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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013005

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on apoptosis, we exposed NIH/3T3 cells at 1800 MHz with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg intermittently for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. After exposure, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry were used to detect cell viability and apoptosis; the expression of p53, a molecule with the key role in apoptosis, was measured by real-time qPCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence; and images of the structure of the mitochondria, directly reflecting apoptosis, were captured by electron microscopy. The results showed that the viability of cells in the 12, 36, and 48 h exposure groups significantly decreased compared with the sham groups; after 48 h of exposure, the percentage of late apoptotic cells in the exposure group was significantly higher. Real-time qPCR results showed that p53 mRNA in the 48 h exposure group was 1.4-fold of that in the sham group; significant differences of p53 protein fluorescence expression were observed between the exposure groups and the sham groups after 24 h and 48 h. The mitochondrial swelling and vesicular morphology were found in the electron microscopy images after 48 h exposure. These findings demonstrated 1800 MHz, SAR 2 W/kg EMR for 48 h may cause apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells and that this apoptosis might be attributed to mitochondrial damage and upregulation of p53 expression.

2.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932723

RESUMO

In plants, lineage-specific metabolites can be created by activities derived from the catalytic promiscuity of ancestral proteins, although examples of recruiting detoxification systems to biosynthetic pathways are scarce. The ubiquitous glyoxalase (GLX) system scavenges the cytotoxic methylglyoxal, in which GLXI isomerizes the α-hydroxy carbonyl in the methylglyoxal-glutathione adduct for subsequent hydrolysis. We show that GLXIs across kingdoms are more promiscuous than recognized previously and can act as aromatases without cofactors. In cotton, a specialized GLXI variant, SPG, has lost its GSH-binding sites and organelle-targeting signal, and evolved to aromatize cyclic sesquiterpenes bearing α-hydroxyketones to synthesize defense compounds in the cytosol. Notably, SPG is able to transform acetylated deoxynivalenol, the prevalent mycotoxin contaminating cereals and foods. We propose that detoxification enzymes are a valuable source of new catalytic functions and SPG, a standalone enzyme catalyzing complex reactions, has potential for toxin degradation, crop engineering and design of novel aromatics.

3.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972970

RESUMO

For the convenient introduction of simple linear/branched alkyl groups into biologically important azaspirocyclohexadienones, a practical Fe-catalyzed decarbonylative cascade spiro-cyclization of N-aryl cinnamamides with aliphatic aldehydes to provide alkylated 1-azaspiro-cyclohexadienones was developed. Aliphatic aldehydes were oxidative decarbonylated into primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl radicals conveniently and allows for the subsequent cascade construction of dual C(sp3)-C(sp3) and C=O bonds via radical addition, spirocyclization and oxidation sequence.

4.
Neuroimage ; 210: 116550, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981781

RESUMO

Transcranial brain mapping techniques, such as functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), have been playing an increasingly important role in studies of human brain functions. Given a brain function of interest, fNIRS probes and TMS coils should be properly placed on the scalp to ensure that the function is effectively measured or modulated. However, since brain activity is inside the skull and invisible to the researcher during placement, this blind targeting may cause the device to partially or completely miss the functional target, resulting in inconsistent experimental results and divergent clinical outcomes, especially when participants' structural MRI data are not available. To address this issue, we propose here a framework for targeting a designated function directly from the scalp. First, a functional brain atlas for the targeted brain function is constructed via a meta-analysis of large-scale functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets. Second, the functional brain atlas is presented on the scalp surface by using a transcranial mapping previously established from an structural MRI dataset (n â€‹= â€‹114), resulting in a novel functional transcranial brain atlas (fTBA). Finally, a low-cost, portable scalp-navigation system is used to localize the transcranial device on the individual's scalp with the guidance of the fTBA. To demonstrate the feasibility of the targeting framework, both fNIRS and TMS mapping experiments were conducted. The results show that fTBA-guided fNIRS positioning can detect functional activity with high sensitivity and specificity for working memory and motor systems; Moreover, compared with traditional TMS targeting approaches (e.g. the International 10-20 System and the conventional 5-cm rule), the fTBA suggested motor stimulation site is closesr to both the motor hotspot and the center of gravity of motor evoked potentials (MEP-COG). In summary, the proposed method unblinds the transcranial function targeting process using prior information, providing an effective and straightforward approach to transcranial brain mapping studies, especially those without participants' structural MRI data.

5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115685, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888856

RESUMO

The effects of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 on the main structural changes of barley ß-glucan and their in vitro activities were studied. Molecular characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, methylation, 1D and 2D-NMR analyses and scanning electron microscopy revealed that both (raw barley ß-glucan) RBG and fermented barley ß-glucan (FBG) are polysaccharides predominanted by ß-(1→3) and ß-(1→4) linked glucose. However, different molecular weight (decreasing from 1.13×105 D to 6.35×104 D), the ratio of the ß-(1→3) residues to the ß-(1→4) residues (ranging from 1:1.98-1:2.50 to 1:1.8-1:2.24) and microstructure features (transforming from a rod-like to sheet-like structure) were observed. Bioassay results showed that FBG exhibited improved inhibitory activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase, as well as the adsorption of cholesterol under acidic conditions compared to RBG. These results suggested that fermentation may enhance in vitro physiological activities of barley ß-glucan, especially related to glucose and lipid metabolism.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113422, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672364

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that residential greenness may be protective of high blood pressure, but there is scarcity of evidence on the associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children. We aimed to investigate this association in China. Our study included 9354 children from 62 schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities Study. Greenness around each child's school was measured by NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Particulate matter ≤ 1 µm (PM1) concentrations were estimated by spatiotemporal models and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were collected from air monitoring stations. Associations between greenness and blood pressure were determined by generalized linear and logistic mixed-effect models. Mediation by air pollution was assessed using mediation analysis. Higher greenness was consistently associated with lower blood pressure. An increase of 0.1 in NDVI corresponded to a reduction in SBP of 1.39 mmHg (95% CI: 1.86, -0.93) and lower odds of hypertension (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.82). Stronger associations were observed in children with higher BMI. Ambient PM1 and NO2 mediated 33.0% and 10.9% of the association between greenness and SBP, respectively. In summary, greater greenness near schools had a beneficial effect on blood pressure, particularly in overweight or obese children in China. The associations might be partially mediated by air pollution. These results might have implications for policy makers to incorporate more green space for both aesthetic and health benefits.

7.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(2): 134-144, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are valuable immunosuppressants in clinical transplantation; however, the mTOR regulation of allogeneic T-cell responses is not fully understood yet. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of T-cell-specific mTOR deletion on the allogeneic T-cell responses and heart transplant survival. METHODS: BALB/c heart allografts, with or without BALB/c skin sensitization, were transplanted in the wild-type C57BL/6, Mtorfl/flCd4-Cre, Stat3fl/flCd4-Cre, and Mtorfl/flStat3fl/flCd4-Cre mice. Graft survival and histology, as well as T-cell frequencies and phenotypes, were evaluated after transplantation. RESULTS: In the absence of donor skin sensitization, long-term heart allograft survival was achieved in the Mtorfl/flCd4-Cre recipients, which was associated with significantly decreased frequencies of CD62L-CD44+ effector T cells and BCL-6+CXCR5+ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the periphery. Long-term heart allograft survival was also achieved in the donor skin-sensitized Mtorfl/flStat3fl/flCd4-Cre mice, whereas the heart allograft survival was prolonged in the donor skin-sensitized Mtorfl/flCd4-Cre and Stat3fl/flCd4-Cre mice. CONCLUSIONS: mTOR is required for Tfh cell response in murine heart transplantation. T-cell-specific deletion of both mTOR and Stat3 abrogates the memory response to heart transplants. These findings help us to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the T cell immunity to transplanted organs.

8.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 26(1): 55-65, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation is considered a promising treatment for Parkinson's disease. But most NSCs are differentiated into glial cells rather than neurons, and only a few of them survive after transplantation due to the inflammatory environment. METHODS: In this study, neural stem cells (NSCs) and microglial cells both forced with the Nurr1 gene were transplanted into the striatum of the rat model of PD. The results were evaluated through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescence analysis. RESULTS: The behavioral abnormalities of PD rats were improved by combined transplantation of NSCs and microglia, both forced with Nurr1. The number of tyrosine hydroxylase+ cells in the striatum of PD rats increased, and the number of Iba1+ cells decreased compared with the other groups. Moreover, the dopamine neurons differentiated from grafted NSCs could still be detected in the striatum of PD rats after 5 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that transplantation of Nurr1-overexpressing NSCs and microglia could improve the inhospitable host brain environments, which will be  a new potential strategy for the cell replacement therapy in PD.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1022-1029, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884791

RESUMO

Topramezone is a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor. Due to its broad-spectrum, high efficiency, and low toxicity, topramezone is a candidate herbicide for the construction of genetically modified (GM) herbicide-resistant crops. In the present study, we screened a topramezone-resistant isolate Sphingobium sp. TPM-19 and cloned a topramezone-resistant HPPD gene (SphppD) from this isolate. SpHPPD shared the highest similarity (53%) with an HPPD from Vibrio vulnificus CMCP6. SpHPPD was synthesized in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity using Co2+-affinity chromatography. SpHPPD was found to be a monomer. The Km and kcat of SpHPPD for 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (4-HPP) were 82.8 µM and 15.0 s-1, respectively. SpHPPD showed high resistance to topramezone with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and Ki values of 5.2 and 2.5 µM, respectively. Additionally, SpHPPD also showed high resistance to isoxaflutole (DKN) (IC50: 8.7 µM; Ki: 6.0 µM) and mesotrione (IC50: 4.2 µM; Ki: 1.3 µM) and moderate resistance to tembotrione (IC50: 2.5 µM; Ki: 1.0 µM). The introduction of the SphppD gene into Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced obvious resistance against topramezone. In conclusion, this study provides a novel topramezone-resistant HPPD gene for the genetic engineering of GM herbicide-resistant crops.

10.
Redox Biol ; 28: 101364, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731101

RESUMO

Inflammation is a self-defense response to protect individuals from infection and tissue damage, but excessive or persistent inflammation can have adverse effects on cell survival. Many individuals become especially susceptible to chronic-inflammation-induced sensorineural hearing loss as they age, but the intrinsic molecular mechanism behind aging individuals' increased risk of hearing loss remains unclear. FoxG1 (forkhead box transcription factor G1) is a key transcription factor that plays important roles in hair cell survival through the regulation of mitochondrial function, but how the function of FoxG1 changes during aging and under inflammatory conditions is unknown. In this study, we first found that FoxG1 expression and autophagy both increased gradually in the low concentration lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model, while after high concentration of LPS treatment both FoxG1 expression and autophagy levels decreased as the concentration of LPS increased. We then used siRNA to downregulate Foxg1 expression in hair cell-like OC-1 cells and found that cell death and apoptosis were significantly increased after LPS injury. Furthermore, we used d-galactose (D-gal) to create an aging model with hair cell-like OC-1 cells and cochlear explant cultures in vitro and found that the expression of Foxg1 and the level of autophagy were both decreased after D-gal and LPS co-treatment. Lastly, we knocked down the expression of Foxg1 under aged inflammation conditions and found increased numbers of dead and apoptotic cells. Together these results suggest that FoxG1 affects the sensitivity of mimetic aging hair cells to inflammation by regulating autophagy pathways.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1186-1197, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855431

RESUMO

A bioactive polysaccharide from microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa (CPP) was successively prepared via DEAE-52 and G-100 columns. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that the main glycosidic bonds were composed of 1,2-linked-α-l-Fucp, 1,4-linked-α-l-Rhap, 1,4-linked-ß-l-Araf, 1-linked-α-d-Glcp, 1,3-linked-ß-d-GlcpA, 1,4-linked-ß-d-Xylp, and 1,3,6-linked-ß-d-Manp. Its molecular weight was 5.63 × 106 Da. The hypolipidemic effect and intestinal flora regulation of CPP on diet-induced rats were evaluated through histopathology and biochemistry analyses. CPP could improve plasma and liver lipid metabolism and accelerate the metabolism of the cecal total bile acids and short-chain fatty acids. CPP has also upregulated the adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and downregulated the acetyl-CoA carboxylase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and ß-hydroxy ß-methylglutaryl-CoA expressions. Moreover, with the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it was revealed that the composition of intestinal flora changed drastically after treatment, such as the bloom of Coprococcus_1, Lactobacillus, and Turicibacter, whereas there was a strong reduction of the [Ruminococcus]_gauvreauii_group. The above results illustrated that CPP might be served as an effective ingredient to ameliorate lipid metabolism disorders and intestinal flora in hyperlipidemia rats.


Assuntos
Chlorella/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Microalgas/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Behav Brain Res ; 378: 112262, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regression is frequently described in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Limited comprehensive studies have been conducted in patients with ASD with regression. PURPOSE: To explore the network topological properties in ASD children with (ASD-R) and without (ASD-NR) regression. METHODS: In this study, 29 ASD-R, 68 ASD-NR, and 40 children with developmental delay (DD) were recruited. We utilized graph theory to characterize the white matter structure networks by using diffusion tensor imaging and T1-weighted imaging on a 3-T magnetic resonance system. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS (version 23). RESULTS: ANCOVA showed significant differences in global efficiency, characteristic path length and sigma among the ASD-R, ASD-NR and DD groups, but the difference was not significant between the ASD-R and ASD-NR groups. There were 10 common hubs based on regional degree and regional efficiency in all groups. The hubness of the left superior frontal gyrus-dorsolateral, left middle occipital gyrus and right precuneus were enhanced (by regional degree) and that of the right thalamus was reduced (by regional efficiency) in the ASD-R relative to the ASD-NR group. After controlling for the course of regression, the CARS scores were significantly correlated with the regional efficiency of the right precuneus in the ASD-R group. CONCLUSIONS: The ASD-R children were different from the ASD-NR children in the distribution of hub regions, although there were no global network property differences between them. In ASD-R children, the right precuneus (PCUN.R) might play an important role and relate to autism symptom severity.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134397, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677469

RESUMO

Children are vulnerable to air pollution-induced lung function deficits, and the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in children. To evaluate the joint effects of long-term PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) exposure and obesity on children's lung function, a cross-sectional sample of 6740 children (aged 7-14 years) was enrolled across seven northeastern Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013. Weight and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), were measured according to standardized protocols. Average PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure levels were estimated using a spatiotemporal model, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) exposure were estimated using data from municipal air monitoring stations. Two-level logistic regression and general linear models were used to analyze the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and air pollutants. The results showed that long-term air pollution exposure was associated with lung function impairment and there were significant interactions with BMI. Associations were stronger among obese and overweight than normal weight participants (the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PM1 and lung function impairments in three increasing BMI categories were 1.50 (1.07-2.11) to 2.55 (1.59-4.07) for FVC < 85% predicted, 1.44 (1.03-2.01) to 2.51 (1.53-4.11) for FEV1 < 85% predicted, 1.34 (0.97-1.84) to 2.04 (1.24-3.35) for PEF < 75% predicted, and 1.34 (1.01-1.78) to 1.93 (1.26-2.95) for MMEF < 75% predicted). Consistent results were detected in linear regression models for PM1, PM2.5 and SO2 on FVC and FEV1 impairments (PInteraction < 0.05). These modification effects were stronger among females and older participants. These results can provide policy makers with more comprehensive information for to develop strategies for preventing air pollution induced children's lung function deficits among children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre , Capacidade Vital
14.
Food Chem ; 311: 126026, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869641

RESUMO

The enrichment of ß-glucan in barley significantly decreases the quality of dough and baked bread, and ß-glucanase can improve dough and bread quality. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which ß-glucanase improves the quality of fermented barley flour-based products is still poorly understood. The gluten microcosmic structure, molecular structure and yeast gas production capacity were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and F3 rheological fermentation techniques. The results showed that ß-Glucanase can degrade the high-molecular-weight ß-glucan to low-molecular-weight oligosaccharide fragments, which reduces the viscosity of the ß-glucans, promotes cross-linking between the gluten molecules, and indirectly improves the gluten network structure, thereby alleviating the negative effects of ß-glucans. The ß-glucosidase produced during yeast metabolism can further hydrolyse low-molecular-weight oligosaccharides into reducing sugars that can be used by yeast, increasing the carbon sources available to yeasts and the gas production capability of yeasts.

16.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 9459-9468, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819611

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect and survival outcome using nomogram by incorporating significant inflammatory markers in patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who received chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or single radiotherapy (RT). Method: A total of 266 patients diagnosed with thoracic ESCC receiving standard curative RT only or concurrent CRT were retrospectively analysed. The patients were grouped for statistical analysis depending on the median values of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio. The therapeutic effect was analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic analyses. The survival prognosis was estimated by univariate and multivariate Cox analyses. At last, the nomogram was developed by incorporating the significant inflammatory markers and clinicopathological parameters, and the predictive value was verified by calibration curve, concordance index (C-index) and decision curve. Results: The treatment responses were highly associated with clinical stage, tumor location, NLR, PLR and CRP/Alb ratio (all P<0.05) by univariate logistic analysis. However, in the multivariate logistic analysis, the results showed that only CRP/Alb ratio (P=0.000) and TNM stage (P=0.008) were independent risk parameters for tumour response. In addition, NLR, PLR, CRP/Alb ratio, age and TNM stage were significantly associated with OS by the univariate Cox analysis (all P<0.05). Furthermore, the multivariate Cox analysis showed that only CRP/Alb ratio (P=0.000), TNM stage (P=0.000) and age (P=0.001) were considered independent prognostic factors for OS. Finally, the calibration curves of nomogram were highly consistent with actual observation for the therapeutic effect and prognosis, and the decision curve analysis showed more potential of clinical benefit of the nomogram compared with TNM staging system. Conclusion: This research found that nomogram-integrated CRP/Alb ratio was promising as a predictive model for the therapeutic effect and survival outcome in patients with thoracic ESCC receiving CRT or single RT.

17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(23): 2872-2880, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Renal fibrosis is the most common manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Noting that existing treatments of renal fibrosis only slow disease progression but do not cure it, there is an urgent need to identify novel therapies. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a newly discovered endogenous small gas signaling molecule exerting a wide range of biologic actions in our body. This review illustrates recent experimental findings on the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of H2S against renal fibrosis and highlights its potential in future clinical application. DATA SOURCES: Literature was collected from PubMed until February 2019, using the search terms including "Hydrogen sulfide," "Chronic kidney disease," "Renal interstitial fibrosis," "Kidney disease," "Inflammation factor," "Oxidative stress," "Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition," "H2S donor," "Hypertensive kidney dysfunction," "Myofibroblasts," "Vascular remodeling," "transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta/Smads signaling," and "Sulfate potassium channels." STUDY SELECTION: Literature was mainly derived from English articles or articles that could be obtained with English abstracts. Article type was not limited. References were also identified from the bibliographies of identified articles and the authors' files. RESULTS: The experimental data confirmed that H2S is widely involved in various renal pathologies by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibiting the activation of fibrosis-related cells and their cytokine expression, ameliorating vascular remodeling and high blood pressure, stimulating tubular cell regeneration, as well as reducing apoptosis, autophagy, and hypertrophy. Therefore, H2S represents an alternative or additional therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that H2S may delay the occurrence and progress of renal fibrosis, thus protecting renal function. Further experiments are required to explore the precise role of H2S in renal fibrosis and its application in clinical treatment.

18.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(10): 755-768, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To further explore associated effects of Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) on obesity and lipid metabolism at the gene expression level, the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) was investigated in the liver of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats. METHODS: Three groups of animal models were established. Changes in miRNA expression in the liver of each group were analyzed by microarray and RT-qPCR, complemented by bioinformatics. Palmitateinduced hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were used as a model to validate the test. RESULTS: LFBE treatment groups and HFD groups were observed to be distinctly different with respect to rates of increase in body weight and body fat percentage and triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels in serum and liver. In addition, the LFBE group showed upregulation of ten miRNAs and downregulation of five miRNAs in the liver. Downregulation of miR-34a and miR-212 was observed in the livers of the LFBE group. Gene ontology and kyoto encyelopedia of geues and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that possible target genes of the deregulated miRNAs were significantly enriched in the adrenergic and HIF-1 signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that LFBE might regulate the expression of miRNAs in order to inhibit obesity and fatty liver.

19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 399, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have social interaction deficits and difficulties in emotional regulation. The neural substrates for these socio-affective deficits are not yet clear, but one potential candidate is maldevelopment of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), a white matter tract thought to be involved in socio-affective processing. However, the developmental trajectory of the UF in young children with social interaction deficits has not been examined. The present study was designed to describe the developmental growth trajectory of the UF and the relationships between UF development and social deficits in ASD. METHODS: Eigenvalues of the UF were measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based tractography in 37 children with ASD and 27 matched 2-3-year-old subjects with developmental delay (DD) at baseline (time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (time 2). Growth rates of the UF were compared between groups and associations with social deficit scores according to the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) analyzed by Pearson's correlations. RESULTS: At time 1, axial diffusivity (AD) of the left UF was significantly larger in the ASD group than the DD group. At time 2, left UF fractional anisotropy (FA) was significantly higher and radial diffusivity (RD) significantly lower in the ASD group than the DD group. The rate of UF growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Significant negative correlations were found between the rise in ADI-R social deficit measures and both right UF RD and left UF mean diffusivity (MD). CONCLUSIONS: Young children with ASD demonstrate UF overgrowth during the 2-year development period between 2 and 3 and 4-5 years of age, and this white matter abnormality is directly associated with the progression of social deficits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: World Health Organization class I registered international clinical trial platform, ChiCTR-ROC-17012877.

20.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Renal fibrosis is the most common manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Noting that existing treatments of renal fibrosis only slow disease progression but do not cure it, there is an urgent need to identify novel therapies. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a newly discovered endogenous small gas signaling molecule exerting a wide range of biologic actions in our body. This review illustrates recent experimental findings on the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of H2S against renal fibrosis and highlights its potential in future clinical application. DATA SOURCES: Literature was collected from PubMed until February 2019, using the search terms including "Hydrogen sulfide," "Chronic kidney disease," "Renal interstitial fibrosis," "Kidney disease," "Inflammation factor," "Oxidative stress," "Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition," "H2S donor," "Hypertensive kidney dysfunction," "Myofibroblasts," "Vascular remodeling," "transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta/Smads signaling," and "Sulfate potassium channels." STUDY SELECTION: Literature was mainly derived from English articles or articles that could be obtained with English abstracts. Article type was not limited. References were also identified from the bibliographies of identified articles and the authors' files. RESULTS: The experimental data confirmed that H2S is widely involved in various renal pathologies by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibiting the activation of fibrosis-related cells and their cytokine expression, ameliorating vascular remodeling and high blood pressure, stimulating tubular cell regeneration, as well as reducing apoptosis, autophagy, and hypertrophy. Therefore, H2S represents an alternative or additional therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that H2S may delay the occurrence and progress of renal fibrosis, thus protecting renal function. Further experiments are required to explore the precise role of H2S in renal fibrosis and its application in clinical treatment.

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