHP (250, 500, 750 mg/kg), with the blank and vehicle control groups reserved. The result showed that DEHP raised the damage severity grade, and decreased the ratio of villus length to crypt depth. The content and activity of cytochrome P450 system (CYP450s) were increased by DEHP. DEHP interfered with the transcription of nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NXRs), CYP isoforms, and the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. This study revealed DEHP could cause the imbalance in CYP450s mediated by NXRs, and then promote Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defense. This study provided new evidence about the mechanisms of DEHP-induced toxic effects on digestive tract.

15.
Front Neurol ; 13: 938612, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419531

RESUMO

Acute hyperglycemia is a powerful indicator of the severity of acute ischemic stroke (AIS); however, the relationship between these two factors is not very clear in patients with diabetes. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate data from 335 consecutive patients who experienced AIS from November 2015 to November 2016 to investigate whether a comprehensive assessment of blood glucose levels is a more valuable indicator of the severity of AIS or the presence of acute hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. We collected demographic data, clinical manifestation information, clinical scores, and laboratory data [including fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels]. We estimated prehospital mean blood glucose concentrations using the following formula [1.59 * HbA1c (%) - 2.59] to calculate the "Acute-to-Chronic Glycemic Ratio" (AC ratio). The AC ratio differed significantly among patients grouped according to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale/Score (NIHSS) at admission (admission NIHSS) (p = 0.006). Univariate regression analysis revealed a correlation between the AC ratio and admission NIHSS [standardized ß-coefficient (Std. B) = 0.164, p = 0.004]. The adjusted linear regression analysis revealed a correlation between both HbA1c (Std. B = 0.368, p = 0.038) and the AC ratio (Std. B = 0.262, p = 0.022) and admission NIHSS. The AC ratio (Std. B = 0.161, p = 0.012) was related to admission NIHSS in the stepwise variable selection. For an admission NIHHS > 4, the AC ratio (Std. B = 0.186, p = 0.047) was related to admission NIHSS in the stepwise variable selection. The AC ratio (Std. B = 1.163, p = 0.006 and Std. B = 0.565, p = 0.021, respectively) were related to admission NIHSS in both large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and small-vessel occlusion (SVO) subgroups. Thus, the AC ratio is related to admission NIHSS in patients with diabetes who experienced AIS and may be a better indicator of severity than acute blood glucose levels.

16.
Plant Cell Rep ; 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319861

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genetic analysis revealed a two-branch DNA-damage tolerance mechanism in Arabidopsis, namely translesion DNA synthesis and error-free lesion bypass, represented by Rev3 and Rad5a-Uev1C/D, respectively. DNA-damage tolerance (DDT) is a mechanism by which cells complete replication in the presence of replication-blocking lesions. In budding yeast, DDT is achieved through Rad6-Rad18-mediated monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which promotes translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and is followed by Ubc13-Mms2-Rad5 mediated K63-linked PCNA polyubiquitination that promotes error-free lesion bypass. Arabidopsis and other known plant genomes contain all of the above homologous genes except RAD18, and whether plants possess an intact DDT mechanism is unclear. In this study, we created Arabidopsis UEV1 (homologous to yeast MMS2) gene mutations and obtained two sets of double mutant lines Atuev1ab and Atuev1cd. It turned out that the Atuev1cd, but not the Atuev1ab mutant, was sensitive to DNA damage. Genetic analyses revealed that AtUEV1C/D and AtRAD5a function in the same pathway, while TLS represented by AtREV3 functions in a separate pathway in response to replication-blocking lesions. Furthermore, unlike budding yeast RAD5 that also functions in the TLS pathway, AtRAD5a is not required for TLS. Observations in this study collectively establish a two-branch DDT model in plants with similarity to and difference from the yeast DDT.

17.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 74(5): 805-815, 2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319103

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle is the largest organ of human body, which completes 80%-90% of glucose intake stimulated by insulin, and is closely related to the occurrence and development of insulin resistance (IR). Skeletal muscle is one of the main places of lipid metabolism, and lipid metabolites participate in skeletal muscle metabolism as signal molecules. Fatty acids regulate skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through insulin signaling pathway, inflammatory response and mitochondrial function. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induce insulin resistance by impairing insulin signal transduction, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory response, while unsaturated fatty acids reverse the adverse effects of SFAs and ameliorate IR by enhancing insulin signal transduction and anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, disorders of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle cause accumulation of harmful metabolic intermediates, such as diacylglycerol, ceramide and long-chain acyl-coenzyme A, and induce IR by directly or indirectly damaging insulin signaling pathway. This article reviews the research progress of lipid metabolic intermediates regulating insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, which will help to better understand the pathogenesis of diabetes.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
18.
Foods ; 11(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359953

RESUMO

Dandelion is an edible plant with a variety of bioactive components. This paper mainly reports the antitumor activity of dandelion polysaccharide DLP120 on H22 tumor-bearing mice. DLP120 is an acidic polysaccharide composed of pectin and arabinogalactan. The results indicate that DLP120 markedly inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated and regulated negative effects on organs. In addition, DLP120 not only increased the viability of spleen lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, but also increased the proportion of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood. Furthermore, Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining showed that tumor tissues and cells exhibited typical pathology features. Annexin V FITC/PI staining and cell cycle distribution results further confirmed apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in S and G2 phases. Notably, there was a significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Western blotting results demonstrated that the expression of p53 was up-regulated in the DLP120 group. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was up-regulated while the inhibitory-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down-regulated. In addition, the expression of Fas and FasL, associated with the death receptor pathway, were also up-regulated. Overall, administration of DLP120 in H22 tumor-bearing mice can not only enhance immunity but also directly induce tumor cell apoptosis.

19.
Foods ; 11(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360082

RESUMO

In this study, a potential producer of prebiotics, a novel endo-polygalacturonase pePGA from Penicillium rolfsii BM-6, was successfully expressed in Komagataella phaffii, characterized and applied to produce pectic oligosaccharides. The optimum temperature and pH of pePGA were 60 °C and 6.0. The purified recombinant enzyme showed a good pH stability and was stable from pH 3.5 to 8.0. The Km, Vmax and kcat values of pePGA were 0.1569 g/L, 12,273 µmol/min/mg and 7478.4 s-1, respectively. More importantly, pePGA-POS, the pePGA hydrolysis products from commercial pectin, had good prebiotic and antibacterial activities in vitro. The pePGA-POS was able to significantly promote the growth of probiotics; meanwhile, the growth of Escherichia coli JM109, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis 168 was effectively inhibited by pePGA-POS. In addition, pePGA-POS also had the DPPH radical scavenging capacity. These properties of pePGA-POS make pePGA attractive for the production of prebiotics.

20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(12): 27, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409215

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) clinical subtypes, to do so, we performed transcriptomic analysis to reveal the expression profile of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in TAO subtypes. Methods: High-throughput RNA-sequencing was performed in six pairs of type I and type II orbital connective tissue samples from patients with TAO. The expression levels of circRNAs and mRNAs in type I and type II samples were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in another three pairs of type I and type II TAO connective tissue samples. We used bioinformatics predictions to construct a circRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA network. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on differential mRNA expression, and the hub genes were determined by the Cytoscape software plugin. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed to elucidate circRNA function. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of hsa_circ_0007006 and the relationship between hsa_circ_0007006 with COL1A1 and MMP2 were evaluated by Western blotting (WB). Moreover, the differential pathways were assessed by WB. Results: RNA sequencing results predicted a total of 7489 circRNAs and 15,803 mRNAs, with 94 upregulated and 76 downregulated circRNAs and 488 upregulated and 138 downregulated mRNAs. The qRT-PCR analysis of seven dysregulated circRNAs and two major mRNAs validated the RNA-sequencing data. The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network included 7 circRNAs, 23 miRNAs, and 262 mRNAs. Functional analysis revealed several important pathways. Overexpression of hsa_circ_0007006 led to decreased expression levels of COL1A1 and MMP2. Activation of the relaxin signaling pathway differed between the two subtypes. Conclusion: We showed that circRNAs are differentially expressed between type I and type II TAO. We speculate that the hsa_circ_0007006-COL1A1 and MMP2-relaxin signaling pathways are important regulatory axes in the pathogenesis of this disease type and could be considered promising diagnostic and therapeutic targets in the future.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatia de Graves , MicroRNAs , Relaxina , Humanos , RNA Circular/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Oftalmopatia de Graves/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Tecido Conjuntivo
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