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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111647, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396167

RESUMO

Eurycomanone is a quassinoid compound that is derived from Eurycoma longifolia, and it is often used as an indicator to evaluate the active ingredients of Eurycoma longifolia. However, Eurycomanone has rarely been reported to have biological activity toward pests. In this study, we evaluated the antifeedant activity of eurycomanone against the diamondback moth(Plutella xylostella), with a non-selective AFC50(the concentration that corresponds to 50% antifeedant action) value and selective AFC50 of 17.5 mg/L and 14.2 mg/L, respectively, which were 2.1-fold (36.9 mg/L) and 2-fold (28.5 mg/L) lower than that of azadirachtin, respectively. In addition, eurycomanone was used to treat the roots of Brassica chinensis L. at a concentration of 100 µg/g for 72 h. The antifeedant index was found to reach 93% by tracking the leaves. After feeding with 20 µg/g eurycomanone, no pupae or eclosion were observed. To explore this mechanism, we used scanning electron microscopy to discover that eurycomanone could prevent the development of taste receptors on the maxillary palp of diamondback moth larvae. Additional electrophysiological measurements showed that eurycomanone exhibited excitatory action to the central taste neurons of diamondback moth and significantly inhibited the GABAA receptor current. Eurycomanone exhibited significant activity as an antifeedant, inhibited growth and excelled at systemic absorption.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quassinas/farmacologia , Animais , Brassica/parasitologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928374, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Although influenza primarily affects the respiratory system, it can cause severe neurological complications, especially in younger children, but knowledge about the early indicators of acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is limited. The main purpose of this article is to summarize the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of neurological complications of influenza in children, and to identify factors associated with ANE. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study of children with confirmed influenza with neurological complications treated between 01/2014 and 12/2019 at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center. A receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was performed to determine the prognostic value of selected variables. RESULTS Sixty-three children with IAE (n=33) and ANE (n=30) were included. Compared with the IAE group, the ANE group showed higher proportions of fever and acute disturbance of consciousness, higher alanine aminotransferase, higher aspartate aminotransferase, higher creatinine kinase, higher procalcitonin, higher cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein, and lower CSF white blood cells (all P<0.05). The areas under the curve (AUCs) for procalcitonin and CSF proteins, used to differentiate IAE and ANE, were 0.790 and 0.736, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of PCT >4.25 ng/ml to predict ANE were 73.3% and 100.0%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of CSF protein >0.48 g/L to predict ANE were 76.7% and 69.7%, respectively. Thirteen (43.3%) children with ANE and none with IAE died (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS High levels of CSF protein and serum procalcitonin might be used as early indicators for ANE. All children admitted with neurological findings, especially during the influenza season, should be evaluated for influenza-related neurological complications.

3.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e928835, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study summarizes the characteristics of children screened for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and reports the case of 1 child who was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center and the cases of his family members. MATERIAL AND METHODS The medical records of 159 children who were admitted to our hospital from January 23 to March 20, 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Samples from pharyngeal or/and anal swabs were subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 within 12 h of patient admission; a second RT-PCR test was done 24 h after the first test. RESULTS Of the 159 patients, 151 patients had epidemiological histories, 14 patients had cluster onset, and 8 patients had no epidemiological history but had symptoms similar to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The most common symptom was fever (n=125), followed by respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. A 7-year-old boy in a cluster family from Wuhan was confirmed with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection with ground-glass opacity shadows on his lung computed tomography scan, and his swab RT-PCR test had not turned negative until day 19 of his hospitalization. In patients who did not test positive for SARS-CoV-2, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus were observed. A total of 158 patients recovered, were discharged, and experienced no abnormalities during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS For SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial infections, taking a "standard prevention & contact isolation & droplet isolation & air isolation" strategy can prevent infection effectively. Children with clustered disease need close monitoring.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /epidemiologia , /métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/metabolismo , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , /patogenicidade
4.
Clin Lab ; 66(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-1207-5p (miR-1207-5p) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in many types of cancer. In our previous research, we found that the expression of miR-1207-5p in cancer tissues and cell lines were both down-regulated, and miR-1207-5p may function as tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, less research has been done with respect to the expression of plasma miR-1207-5p in CRC or colorectal adenoma (CRA). There was no research regarding the diagnostic ability nor on the prognostic value of plasma miR-1207-5p in CRC. We conducted a preliminary study on the plasma miRNA-1207-5p as a non-invasive biomarker in CRC. METHODS: Plasma miR-1207-5p expression was quantified by qRT-PCR from CRC patients (n = 64), CRA patients (n = 42), and normal controls (n = 36). The blood samples were collected after having been diagnosed by pathology but before surgical resection and radio-chemotherapy. The CRC patients were divided into low and high expression groups according to the mean expression level of plasma miR-1207-5p. The relation of expression levels of miR-1207-5p and overall survival were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to assess the diagnostic ability of plasma miR-1207-5p in CRC. RESULTS: The expression of plasma miR-1207-5p was obvious down-regulated both in CRC patients (mean ± SD: 0.1661 ± 0.0083) and CRA patients (mean ± SD: 0.2480 ± 0.0162) compared to normal controls. The lower the ex-pression of plasma miR-1207-5p, the stronger the association with advanced TNM stage and positive lymph node metastasis compared with the high expression group (p = 0.027, p = 0.033). The lower the expressions of plasma miR-1207-5p, the shorter the overall survival time for CRC patients (p = 0.0404). There was no significant difference in the relative expression of plasma miR-1207-5p between the preoperative group and postoperative group. ROC analysis showed that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95.31% and 94.44% (at a cutoff = 0.2990) for CRC patients, 90.48% and 80.56% (at a cutoff = 0.4060) for CRA patients, respectively. The AUC value was 0.9852 (95% CI = 0.9870 - 1.0003, p < 0.0001), and 0.9530 (95% CI = 0.9117 - 0.9944, p < 0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Significant down-regulation of plasma miR-1207-5p was correlated with poor survival and with strong diagnostic ability and may function as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer.

5.
Prenat Diagn ; 40(10): 1228-1238, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) and whole exome sequencing (WES) in fetuses with cerebellar vermis defects (CVD). METHODS: From 2013 to 2019, we performed CMA on 43 fetuses with CVD, who were divided into cerebellar vermis hypoplasia (CVH) group and Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) group according to morphological subtypes. Subsequently, WES was performed on 19 fetuses with normal CMA results to identify diagnostic genetic variants (DGVs). RESULTS: Chromosome aneuploidies and clinically significant copy number variants were identified in 23.3% (10/43) of fetuses, and a significantly higher positive rate was found in fetuses with multiple compared with isolated malformations (36% vs 5.6%, P = .028). STAG2 genes related to Xq25 duplication syndrome was possibly a novel candidate gene for CVD. WES detected eight DGVs in seven genes among the 19 fetuses tested. Autosomal recessive ciliopathies (4/8) caused by TMEM231, CSPP1, and CEP290 mutations, were the most frequent monogenetic diseases, followed by Opitz GBBB syndrome (2/8) caused by MID1 and SPECC1L variants. CONCLUSION: The combined use of CMA and WES has the potential to provide genetic diagnoses in 42% (18/43) of fetal CVD. WES should be offered when CMA results are normal.

6.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(2): 382-389, 2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza in children is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nervous system diseases are a factor relating to increased mortality rate. However, reports of how these underlying diseases contribute to the death of children with influenza are rare. CASE SUMMARY: A 4-year-old-girl developed type A influenza-related encephalopathy (IAE) with seizures, acute disorder of consciousness, and intracranial hypertension (cerebrospinal fluid pressure: 250 mmH2O), and the Dandy-Walker variant was found by her first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when admission. Three days later, she suddenly presented anisocoria, acute pulmonary edema, and coma, and the later MRI found that she had compressed brainstem, oblongata "Z-like folding", and swelling bilateral basal ganglia. After admission, the patient were tested for routine and special biomarkers and underwent neuroimaging and neuroelectrophysiology examinations as well as Oseltamivir and intravenous immunogloblin treatments. When predicting that unstable intracranial structures detected by MRI might have disastrous consequences in the progression of IAE, she was transferred into the pediatric intensive care unit and underwent continuous assessment of clinical condition while she did not have instability of basic vital signs; at the same time, her parents were fully informed about the risk and prognosis. Although she was ultimately dead from brain stem failure, the parents expressed understanding and did not trigger a doctor-patient conflict. CONCLUSION: In case of finding an unstable intracranial structure, intensive care should be given to IAE patient and their clinical condition should be monitored continuously.

7.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 11(1): e2019012, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671218

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the risk factors of candidemia and asses possible clinically significant differences between Candida parapsilosis and other Candida species in a Chinese tertiary cancer center over six years. A total of 323 cancer patients were enrolled and analyzed from 2012 to 2018. Among the isolates, the species most frequently isolated was C. parapsilosis (37.15%, 120/323), and C. albicans only accounted for 34.37%. Based on statistical analysis, when candidemia patients who had C. parapsilosis were compared with other Candida spp., the following factors were found to be significantly associated with C. parapsilosis fungemia: parenteral nutrition (p < 0.001), neutropenia (p < 0.001), receipt of chemotherapy (p = 0.002), and previous antifungal use (p < 0.001). Parenteral nutrition was a factor that independently predicted C. parapsilosis candidemia (OR, 0.183; 95% CI, 0.098-0.340; p < 0.001).In short, C. parapsilosis as the leading non-albicans Candida spp. isolates in candidemia are posing a major threat for cancer patients. The study highlights the urgent need to evaluate the possibility of development of C. parapsilosis candidemia in cancer patients exposed to these risk factors effective and prevention strategies against this causative agent transmitted through nosocomial route should be implemented.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(26): 18117-18126, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938256

RESUMO

MnFe(P,Ge) is a promising magnetocaloric material for potential refrigeration applications near room temperature. However, its relatively large hysteresis and large temperature/field range of two-phase [paramagnetic (PM) and ferromagnetic (FM)] coexistence displayed in the cyclic first order magnetic transition (FOMT) cause energy losses and reduce the energy conversion efficiency. In this work, we explore the underlying causes of phase coexistence, hysteresis and structural transformation based on determination of the Ge distribution in MnFeP1-xGex (0.10 < x < 0.50) materials. We find that all the samples crystallize in the Fe2P-type structure [P6[combining macron]2m (No. 189), Z = 3] and Ge displays a strong preference for the 2c site. First principles total energy calculations confirm this site preference of Ge, and Ge entering the 2c site changes the electronic structures and enhances the Fe and Mn 3d exchange splitting across the Fermi level as well as the FM exchange interactions, consequently leading to a linear increase in the transition temperature with increasing Ge content. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy reveal the inhomogeneous distribution of Ge in grains, which makes the grains with larger Ge content transform from the PM to the FM phase first when cooling and thus causes the phase coexistence. Maximum entropy method electron-densities show that weakening the coplanar Fe-P/Ge(2c) and Mn-P(1b) bonding strengths across the PM to FM phase transition can release some 3d-electrons to enhance the Fe-Mn FM exchange interaction and result in coupling between the magnetic and structural degrees of freedom. This provides first direct evidence for the dominant role of Fe-Mn exchange interaction in the ferromagnetic ordering and may provide a method to observe the exchange interaction. Diminishing the variances in covalent bonding strengths across the FOMT gives rise to an exponential decay in the heat hysteresis when increasing the Ge occupancy at the 2c site. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a relationship between the variances in covalent bonding strengths and hysteresis is proposed. This material thus provides an example of a FOMT and hysteresis driven by reversible weakening and strengthening of covalent bonds. Based on these, a strategy of designing better magnetocaloric materials is suggested.

10.
ACS Nano ; 12(2): 1712-1719, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376314

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials with high anisotropic properties, such as black phosphorus and ReS2, show amazing potential for applications in future nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. However, degradation of black phosphorus under ambient conditions and the expensiveness of Re block their application. In this study, another layered material, KP15, that has highly anisotropic properties was successfully prepared. The detailed crystal structure and electron-density distribution calculation reveal that KP15 exhibits an anisotropic layered structure with two rows of P tubes connected by K atoms that are antiparallel in a single layer. Outstanding chemical stability, angular dependence of the Raman response, excitation, and exciton emission at room temperature have been found in exfoliated KP15 nanoribbons. Importantly, the exciton emission at room temperature suggests the existence of a large exciton binding energy. Our results indicate that, because this layered material, KP15, has high anisotropic properties and ultrachemical stability and is derived from abundant raw materials, it has great potential for applications in optoelectronic devices.

11.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 73(Pt 11): 1774-1778, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152371

RESUMO

Two new penta-borates, tris-odium zinc cadmium penta-borate, Na3Zn0.912Cd0.088B5O10, and tris-odium zinc magnesium penta-borate, Na3Zn0.845Mg0.155B5O10, have been synthesized by high-temperature solution reactions at 1023 K. Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both solid solutions crystallize in the ortho-rhom-bic form of the parent compound Na3ZnB5O10 (space group type Pbca, Z = 8) and contain the double ring [B5O10]5- anion composed of one BO4 tetra-hedron and four BO3 triangles as the basic structural motif. The anions are bridged by tetra-hedrally coordinated and occupationally disordered M2+ (M = Zn/Cd, Zn/Mg) cations via common O atoms to form [MB5O10] n3n- layers. The intra-layer inter-secting channels and the inter-layer voids are occupied by Na+ cations to balance the charge.

12.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 37(7): 869-874, 2017 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28736360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of S100A4 gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the proliferation of bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their capacity of xenograft tumor formation. METHODS: MB49 bladder cancer stem cells (MCSCs) were isolated and identified. The differentially expressed protein S100A4 was identified in MCSCs using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technology (iTRAQ). A siRNA targeting S100A4 was constructed and transfected into MCSCs, and its inhibitory effects on S100A4 expression in MCSCs were assessed with Western blotting and qPCR. The effects of siRNA-mediated S100A4 silencing on the proliferation and xenograft tumor formation ability of MCSCs were observed. RESULTS: Among the 65 differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ combined with LC/MS/MS, S100A4 protein showed the most distinct differential expression in MCSCs. Transfection of MCSCs with S100A siRNA significantly inhibited the expressions of S100A4 at both mRNA and protein levels, caused obvious suppression of the cell proliferation, and attenuated the xenograft tumor formation ability of the cells in nude mice. CONCLUSION: S100A4 in MCSCs is associated with the recurrence and metastasis of bladder cancer. S100A4 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for eliminating bladder CSCs.

13.
Sci Rep ; 7: 42701, 2017 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28205545

RESUMO

Octreotide exerts a protective effect in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR) injury. However, whether octreotide preconditioning could also reduce acute kidney injury (AKI) after HIR is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the role of octreotide in AKI after HIR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with octreotide or octreotide combined with 3-methyladenine (autophagy inhibitor, 3MA). Plasma creatinine, inflammation markers (e.g., TNF-α and IL-6 etc.), apoptosis, autophagy and phosphorylation of protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (Akt/mTOR/p70S6K) in the kidney were measured after 60 minutes of liver ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion for each rat. Octreotide pretreatment significantly preserved renal function and reduced the severity of renal injury. Moreover, octreotide alleviated inflammation and apoptosis in the kidney after HIR. Additionally, octreotide induced autophagy and autophagy inhibition with 3MA markedly reversed the renoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of octreotide after HIR. Finally, octreotide abrogated the activation of phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and p70S6K in the kidney after HIR. Our results indicate that octreotide reduced renal injury after HIR due to its induction of autophagy. The enhancement of autophagy may be potentially linked to the octreotide mediated Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway deactivation and reduction of kidney inflammation and apoptosis after HIR.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatias/complicações , Octreotida/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/diagnóstico , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
14.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 31(2)2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27565452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increase in blaNDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae has become a major concern worldwide. In previous study, we investigated clonal dissemination and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenem in China. METHODS: We carried out retrospective surveillance for blaNDM-1 among carbapenem-resistant enterobacter strains, which were isolated from patients at our hospital by bacterial strains selection, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, species identification, and molecular detection of resistance gene. RESULTS: We found three blaNDM-1 -positive isolates which were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes in clinical patients in China. The blaNDM-1 -positive Enterobacter aerogenes isolates were first found. CONCLUSION: It is important to mandate prudent usage of antibiotics and implement infection control measures to control the spread of these resistant blaNDM-1 -positive strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterobacter aerogenes/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , China , Enterobacter aerogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
BJR Case Rep ; 3(3): 20160099, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363268

RESUMO

Quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can offer information related to tumour perfusion and permeability (Ktrans), rate constant (Kep), extravascular extracellular volume fraction (Ve) and distribution volume (Vd). Different types of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) may traverse the vascular wall with different velocities owing to their physicochemical characteristics. The purpose of this article was to compare the DCE-MRI quantitative results (Ktrans, Kep, Ve and Vd) between Magnevist and Eovist in a VX2 rabbit liver tumour model. Sixteen rabbits (body weight, 3 Kg; random gender) containing implanted hepatic VX2 carcinomas were randomly divided into two groups based on the regimen of MRI contrast agent administered, eight rabbits in each group. All rabbits underwent a liver DCE-MRscan before tumour transplantation. Fourteen days after tumour transplantation, the eight rabbits in Group A (Magnevist group) underwent a liver DCE-MR scan in a 3.0 T Magnetom Verio MR scanner (Siemens Healthcare, AD, Germany) after the administration of Magnevist at the flow rate of 1 ml s-1. The Group B rabbits underwent the same scan except for the administration of Eovist at the same flow rate. Twenty-four hours after the initial DCE-MRI, repeat DCE-MRI was performed with the cross-over GBCA at the same flow rate in each group. Every rabbit received 0.6 ml GBCA (0.2 ml Kg-1) during each DCE-MRI. Ktrans, Kep, Ve and Vd were measured in the tumour lesion and compared with normal liver tissue in the same slice. A pathologic examination was also performed. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in all 16 rabbits by pathologic examination. There were no significant differences in Ktrans, Ve, Kep and Vd between the two groups of rabbits (p > 0.05). The Ktrans, Ve, Kep and Vd of the VX2 rabbit liver tumour model were significantly higher than the normal liver parenchyma (0.742 ± 0.086 vs 0.027 ± 0.002, 7.345 ± 0.043 vs 6.721 ± 0.035, 0.101 ± 0.005 vs 0.101 ± 0.005, 0.419 ± 0.083 vs 0.037 ± 0.005, respectively; p < 0.01). The Ktrans, Ve and Vd of Eovist group were significantly higher compared with the values in the Magnevist group (0.116 ± 0.016 vs 0.010 ± 0.002, respectively, p < 0.01; 0.101 ± 0.005 vs 0.004 ± 0.0009, respectively, p < 0.01; 0.419 ± 0.083 vs 0.037 ± 0.005, respectively, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in Kep between the Eovist and Magnevist groups (7.345 ± 0.043 vs 6.721 ± 0.035, respectively; p > 0.05). In the VX2 rabbit liver tumour model, DCE-MRI performed with different types of GBCA can develop different quantitative results with respect to Ktrans, Ve and Vd. The liver-specific GBCA, Eovist, is more sensitive than the general GBCA, Magnevist, in detecting tumour perfusion and permeability.

16.
Tob Induc Dis ; 14: 24, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) functions as a major chemoattractant and plays pivotal roles in the initiation and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tobacco smoke is a most risk factor contributing to the development of COPD. Hence, we have screened some of the tobacco smoke-derived chemical compounds that potentially induce the production of IL-8 in human bronchial epithelium, 16HBE cells. METHODS: Twenty-eight hazardous smoke components belonging to 9 classes including nicotine, ammonia, aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, carbonyls, hydrocyanic acid, nitrosamines and other volatile organics were used in the experiments. Proliferation of 16HBE cells was determined by cell counting kit-8 kit, luciferase activity was measured in IL-8 reporter gene-expressing 16HBE cells, and IL-8 levels in culture supernatants were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: At the non-toxic dosages, chemical compounds belonging to nicotine, aromatic amines, benzopyrene, phenols, aldehydes, and some other volatile organics dose-dependently increased IL-8 reporter gene expression. Consistently, the representative compounds belonging to nicotine, aromatic amines, benzopyrene, phenols, aldehydes, and some other volatile organics significantly and dose-dependently increased IL-8 levels in the culture supernatants of 16HBE cells, among these compounds, benzopyrene is a most potent stimulator for inducing IL-8 production. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has identified particular tobacco smoke constituents responsible for inducing the IL-8 production in human bronchial epithelium, which might help shed light on the pathogenesis of tobacco smoke-induced COPD.

17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 81: 71-78, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27261579

RESUMO

Ginkgolides are the major bioactive components of Ginkgo biloba extracts, however, the exact constituents of Ginkgolides contributing to their pharmacological effects remain unknown. Herein, we have determined the anti-inflammatory effects of Ginkgolide B (GB) and Ginkgolides mixture (GM) at equivalent dosages against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. RAW 264.7 cell culture model and mouse model of LPS-induced lung injury were used to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of GB and GM, respectively. In RAW 264.7 cells, GB and GM at equivalent dosages exhibit an identical capacity to attenuate LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein expression and subsequent NO production. Likewise, GB and GM possess almost the same potency in attenuating LPS-induced expression and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (p65) and subsequent increases in tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels. In LPS-induced pulmonary injury, GB and GM at the equivalent dosages have equal efficiency in attenuating the accumulation of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages, and in improving the histological damage of lungs. Moreover, GB and GM at equivalent dosages decrease the exudation of plasma protein to the same degree, whereas GM is superior to GB in alleviating myeloperoxidase activities. Finally, though GB and GM at equivalent dosages appear to reduce LPS-induced IL-1ß mRNA and protein levels and IL-10 protein levels to the same degree, GM is more potent than GB to attenuate the IL-10 mRNA levels. Taken together, this study demonstrates that GB functions as the determinant constituent of Ginkgolides in alleviating LPS-induced lung injury.


Assuntos
Ginkgolídeos/uso terapêutico , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Feminino , Ginkgolídeos/química , Ginkgolídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Anal Chim Acta ; 909: 30-40, 2016 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26851082

RESUMO

Pre-processing of near-infrared (NIR) spectral data has become a necessary part of chemometrics modeling and is widely used in many practical applications. The objective of the pre-processing is to remove physical phenomena in the spectra in order to improve subsequent qualitative or quantitative analysis. Herein, a localized version of standard normal variate (SNV) is proposed, in which the correction parameters are estimated from local spectral areas. The method of determining the optimal spectral segmentation is also presented. Compared with full range methods, the local method demonstrates advantages in spectral linearity correction, model interpretation and prediction accuracy. Several benchmark NIR data sets were studied in our experiments; the proposed method achieved comparable performance against proven full range methods, with the reduction of prediction errors being statistically significant in many cases.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Carne/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/normas , Comprimidos/análise
19.
J Sep Sci ; 39(6): 1173-81, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833965

RESUMO

An ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction was first employed to determine the volatile components in tobacco samples. The method combined the advantages of ultrasound, microwave, and headspace solid-phase microextraction. The extraction, separation, and enrichment were performed in a single step, which could greatly simplify the operation and reduce the whole pretreatment time. In the developed method, several experimental parameters, such as fiber type, ultrasound power, and irradiation time, were optimized to improve sampling efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, there were 37, 36, 34, and 36 components identified in tobacco from Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, and Zimbabwe, respectively, including esters, heterocycles, alkanes, ketones, terpenoids, acids, phenols, and alcohols. The compound types were roughly the same while the contents were varied from different origins due to the disparity of their growing conditions, such as soil, water, and climate. In addition, the ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction method was compared with the microwave-assisted extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction methods. More types of volatile components were obtained by using the ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction method, moreover, the contents were high. The results indicated that the ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction coupled to headspace solid-phase microextraction technique was a simple, time-saving and highly efficient approach, which was especially suitable for analysis of the volatile components in tobacco.

20.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 522-529, 2016 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087913

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of cigarette smoking in different manners on acute lung injury in rats. Methods: The commercially available cigarettes with tar of 1,5, 11 mg were smoked in Canada depth smoking (health canada method, HCM) manner, and those with tar of 11 mg were also smoked in international standard (ISO) smoking manner. Rats were fixed and exposed to mainstream in a manner of nose-mouth exposure. After 28 days, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from left lung were collected for counting and classification of inflammatory cells and determination of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α. The right lungs were subjected to histological examination and determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and glutathione, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Results: In both HCM and ISO manners, the degree of lung injury was closely related to the tar content of cigarettes, and significant decrease in the body weight of rats was observed after smoking for one week. In a HCM manner, smoking with cigarette of 11 mg tar resulted in robust infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils into lungs, significant increase in IL-1ß and TNF-α levels and MPO activities, and significant decrease in GSH levels and SOD activities and increase in ROS and MDA levels (all P<0.05). Smoking with cigarette of 5 mg tar led to moderate increase in IL-1ß and TNF-α levels, and MPO activities (all P<0.05), and moderate decrease in GSH levels and SOD activities and increase of ROS and MDA levels (all P<0.05). However, smoking with cigarette of 1 mg tar affected neither inflammatory cell infiltration nor IL-1ß and TNF-α levels. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking in nose-mouth exposure manner can induce acute lung injury in rats; and the degree of lung injury is closely related to the content of tar and other hazards in cigarettes.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/fisiopatologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/química , Pulmão/patologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/patologia , Peroxidase/análise , Peroxidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos do Tabaco/classificação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
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