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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670932

RESUMO

Membrane vesicles derived from live cells show great potential in biological applications due to their preserved cell membrane properties. Here we demonstrate that cell-derived giant membrane vesicles can be used as vectors to deliver multiple therapeutic drugs and carry out combinational phototherapy for targeted cancer treatment. We show that therapeutic drugs can be efficiently encapsulated into giant membrane vesicles and delivered to target cells by membrane fusion, resulting in synergistic photodynamic/photothermal therapy under light irradiation. This study highlights biomimetic giant membrane vesicles for drug delivery with potential biomedical application in cancer therapeutics.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669280

RESUMO

NK-lysins, a type of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide (AMP), act as an essential effector of innate defense against microbial attack in higher vertebrates and so in fish. The present study delineates the structural and functional characterization of NK-lysin from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidrac) (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). PfNK-lysin encodes a 153-residue peptide, which displays the hallmark features of other known NK-lysins with the ordered array of six well-conserved cysteine residues and five-exon/four-intron structure. It was found to be ubiquitous in tissues, being detected most abundantly in gill and head kidney. In vivo exposure to stimuli (LPS, PolyI:C, and Edwardsiella ictaluri) induced PfNK-lysin expression in head kidney and spleen. Synthetic PfNK-lysin-derived peptide exhibited in vitro bactericidal potency against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the highest inhibitory effect on pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy further confirmed its capacity to cause damage to the bacterial plasma membrane. Taken together, these data suggest that PfNK-lysin might participate in antimicrobial defense of yellow catfish by membrane-disruptive action.

3.
Analyst ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670735

RESUMO

Surfactants play important roles in chemical industries and have become well-known environmental pollutants owing to their extensive use in different fields. In this work, we reported a fluorescent probe, namely, BDP-Zn2+ for the discrimination of four kinds of surfactants and the determination of CMC values. BDP-Zn2+ was composed of covalently linked BODIPY, carbazole, N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (BPEA) and zinc ions to fabricate a novel push-pull molecular structure. Upon the addition of surfactants, the probe exhibited a turn-on fluorescence response and the emission was enhanced on increasing the surfactant concentrations. This indicated that the fluorescence intensity and the ratios of the emission at 607 nm to that at 514 nm as fingerprints could be used to identify the CMC values of the surfactants. Our current work provides an alternative method to efficiently discriminate different surfactants for the further studies of their physical and chemical functions.

4.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated mortality among affected women in the world. At present, treatment with weekly cisplatin plus ionizing radiation (IR) therapy is the standard regimen for cervical cancer, especially for locally advanced cervical cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether FEN1 inhibitors could enhance the therapeutic effect of IR therapy. METHODS: Western blot was applied to determine the expression of FEN1- and apoptosis-related proteins. Cell growth inhibition assay and colony formation assay were used to determine the effects of FEN1 inhibitor and IR exposure for Hela cells in vitro. CRISPR technology was used to knockdown FEN1 expression level of 293T cells, and tumor xenograft in nude mice was employed to determine the effects of FEN1 inhibitor and IR exposure on tumor growth in vivo. RESULTS: Our data revealed that FEN1 is overexpressed in HeLa cell and can be upregulated further by IR. We also demonstrated that FEN1 inhibitor enhances IR sensitivity of cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: FEN1 inhibitor SC13 could sensitize radiotherapy of cervical cancer cell.

5.
Hepatology ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600834

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common cause of chronic liver disease. Clinical trials use the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN) system for semiquantitative histological assessment of disease severity. Interobserver variability may hamper histological assessment, and diagnostic consensus is not always achieved. We evaluate a novel second harmonic generation/two-photon excitation fluorescence (SHG/TPEF) imaging-based tool to provide an automated quantitative assessment of histological features pertinent to NASH. Images were acquired by SHG/TPEF from 219 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/NASH liver biopsy samples from seven centers in Asia and Europe. These were used to develop and validate qFIBS, a computational algorithm that quantifies key histological features of NASH. qFIBS was developed based on in silico analysis of selected signature parameters for four cardinal histopathological features, that is, fibrosis (qFibrosis), inflammation (qInflammation), hepatocyte ballooning (qBallooning), and steatosis (qSteatosis), treating each as a continuous rather than categorical variable. Automated qFIBS analysis outputs showed strong correlation with each respective component of the NASH CRN scoring (P < 0.001) (qFibrosis [r = 0.776], qInflammation [r = 0.557], qBallooning [r = 0.533], and qSteatosis [r = 0.802]) and high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values (qFibrosis [0.870-0.951; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.787-1.000; P < 0.001], qInflammation [0.820-0.838; 95% CI, 0.726-0.933; P < 0.001 ), qBallooning [0.813-0.844; 95% CI, 0.708-0.957; P < 0.001], and qSteatosis [0.939-0.986; 95% CI, 0.867-1.000; P < 0.001]) and was able to distinguish differing grades/stages of histological disease. Performance of qFIBS was best when assessing degree of steatosis and fibrosis but performed less well when distinguishing severe inflammation and higher ballooning grades. Conclusion: qFIBS is an automated tool that accurately quantifies the critical components of NASH histological assessment. It offers a tool that could potentially aid reproducibility and standardization of liver biopsy assessments required for NASH therapeutic clinical trials.

6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 863: 172701, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568784

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is caused by the restoration of the coronary blood flow following an ischemic episode. Accumulating evidence suggests that galectin-3, a ß-galactoside-binding lectin, acts as a biomarker in heart disease. However, it remains unclear whether manipulating galectin-3 affects the susceptibility of the heart to IR injury. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis identified that Lgals3 (galecin-3) plays an indispensable role in IR-induced cardiac damage. Immunostaining and immunoblot assays confirmed that the expression of galectin-3 was markedly increased in myocardial IR injury both in vivo and in vitro. Echocardiographic analysis showed that cardiac dysfunction in experimental IR injury was significantly attenuated by galectin-3 inhibitors including pectin (1%, i.p.) from citrus and binding peptide G3-C12 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Galectin-3 inhibitor-treated mice exhibited smaller infarct sizes and decreased tissue injury. Furthermore, TUNEL staining showed that galectin-3 inhibition suppressed IR-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) levels were well-preserved and IR-induced changes of mitochondrial cyto c, cytosol cyto c, caspase-9, caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax in the galectin-3 inhibitor-treated groups were observed. Our findings indicate that the pathological upregulation of galectin-3 contributes to IR-induced cardiac dysfunction and that galectin-3 inhibition ameliorates myocardial injury, highlighting its therapeutic potential.

7.
Neuroradiology ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The proportion of acute symptomatic lacunar infarction lesions that undergo cavitation and the factors influencing cavity formation are yet unclear, particularly in the Chinese population. Hence, we investigated changes in the diameter of acute lacunar infarction lesions and identified the risk factors for the progression of these lesions. METHODS: A total of 160 patients (mean age 66 years) with acute symptomatic lacunar infarction lesions underwent two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations: diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at onset (lesion diameter < 20 mm) and T2-weighted imaging/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences at follow-up (median follow-up time 389 days). Lacunar infarction lesion progression was categorized as complete cavitation (lacune), partial cavitation, white matter lesion (WML), or disappearance of the lesion. The risk factors for cavity formation were evaluated. RESULTS: Upon follow-up MRI, lesions had changed to lacunes in 20 (12.5%) patients, partial cavitation in 23 (14.4%), WMLs in 97 (60.6%), and had disappeared in 20 (12.5%). Lacune formation was related to hypertension (P = 0.026); cavity (lacune and partial cavitation) formation was related to diabetes (P = 0.009) and diameter change (P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately a quarter of the acute symptomatic lacunar infarction lesions observed with follow-up MRI were cavitated. Hypertension was negatively associated with lacune formation; diabetes and diameter change were negatively associated with cavity formation.

8.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-4, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612726

RESUMO

Three new aromatic compounds (1a/1b, 2) including a pair of enantiomers (1a/1b), were isolated from Inonotus obliquus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations of 1a and 1b were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculated. All isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines. Compounds 1b and 2 showed weak cytotoxicity toward the Hep3B cells at 25 µM.

9.
Mol Med Rep ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661128

RESUMO

Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), a carrier protein encoded by solute carrier family 10 member 1 (SLC10A1), is expressed in the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes, where it is responsible for the uptake of bile acids from plasma into hepatocytes. The first patient with NTCP deficiency was described in 2015. A limited number of such patients have been reported in the literature and their genotypic and phenotypic features require further investigation. The current study investigated 4 patients with NTCP deficiency from two unrelated families. The patients were subjected to SLC10A1 genetic analysis and it was revealed that all patients were compound heterozygous for the c.800C>T (p.Ser267Phe) and c.595A>C (p.Ser199Arg) SLC10A1 variants. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the latter variant had not been previously reported. Further analysis in 50 healthy individuals did not identify carriers. The c.595A>C (p.Ser199Arg) variant exhibited co­segregation with hypercholanemia and exhibited a relatively conserved amino acid when compared with homologous peptides. Moreover, SWISS­MODEL prediction revealed that the mutation affected the conformation of the NTCP molecule. The 4 patients demonstrated varying degrees of hypercholanemia while a downward trend in the plasma levels of total bile acids (TBA) in 2 pediatric patients and occasionally normal TBA level in an adult case were observed. The results indicated an autosomal recessive trait for NTCP deficiency, supported the primary role of NTCP in the uptake of bile acids from plasma and suggested that hepatic uptake of bile acids may occur by means other than NTCP uptake. Moreover, the novel missense variant c.595A>C(p.Ser199Arg) enriched the SLC10A1 mutation spectrum and may serve as a new genetic marker for the molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling of NTCP deficiency.

10.
Hepatology ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609008

RESUMO

We have read the article by Han et al. (1) and would like to express our concerns for the interpretation of this study. As reported by the authors, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was observed in mice after exposure to aristolochic acids (AAs) alone or a combination of AAs and carbon tetrachloride.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e025524, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: According to several studies, liver enzymes levels are associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. However, the association stratified by body mass index (BMI) remains to be elucidated, especially in Southern China. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between liver enzymes levels and FPG levels stratified by BMI in Southern China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 3056 individuals participated in real-time interviews and blood tests in Southern China. Participants were divided into three groups (underweight, normal weight and overweight or obesity) based on BMI cut-offs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURED: Partial correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between FPG levels and liver tests. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to calculate the adjusted ORs for FPG levels based on liver enzymes levels. RESULTS: There was no association between liver enzymes and FPG either in the underweight group or in the normal weight group; however, a significant correlation was observed in the overweight or obesity group (alanine transaminase (ALT), p<0.01; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), p<0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, the highest tertiles of ALT still remained significantly positively related to FPG levels in the overweight or obesity group, with an OR of 2.205 (95% CI 1.442 to 3.371) for the 5.56≤FPG<7.00 mmol/L vs the FPG<5.56 mmol/L group and with an OR of 2.297 (95% CI 1.017 to 5.187) for the FPG≥7.00 mmol/L vs the FPG<5.56 mmol/L group, but this correlation was not found for AST. CONCLUSIONS: The association of liver enzymes levels with FPG levels differed based on different BMI cut-offs. ALT levels were significantly positively associated with FPG levels in the overweight or obesity group, but not in the other two groups; AST levels were not associated with FPG levels in any group.

12.
Nutr Diabetes ; 9(1): 30, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are reported to modulate the composition of gut microbiota, which play an important role in preventing obesity and associated metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of Total Flavonoids of Quzhou Fructus Aurantii Extract (TFQ) on gut microbial community in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with either a chow diet or HFD with or without oral gavage of TFQ (300 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Our data indicate TFQ significantly reduced obesity, inflammatio,n and liver steatosis. TFQ elevates the expression of tight junction proteins and reduces metabolic endotoxemia. In addition, TFQ treatment reverses HFD-induced gut dysbiosis, as indicated by the reduction of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, the increase of genera Akkermansia and Alistipes, and the decrease of genera Dubosiella, Faecalibaculum, and Lactobacillus. CONCLUSION: These findings support a prebiotic role of TFQ as a dietary supplement for the intervention of gut dysbiosis and obesity-related metabolic disorders.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4861, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649241

RESUMO

Achieving the activation of drugs within cellular systems may provide targeted therapies. Here we construct a tumour-selective cascade activatable self-detained system (TCASS) and incorporate imaging probes and therapeutics. We show in different mouse models that the TCASS system accumulates in solid tumours. The molecules show enhanced accumulation in tumour regions via the effect of recognition induced self-assembly. Analysis of the molecular penetration in tumour tissue shows that in vivo self-assembly increases the penetration capability compared to typical soft or hard nanomaterials. Importantly, the in vivo self-assembled molecules exhibit a comparable clearance pathway to that of small molecules, which are excreted from organs of the reticuloendothelial system (liver and kidney), while are relatively slowly eliminated from tumour tissues. Finally, this system, combined with the NIR probe, shows high specificity and sensitivity for detecting bladder cancer in isolated intact patient bladders.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4869, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653912

RESUMO

The negative regulator of p53, MDM2, is frequently overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that retains wild-type TP53 alleles. Targeting of p53-MDM2 interaction to reactivate p53 function is therefore an attractive therapeutic approach for AML. Here we show that an orally active inhibitor of p53-MDM2 interaction, DS-5272, causes dramatic tumor regressions of MLL-AF9-driven AML in vivo with a tolerable toxicity. However, the antileukemia effect of DS-5272 is markedly attenuated in immunodeficient mice, indicating the critical impact of systemic immune responses that drive p53-mediated leukemia suppression. In relation to this, DS-5272 triggers immune-inflammatory responses in MLL-AF9 cells including upregulation of Hif1α and PD-L1, and inhibition of the Hif1α-PD-L1 axis sensitizes AML cells to p53 activation. We also found that NK cells are important mediators of antileukemia immunity. Our study showed the potent activity of a p53-activating drug against AML, which is further augmented by antitumor immunity.

15.
Cancer Imaging ; 19(1): 69, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance and safety of PET/CT-guided percutaneous core bone biopsy and to compare the PET/CT-guided method to conventional CT-guided percutaneous core biopsies to diagnose Chinese patients with bone tumors and tumor-like lesions. METHODS: Data for 97 patients with bone tumors and tumor-like lesions diagnosed by percutaneous core bone biopsy from February 2013 to November 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The study included 42 cases in the PET/CT group and 55 cases in the CT alone group. The diagnostic performance, cost and complications associated with the intervention were compared between the two groups. All patients were eventually confirmed to have bone tumors and tumor-like lesions according to surgical pathology findings. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patient characteristics (P > 0.05). For the patients in the PET/CT group, the overall diagnostic yield of the initial biopsies and the diagnostic accuracy derived from the surgically proven cases were both 97.62%, which was significantly higher than the values in the CT group during the same period (P < 0.05). No major biopsy-related complications (e.g., serious bleeding or tumor dissemination) occurred before, during, or after the intervention. Therefore, no significant difference was observed between the two groups with regard to the complication rate (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with CT-guided percutaneous bone biopsy, PET/CT-guided percutaneous bone biopsy is an effective and safe alternative with high diagnostic performance in the evaluation of hypermetabolic bone lesions to diagnose bone tumors and tumor-like lesions.

17.
Arch Toxicol ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630224

RESUMO

Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a rare but potentially severe adverse drug reaction. To date, identifying individuals at risk for IDILI remains challenging. This is a prospective study, where a nested case-control (1:5) design was adopted. For six patients who had abnormalities in liver function test after Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM) ingestion (susceptible group), 30 patients with normal liver function were matched (tolerant group). Based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, metabolomics analysis was done on serum samples prior to PM ingestion, to screen the differential metabolites and characterize metabolomic profiles of patient serum in the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that there were remarkable separations between susceptible and tolerant groups. A total of 25 major differential metabolites were screened out, involving glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, histidine metabolism and aromatic amino acid metabolism. Wherein, the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curves of metabolites PE 22:6, crotonoyl-CoA, 2E-tetradecenoyl-CoA, phenyllactic acid, indole-5,6-quinone, phosphoribosyl-ATP were all greater than 0.9. The overall serum metabolic profile comprising of 25 metabolites could clearly distinguish susceptible and tolerant groups. This proof-of-concept study used metabolomics to characterize the metabolic profile of IDILI risk individuals before drug ingestion for the first time. The metabolome characteristics in patient serum before PM ingestion may predict the risk of liver injury after PM ingestion.

18.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000461, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600191

RESUMO

Dendritic spine development is crucial for the establishment of excitatory synaptic connectivity and functional neural circuits. Alterations in spine morphology and density have been associated with multiple neurological disorders. Autism candidate gene disconnected-interacting protein homolog 2 A (DIP2A) is known to be involved in acetylated coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) synthesis and is primarily expressed in the brain regions with abundant pyramidal neurons. However, the role of DIP2A in the brain remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that deletion of Dip2a in mice induced defects in spine morphogenesis along with thin postsynaptic density (PSD), and reduced synaptic transmission of pyramidal neurons. We further identified that DIP2A interacted with cortactin, an activity-dependent spine remodeling protein. The binding activity of DIP2A-PXXP motifs (P, proline; X, any residue) with the cortactin-Src homology 3 (SH3) domain was critical for maintaining the level of acetylated cortactin. Furthermore, Dip2a knockout (KO) mice exhibited autism-like behaviors, including excessive repetitive behaviors and defects in social novelty. Importantly, acetylation mimetic cortactin restored the impaired synaptic transmission and ameliorated repetitive behaviors in these mice. Altogether, our findings establish an initial link between DIP2A gene variations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and highlight the contribution of synaptic protein acetylation to synaptic processing.

19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3365-3367, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602896

RESUMO

As entering a new era,our country has introduced a series of favorable policies,which may provide the powerful and new momentum for the development of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM). However,more and more attentions have been paid to the safety and effectiveness of TCM. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. is one of Chinese herbs with clinical efficacy and safety risk. In recent years,accumulating groups have carried out a series of exploratory studies on the clinical rational use of T. wilfordii-related preparations. Considering this situation,the goal of this special issue is to bring together a collection of original research and review articles addressing the expanding field of T. wilfordii. The special issue covers the clinical application,pharmacodynamics,toxicology,pharmacodynamics,resource identification and molecular pharmacognosy of T. wilfordii-related preparations. It focuses on the multi-disciplinary collaborative innovation,and may provide a stimulating resource for the fascinating subject of the safe and rational use of TCM,as well as have important practical significance and promotion value for the healthy development of TCM industry.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Tripterygium
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 417, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MEIS2 has been identified as one of the key transcription factors in the gene regulatory network in the development and pathogenesis of human cancers. Our study aims to identify the regulatory mechanisms of MEIS2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which could be targeted to develop new therapeutic strategies. METHODS: The variation of MEIS2 levels were assayed in a cohort of HCC patients. The proliferation, clone-formation, migration, and invasion abilities of HCC cells were measured to analyze the effects of MEIS2C and MEIS2D (MEIS2C/D) knockdown with small hairpin RNAs in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed to identify MEIS2 binding site. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays were employed to detect proteins regulated by MEIS2. RESULTS: The expression of MEIS2C/D was increased in the HCC specimens when compared with the adjacent noncancerous liver (ANL) tissues. Moreover, MEIS2C/D expression negatively correlated with the prognosis of HCC patients. On the other hand, knockdown of MEIS2C/D could inhibit proliferation and diminish migration and invasion of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, MESI2C activated Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in cooperation with Parafibromin (CDC73), while MEIS2D suppressed Hippo pathway by promoting YAP nuclear translocation via miR-1307-3p/LATS1 axis. Notably, CDC73 could directly either interact with MEIS2C/ß-catenin or MEIS2D/YAP complex, depending on its tyrosine-phosphorylation status. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies indicate that MEISC/D promote HCC development via Wnt/ß-catenin and Hippo/YAP signaling pathways, highlighting the complex molecular network of MEIS2C/D in HCC pathogenesis. These results suggest that MEISC/D may serve as a potential novel therapeutic target for HCC.

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