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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684166

RESUMO

Recently, people have become more and more interested in wireless sensing applications, among which indoor localization is one of the most attractive. Generally, indoor localization can be classified as device-based and device-free localization (DFL). The former requires a target to carry certain devices or sensors to assist the localization process, whereas the latter has no such requirement, which merely requires the wireless network to be deployed around the environment to sense the target, rendering it much more challenging. Channel State Information (CSI)-a kind of information collected in the physical layer-is composed of multiple subcarriers, boasting highly fined granularity, which has gradually become a focus of indoor localization applications. In this paper, we propose an approach to performing DFL tasks by exploiting the uncertainty of CSI. We respectively utilize the CSI amplitudes and phases of multiple communication links to construct fingerprints, each of which is a set of multivariate Gaussian distributions that reflect the uncertainty information of CSI. Additionally, we propose a kind of combined fingerprints to simultaneously utilize the CSI amplitudes and phases, hoping to improve localization accuracy. Then, we adopt a Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL-divergence) based kernel function to calculate the probabilities that a testing fingerprint belongs to all the reference locations. Next, to localize the target, we utilize the computed probabilities as weights to average the reference locations. Experimental results show that the proposed approach, whatever type of fingerprints is used, outperforms the existing Pilot and Nuzzer systems in two typical indoor environments. We conduct extensive experiments to explore the effects of different parameters on localization performance, and the results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

2.
J Healthc Eng ; 2019: 4501502, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178987

RESUMO

Autonomic neural system (ANS) regulates the circulation to provide optimal perfusion of every organ in accordance with its metabolic needs, and the quantitative assessment of autonomic regulation is crucial for personalized medicine in cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, we propose the Dystatis to quantitatively evaluate autonomic regulation of the human cardiac system, based on homeostatis and probabilistic graphic model, where homeostatis explains ANS regulation while the probability graphic model systematically defines the regulation process for quantitative assessment. The indices and measurement methods for three well-designed scenarios are also illustrated to evaluate the proposed Dystatis: (1) heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), and respiration synchronization (Synch) in resting situation; (2) chronotropic competence indices (CCI) in graded exercise testing; and (3) baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and parasympathetic nerve activity (PNA) in orthostatic testing. The previous clinical results have shown that the proposed method and indices for autonomic cardiac system regulation have great potential in prediction, diagnosis, and rehabilitation of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(11)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195603

RESUMO

The classification of electrocardiograms (ECG) plays an important role in the clinical diagnosis of heart disease. This paper proposes an effective system development and implementation for ECG classification based on faster regions with a convolutional neural network (Faster R-CNN) algorithm. The original one-dimensional ECG signals contain the preprocessed patient ECG signals and some ECG recordings from the MIT-BIH database in this experiment. Each ECG beat of one-dimensional ECG signals was transformed into a two-dimensional image for experimental training sets and test sets. As a result, we classified the ECG beats into five categories with an average accuracy of 99.21%. In addition, we did a comparative experiment using the one versus rest support vector machine (OVR SVM) algorithm, and the classification accuracy of the proposed Faster R-CNN was shown to be 2.59% higher.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/classificação , Software , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(12)2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469527

RESUMO

Collaborative target tracking is one of the most important applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in which the network must rely on sensor scheduling to balance the tracking accuracy and energy consumption, due to the limited network resources for sensing, communication, and computation. With the recent development of energy acquisition technologies, the building of WSNs based on energy harvesting has become possible to overcome the limitation of battery energy in WSNs, where theoretically the lifetime of the network could be extended to infinite. However, energy-harvesting WSNs pose new technical challenges for collaborative target tracking on how to schedule sensors over the infinite horizon under the restriction on limited sensor energy harvesting capabilities. In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive dynamic programming (ADP)-based multi-sensor scheduling algorithm (ADP-MSS) for collaborative target tracking for energy-harvesting WSNs. ADP-MSS can schedule multiple sensors for each time step over an infinite horizon to achieve high tracking accuracy, based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for target state prediction and estimation. Theoretical analysis shows the optimality of ADP-MSS, and simulation results demonstrate its superior tracking accuracy compared with an ADP-based single-sensor scheduling scheme and a simulated-annealing based multi-sensor scheduling scheme.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(2)2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461469

RESUMO

Gas utilization ratio (GUR) is an important indicator that is used to evaluate the energy consumption of blast furnaces (BFs). Currently, the existing methods cannot predict the GUR accurately. In this paper, we present a novel data-driven model for predicting the GUR. The proposed approach utilized both the TS fuzzy neural network (TS-FNN) and the particle swarm algorithm (PSO) to predict the GUR. The particle swarm algorithm (PSO) is applied to optimize the parameters of the TS-FNN in order to decrease the error caused by the inaccurate initial parameter. This paper also applied the box graph (Box-plot) method to eliminate the abnormal value of the raw data during the data preprocessing. This method can deal with the data which does not obey the normal distribution which is caused by the complex industrial environments. The prediction results demonstrate that the optimization model based on PSO and the TS-FNN approach achieves higher prediction accuracy compared with the TS-FNN model and SVM model and the proposed approach can accurately predict the GUR of the blast furnace, providing an effective way for the on-line blast furnace distribution control.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(9)2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862685

RESUMO

The concentration of alumina in the electrolyte is of great significance during the production of aluminum. The amount of the alumina concentration may lead to unbalanced material distribution and low production efficiency and affect the stability of the aluminum reduction cell and current efficiency. The existing methods cannot meet the needs for online measurement because industrial aluminum electrolysis has the characteristics of high temperature, strong magnetic field, coupled parameters, and high nonlinearity. Currently, there are no sensors or equipment that can detect the alumina concentration on line. Most companies acquire the alumina concentration from the electrolyte samples which are analyzed through an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. To solve the problem, the paper proposes a soft sensing model based on a kernel extreme learning machine algorithm that takes the kernel function into the extreme learning machine. K-fold cross validation is used to estimate the generalization error. The proposed soft sensing algorithm can detect alumina concentration by the electrical signals such as voltages and currents of the anode rods. The predicted results show that the proposed approach can give more accurate estimations of alumina concentration with faster learning speed compared with the other methods such as the basic ELM, BP, and SVM.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(8)2017 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28796187

RESUMO

Gas utilization ratio (GUR) is an important indicator used to measure the operating status and energy consumption of blast furnaces (BFs). In this paper, we present a soft-sensor approach, i.e., a novel online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) named DU-OS-ELM, to establish a data-driven model for GUR prediction. In DU-OS-ELM, firstly, the old collected data are discarded gradually and the newly acquired data are given more attention through a novel dynamic forgetting factor (DFF), depending on the estimation errors to enhance the dynamic tracking ability. Furthermore, we develop an updated selection strategy (USS) to judge whether the model needs to be updated with the newly coming data, so that the proposed approach is more in line with the actual production situation. Then, the convergence analysis of the proposed DU-OS-ELM is presented to ensure the estimation of output weight converge to the true value with the new data arriving. Meanwhile, the proposed DU-OS-ELM is applied to build a soft-sensor model to predict GUR. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DU-OS-ELM obtains better generalization performance and higher prediction accuracy compared with a number of existing related approaches using the real production data from a BF and the created GUR prediction model can provide an effective guidance for further optimization operation.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(6)2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28613236

RESUMO

We advocate for and introduce LEARNSense, a framework for learning analytics using commodity wearable devices to capture learner's physical actions and accordingly infer learner context (e.g., student activities and engagement status in class). Our work is motivated by the observations that: (a) the fine-grained individual-specific learner actions are crucial to understand learners and their context information; (b) sensor data available on the latest wearable devices (e.g., wrist-worn and eye wear devices) can effectively recognize learner actions and help to infer learner context information; (c) the commodity wearable devices that are widely available on the market can provide a hassle-free and non-intrusive solution. Following the above observations and under the proposed framework, we design and implement a sensor-based learner context collector running on the wearable devices. The latest data mining and sensor data processing techniques are employed to detect different types of learner actions and context information. Furthermore, we detail all of the above efforts by offering a novel and exemplary use case: it successfully provides the accurate detection of student actions and infers the student engagement states in class. The specifically designed learner context collector has been implemented on the commodity wrist-worn device. Based on the collected and inferred learner information, the novel intervention and incentivizing feedback are introduced into the system service. Finally, a comprehensive evaluation with the real-world experiments, surveys and interviews demonstrates the effectiveness and impact of the proposed framework and this use case. The F1 score for the student action classification tasks achieve 0.9, and the system can effectively differentiate the defined three learner states. Finally, the survey results show that the learners are satisfied with the use of our system (mean score of 3.7 with a standard deviation of 0.55).


Assuntos
Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Aprendizado de Máquina
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(4)2017 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420187

RESUMO

Device-free localization (DFL) is becoming one of the new technologies in wireless localization field, due to its advantage that the target to be localized does not need to be attached to any electronic device. In the radio-frequency (RF) DFL system, radio transmitters (RTs) and radio receivers (RXs) are used to sense the target collaboratively, and the location of the target can be estimated by fusing the changes of the received signal strength (RSS) measurements associated with the wireless links. In this paper, we will propose an extreme learning machine (ELM) approach for DFL, to improve the efficiency and the accuracy of the localization algorithm. Different from the conventional machine learning approaches for wireless localization, in which the above differential RSS measurements are trivially used as the only input features, we introduce the parameterized geometrical representation for an affected link, which consists of its geometrical intercepts and differential RSS measurement. Parameterized geometrical feature extraction (PGFE) is performed for the affected links and the features are used as the inputs of ELM. The proposed PGFE-ELM for DFL is trained in the offline phase and performed for real-time localization in the online phase, where the estimated location of the target is obtained through the created ELM. PGFE-ELM has the advantages that the affected links used by ELM in the online phase can be different from those used for training in the offline phase, and can be more robust to deal with the uncertain combination of the detectable wireless links. Experimental results show that the proposed PGFE-ELM can improve the localization accuracy and learning speed significantly compared with a number of the existing machine learning and DFL approaches, including the weighted K-nearest neighbor (WKNN), support vector machine (SVM), back propagation neural network (BPNN), as well as the well-known radio tomographic imaging (RTI) DFL approach.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(2)2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212281

RESUMO

Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS) methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(2)2017 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28208591

RESUMO

The wearable inertial/magnetic sensor based human motion analysis plays an important role in many biomedical applications, such as physical therapy, gait analysis and rehabilitation. One of the main challenges for the lower body bio-motion analysis is how to reliably provide position estimations of human subject during walking. In this paper, we propose a particle filter based human position estimation method using a foot-mounted inertial and magnetic sensor module, which not only uses the traditional zero velocity update (ZUPT), but also applies map information to further correct the acceleration double integration drift and thus improve estimation accuracy. In the proposed method, a simple stance phase detector is designed to identify the stance phase of a gait cycle based on gyroscope measurements. For the non-stance phase during a gait cycle, an acceleration control variable derived from ZUPT information is introduced in the process model, while vector map information is taken as binary pseudo-measurements to further enhance position estimation accuracy and reduce uncertainty of walking trajectories. A particle filter is then designed to fuse ZUPT information and binary pseudo-measurements together. The proposed human position estimation method has been evaluated with closed-loop walking experiments in indoor and outdoor environments. Results of comparison study have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for application scenarios with useful map information.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 15(4): 8072-87, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25853406

RESUMO

Device-free localization (DFL) is an emerging wireless technique for estimating the location of target that does not have any attached electronic device. It has found extensive use in Smart City applications such as healthcare at home and hospitals, location-based services at smart spaces, city emergency response and infrastructure security. In DFL, wireless devices are used as sensors that can sense the target by transmitting and receiving wireless signals collaboratively. Many DFL systems are implemented based on received signal strength (RSS) measurements and the location of the target is estimated by detecting the changes of the RSS measurements of the wireless links. Due to the uncertainty of the wireless channel, certain links may be seriously polluted and result in erroneous detection. In this paper, we propose a novel nonlinear optimization approach with outlier link rejection (NOOLR) for RSS-based DFL. It consists of three key strategies, including: (1) affected link identification by differential RSS detection; (2) outlier link rejection via geometrical positional relationship among links; (3) target location estimation by formulating and solving a nonlinear optimization problem. Experimental results demonstrate that NOOLR is robust to the fluctuation of the wireless signals with superior localization accuracy compared with the existing Radio Tomographic Imaging (RTI) approach.

13.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 32(11): 3093-7, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23387186

RESUMO

The research on nondestructive test for detecting the sugar content of Hami melon by the technology of hyperspectral imaging was put forward. The research used the hyperspectral imaging system to get the diffuse reflective spectrum information (400 - 1 000 nm) of anilox class Hami melon sugar content, chose effective whole wavelength (500 - 820 nm)to do the modeling regression analysis the sugar content of Hami melon. The research compared the correction method of MSC and SNV, and also compared the influence of accuracy of modeling in terms of the spectrum pretreatment methods of original spectrum, first order differential, second order differential; Using the methods of PLS, SMLR and PCR, the comparative analysis of sugar content detection model effect with skin Hami melon and peel Hami melon was conducted. The results showed that after the original spectrum being processed by MSC and first order differential spectrum, modeling effect could be very good using the method of PLS and SMLR. Synthesizing correction set correlation coefficient and forecast modeling effect, it's feasible to detect the sugar content of skin Hami melon by the PLS method, with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.861 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.627, and a prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.706 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.873. The best effect to detecti the sugar content of peel Hami melon was obtained by the SMLR method with a correction sample correlation coefficient (R(c)) of 0.928 and the lower root mean square errors of correction (RMSEC) of 0.458, with a Prediction sample correlation coefficient (R(p)) of 0.818 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.727. The results of this study indicate that the technology of hyperspectral imaging can be used to predict the sugar content of Hami melon.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Cucurbitaceae/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Difusão
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 11(6): 6297-316, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22163956

RESUMO

Distributed estimation of Gaussian mixtures has many applications in wireless sensor network (WSN), and its energy-efficient solution is still challenging. This paper presents a novel diffusion-based EM algorithm for this problem. A diffusion strategy is introduced for acquiring the global statistics in EM algorithm in which each sensor node only needs to communicate its local statistics to its neighboring nodes at each iteration. This improves the existing consensus-based distributed EM algorithm which may need much more communication overhead for consensus, especially in large scale networks. The robustness and scalability of the proposed approach can be achieved by distributed processing in the networks. In addition, we show that the proposed approach can be considered as a stochastic approximation method to find the maximum likelihood estimation for Gaussian mixtures. Simulation results show the efficiency of this approach.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Algoritmos , Difusão , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Desenho de Equipamento , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Estatísticos , Distribuição Normal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processos Estocásticos , Tecnologia sem Fio
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 9(3): 1499-517, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22573968

RESUMO

This paper introduces a two-stage approach to the detection of people eating and/or drinking for the purposes of surveillance of daily life. With the sole use of wearable accelerometer sensor attached to somebody's (man or a woman) wrists, this two-stage approach consists of feature extraction followed by classification. At the first stage, based on the limb's three dimensional kinematics movement model and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), the realtime arm movement features described by Euler angles are extracted from the raw accelerometer measurement data. In the latter stage, the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) network is adopted to classify the extracted features of the eating/drinking activities based on the space and time varying property of the features, by making use of the powerful modelling capability of HTM network on dynamic signals which is varying with both space and time. The proposed approach is tested through the real eating and drinking activities using the three dimensional accelerometers. Experimental results show that the EKF and HTM based two-stage approach can perform the activity detection successfully with very high accuracy.

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