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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 305-313, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654768

RESUMO

IFN-γ is an immunomodulatory factor that has been extensively studied in phenotypes of mammalian macrophages and multifarious inflammatory responses. Usually these studies relied on the classical synergistic activation of IFN-γ with LPS (LipoPolySaccharides). However, non-mammalian vertebrates, and in particular fish, are not very susceptible to LPS, and easily acquire tolerance upon repeated exposure. Therefore, for studies in fish, it is necessary to replace the classical IFN-γ+LPS immune system activation method, and find other pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) capable of stimulating the fish immune system. Here we used an important farmed fish species, Ctenopharyngodon idella, to study the effects of CiIFN-γ2 (C. idella IFN-γ2) and chitosan (CS) on its immune responses in vivo and vitro. Our results showed that the combination of CS and CiIFN-γ2 significantly enhanced the activation of macrophages, with an activation intensity even stronger than in CiIFN-γ2 and CiIFN-γ2+LPS groups. In vivo, injection of CiIFN-γ2 could improve the survival rate of C. idella infected with Flavobacterium columnare, while a combined injection of CiIFN-γ2+CS only improved protection in the early stages after the challenge. Notably, both injections reduced the bacterial load of viscera and improved the levels of several plasma parameters (TP, T-SOD, LA, and NO). However, a dramatic up-regulation of inflammatory factors, severe inflammatory damage in the intestines and hepatopancreas, and increased mortality in late stages of infection were observed in the CiIFN-γ2+CS group. Our findings provide new insights into the macrophage activation phenotypes and inflammatory responses in fish. They also demonstrate that CiIFN-γ2 could be used as a potential immunopotentiator, but not in combination with CS. This suggests that selection of immunological adjuvants should be carefully tested experimentally.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4498, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582749

RESUMO

Developing multijunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is an attractive route to boost PSC efficiencies to above the single-junction Shockley-Queisser limit. However, commonly used tin-based narrow-bandgap perovskites have shorter carrier diffusion lengths and lower absorption coefficient than lead-based perovskites, limiting the efficiency of perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells. In this work, we discover that the charge collection efficiency in tin-based PSCs is limited by a short diffusion length of electrons. Adding 0.03 molar percent of cadmium ions into tin-perovskite precursors reduce the background free hole concentration and electron trap density, yielding a long electron diffusion length of 2.72 ± 0.15 µm. It increases the optimized thickness of narrow-bandgap perovskite films to 1000 nm, yielding exceptional stabilized efficiencies of 20.2 and 22.7% for single junction narrow-bandgap PSCs and monolithic perovskite-perovskite tandem cells, respectively. This work provides a promising method to enhance the optoelectronic properties of narrow-bandgap perovskites and unleash the potential of perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells.

3.
Phys Rev E ; 100(3-1): 032220, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639894

RESUMO

We theoretically study the modulation instability (MI) of the two-component helicoidal spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The effects of spin-orbit coupling, the helicoidal gauge potential, and atomic interactions on MI are investigated. The results indicate that the presence of the helicoidal gauge potential breaks the symmetric properties of MI, strongly modifies the distribution of the MI region and the MI gain in parameters space, and the MI can be excited even when the miscibility condition for the atomic interactions is satisfied. Furthermore, the effect of the helicoidal gauge potential on MI is strongly coupled with the intra and intercomponent atomic interactions. Particularly, with the increase of the helical gauge potential, the MI gain increases for the repulsive atomic interaction case, however, the MI gain decreases for the attractive atomic interaction case. The direct numerical simulations are performed to support the analytical predictions, and a good agreement is found. Our results provide a potential way to manipulate the MI in BECs with helicoidal gauge potential.

4.
Science ; 365(6452): 473-478, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371610

RESUMO

We show that converting the surfaces of lead halide perovskite to water-insoluble lead (II) oxysalt through reaction with sulfate or phosphate ions can effectively stabilize the perovskite surface and bulk material. These capping lead oxysalt thin layers enhance the water resistance of the perovskite films by forming strong chemical bonds. The wide-bandgap lead oxysalt layers also reduce the defect density on the perovskite surfaces by passivating undercoordinated surface lead centers, which are defect-nucleating sites. Formation of the lead oxysalt layer increases the carrier recombination lifetime and boosts the efficiency of the solar cells to 21.1%. Encapsulated devices stabilized by the lead oxysalt layers maintain 96.8% of their initial efficiency after operation at maximum power point under simulated air mass (AM) 1.5 G irradiation for 1200 hours at 65°C.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 682: 485-493, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128368

RESUMO

This study aimed to use food waste to culture housefly larvae, which serve as the major source of protein in fish feeds, to evaluate copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in the food chain. In addition, the potential health risk to humans of exposure to these metal elements via dietary intake of tilapia fed with housefly larvae feeds was also evaluated. The results showed the bioavailability of trace elements in dish waste to housefly larvae was lower than that in staple food waste. Trace element concentrations in housefly larvae fed with food waste met the animal feed standards in China and the European Union (EU). The highest concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd in residue did not exceed the limits specified for fertilizer in China, Canada, and Germany. The tilapia fed with dried housefly larvae presented a greater final weight and protein content than those fed with commercial feed and fresh housefly larvae (p<0.05). The Cu, Cr, and Cd concentrations in tilapia fed with commercial feed were higher than in those fed with commercial housefly larvae or dried housefly larvae (p<0.05). The highest bioaccumulation of Cu, Zn, and Ni was found in tilapia fed with fresh housefly larvae feed. The results of the health risk assessment showed that the tilapia fed with the housefly larvae feed pellets or fresh housefly larvae were safe for consumption from the perspective of trace elements.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Moscas Domésticas/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(15): e15103, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985664

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer has high incidence and mortality. Early diagnosis could increase patient survival, but early diagnosis has been poor in China for the past decades. The purpose of this study is to assess the polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) by colonoscopy in a Chinese population, and to determine the risk factors for adenoma.This prospective study at Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital evaluated patients who underwent colonoscopy in September 2017 to February 2018. Basic information, exact insertion and withdrawal times, PDR, and ADR were assessed. Risk factors for colorectal adenoma in the adenoma-positive and adenoma-negative groups (based on pathology) were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis.A total of 1058 procedures with 767 polyps were analyzed. The overall PDR and ADR were 36.96% (391/1058) and 24.67% (261/1058), respectively. Occurrence of adenoma was associated with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), family history of colon cancer, personal history of adenoma, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. There was a significant association between withdrawal time and ADR (P < .001). In the multivariable analysis, age (OR = 1.041, 95%CI 1.028-1.055; P < .001), insertion time (OR = 0.999, 95%CI 0.998-1.000; P = .009), withdrawal time (OR = 1.009, 95%CI 1.007-1.011; P < .001), personal history of adenoma (OR = 2.572, 95%CI 1.115-5.932; P = .027), and diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.221, 95%CI 1.084-4.549; P = .029) were risk factors for colorectal adenoma detection.In a Chinese population, ADR increases with age, withdrawal time, a personal history of adenoma, and diabetes. Age, insertion and withdrawal times, and a personal history of adenoma may independently predict colorectal adenoma detection.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Sci Adv ; 5(3): eaav8925, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873433

RESUMO

The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are already higher than that of other thin film technologies, but laboratory cell-fabrication methods are not scalable. Here, we report an additive strategy to enhance the efficiency and stability of PSCs made by scalable blading. Blade-coated PSCs incorporating bilateral alkylamine (BAA) additives achieve PCEs of 21.5 (aperture, 0.08 cm2) and 20.0% (aperture, 1.1 cm2), with a record-small open-circuit voltage deficit of 0.35 V under AM1.5G illumination. The stabilized PCE reaches 22.6% under 0.3 sun. Anchoring monolayer bilateral amino groups passivates the defects at the perovskite surface and enhances perovskite stability by exposing the linking hydrophobic alkyl chain. Grain boundaries are reinforced by BAA and are more resistant to mechanical bending and electron beam damage. BAA improves the device shelf lifetime to >1000 hours and operation stability to >500 hours under light, with 90% of the initial efficiency retained.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(14): 5781-5787, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888171

RESUMO

Passivation of electronic defects at the surface and grain boundaries of perovskite materials has become one of the most important strategies to suppress charge recombination in both polycrystalline and single-crystalline perovskite solar cells. Although many passivation molecules have been reported, it remains very unclear regarding the passivation mechanisms of various functional groups. Here, we systematically engineer the structures of passivation molecular functional groups, including carboxyl, amine, isopropyl, phenethyl, and tert-butylphenethyl groups, and study their passivation capability to perovskites. It reveals the carboxyl and amine groups would heal charged defects via electrostatic interactions, and the neutral iodine related defects can be reduced by the aromatic structures. The judicious control of the interaction between perovskite and molecules can further realize grain boundary passivation, including those that are deep toward substrates. Understanding of the underlining mechanisms allows us to design a new passivation molecule, D-4- tert-butylphenylalanine, yielding high-performance p-i-structure solar cells with a stabilized efficiency of 21.4%. The open-circuit voltage ( VOC) of a device with an optical bandgap of 1.57 eV for the perovskite layer reaches 1.23 V, corresponding to a record small VOC deficit of 0.34 V. Our findings provide a guidance for future design of new passivation molecules to realize multiple facets applications in perovskite electronics.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1276, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894519

RESUMO

Two-dimensional perovskites have emerged as more intrinsically stable materials for solar cells. Chemical tuning of spacer organic cations has attracted great interest due to their additional functionalities. However, how the chemical nature of the organic cations affects the properties of two-dimensional perovskites and devices is rarely reported. Here we demonstrate that the selection of spacer cations (i.e., selective fluorination of phenethylammonium) affects the film properties of two-dimensional perovskites, leading to different device performance of two-dimensional perovskite solar cells (average n = 4). Structural analysis reveals that different packing arrangements and orientational disorder of the spacer cations result in orientational degeneracy and different formation energies, largely explaining the difference in film properties. This work provides key missing information on how spacer cations exert influence on desirable electronic properties and device performance of two-dimensional perovskites via the weak and cooperative interactions of these cations in the crystal lattice.

10.
Gut ; 68(10): 1813-1819, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effect of colonoscopy on colorectal cancer mortality is limited by several factors, among them a certain miss rate, leading to limited adenoma detection rates (ADRs). We investigated the effect of an automatic polyp detection system based on deep learning on polyp detection rate and ADR. DESIGN: In an open, non-blinded trial, consecutive patients were prospectively randomised to undergo diagnostic colonoscopy with or without assistance of a real-time automatic polyp detection system providing a simultaneous visual notice and sound alarm on polyp detection. The primary outcome was ADR. RESULTS: Of 1058 patients included, 536 were randomised to standard colonoscopy, and 522 were randomised to colonoscopy with computer-aided diagnosis. The artificial intelligence (AI) system significantly increased ADR (29.1%vs20.3%, p<0.001) and the mean number of adenomas per patient (0.53vs0.31, p<0.001). This was due to a higher number of diminutive adenomas found (185vs102; p<0.001), while there was no statistical difference in larger adenomas (77vs58, p=0.075). In addition, the number of hyperplastic polyps was also significantly increased (114vs52, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a low prevalent ADR population, an automatic polyp detection system during colonoscopy resulted in a significant increase in the number of diminutive adenomas detected, as well as an increase in the rate of hyperplastic polyps. The cost-benefit ratio of such effects has to be determined further. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-DDD-17012221; Results.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Adenoma/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Environ Pollut ; 245: 883-888, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508791

RESUMO

The concentrations, congener profiles and spatial distribution of 13 phthalate esters (PAEs) in the freshwater fish ponds in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region were investigated in water and sediment samples collect from 22 sites during Jul. 2016-Sept. 2017. The di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the predominant compounds in both water and sediment samples, accounting for 70.1% and 66.1% of ∑PAEs, respectively. The DEHP concentrations in the water samples collected from the sites of Zhongshan (35.7 µg/L), Jingmen (17.3 µg/L) and Nanhai (14.2 µg/L) were higher than that collected from other sampling sites (p <0.05), and exceed the Chinese environmental quality standards for surface water (DEHP, 8.00 µg/L). The concentrations of ΣPAEs (mean and median were 11.8 mg/kg dw and 7.95 mg/kg dw) in sediment was higher than that in sediment of river and estuary in the PRD region (p <0.05). The median concentrations of DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) exceeded recommend environmental risk limit (ERL) that posed a potential risk to the aquaculture fish pond environment in the PRD.

12.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 29(12): 189, 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535725

RESUMO

The applications of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) in tissue engineering have been widely studied. This study aimed to compare the biocompatibility and osteoinductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/PHBV composites with multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs)/PHBV composites. CNTs were dispersed in PHBV by ultrasonication and composites were created using thermal injection moulding. In order to test their biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. Rat osteoblasts (rOBs) were then cultured and seeded on the composites. The composites were implanted in rat femoral bone defects. Our results showed that lower weight percentages of SWCNTs and MWCNTs (2-4%) improved both their mechanical and thermal decomposition properties. However, further reduction of rOBs cell death was observed in MWCNTs/PHBV. SWCNTs were shown to upregulate the expression of Runx-2 and Bmp-2 in early stage significantly, while MWCNTs showed a stronger long-term effect on Opn and Ocn. The in vivo result was that MWCNTs/PHBV composites induced intact rounding new bone, increased integration with new bone, and earlier completed bone remodeling when compared with SWCNTs. Immunohistochemistry also detected higher expression of RUNX-2 around MWCNTs/PHBV composites. In conclusion, there were no differences observed between SWCNTs and MWCNTs in the reinforcement of PHBV, while MWCNTs/PHBV composites showed better biocompatibility and osteoinductivity both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Poliésteres/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Teste de Materiais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Life Sci ; 214: 153-157, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385177

RESUMO

Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not underlie all incidence of cardiovascular disease. In recent years, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that gut microbiota and its metabolites also play a pivotal role in the onset and development of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and myocardial fibrosis. Trillions of bacteria indwell the gastrointestinal tract and metabolize nutrients into trimethylamine-N-oxide, short-chain fatty acids and so on. Targeting these microorganisms and relevant metabolic pathways has beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease. This review will summarize the role of gut microbiota and its metabolites, mainly trimethylamine-N-oxide, in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, and discuss the possible mechanisms that drive cardiovascular diseases and highlight potential therapies in this field.

14.
Adv Mater ; : e1803428, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370954

RESUMO

Uniform and high-electronic-quality perovskite thin films are essential for high-performance perovskite devices. Here, it is shown that the 3-(decyldimethylammonio)-propane-sulfonate inner salt (DPSI), which is a sulfonic zwitterion, plays dual roles in tuning the crystallization behavior and passivating the defects of perovskites. The synergistic effect of crystallization control and defect passivation remarkably suppresses pinhole formation, reduces the charge trap density, and lengthens the carrier recombination lifetime, and thereafter boosts the small-area (0.08 cm2 ) planar perovskite device efficiency to 21.1% and enables a high efficiency of 18.3% for blade-coating large-area (1 cm2 ) devices. The device also shows good light stability, which remains at 88% of the initial efficiency under continuous unfiltered AM 1.5G light illumination for 480 h. These findings provide an avenue for simultaneous crystallization control and defect passivation to further improve the performance of perovskite devices.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(9): 904, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185776

RESUMO

The molecular mechanisms underlying the severe lung pathology that occurs during SARS-CoV infections remain incompletely understood. The largest of the SARS-CoV accessory protein open reading frames (SARS 3a) oligomerizes, dynamically inserting into late endosomal, lysosomal, and trans-Golgi-network membranes. While previously implicated in a non-inflammatory apoptotic cell death pathway, here we extend the range of SARS 3a pathophysiologic targets by examining its effects on necrotic cell death pathways. We show that SARS 3a interacts with Receptor Interacting Protein 3 (Rip3), which augments the oligomerization of SARS 3a helping drive necrotic cell death. In addition, by inserting into lysosomal membranes SARS 3a triggers lysosomal damage and dysfunction. Consequently, Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) translocates to the nucleus increasing the transcription of autophagy- and lysosome-related genes. Finally, SARS 3a activates caspase-1 either directly or via an enhanced potassium efflux, which triggers NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. In summary, Rip3-mediated oligomerization of SARS 3a causes necrotic cell death, lysosomal damage, and caspase-1 activation-all likely contributing to the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV infection.

16.
J Biol Chem ; 293(45): 17387-17401, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237170

RESUMO

Autophagy plays many physiological and pathophysiological roles. However, the roles and the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in response to viral infections are poorly defined in teleost fish, such as grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we found that both grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. idella kidney cells and stimulate autophagy. Suppressing ROS accumulation with N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly inhibited GCRV-induced autophagy activation and enhanced GCRV replication. Although ROS-induced autophagy, in turn, restricted GCRV replication, further investigation revealed that the multifunctional cellular protein high-mobility group box 1b (HMGB1b) serves as a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-dependent, pro-autophagic protein in grass carp. Upon H2O2 treatment, cytoplasmic HSP70 translocated to the nucleus, where it interacted with HMGB1b and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1b. Overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown assays indicated that HSP70 and HMGB1b synergistically enhance ROS-induced autophagic activation in the cytoplasm. Moreover, HSP70 reinforced an association of HMGB1b with the C. idella ortholog of Beclin 1 (a mammalian ortholog of the autophagy-associated yeast protein ATG6) by directly interacting with C. idella Beclin 1. In summary, this study highlights the antiviral function of ROS-induced autophagy in response to GCRV infection and reveals the positive role of HSP70 in HMGB1b-mediated autophagy initiation in teleost fish.

17.
J Periodontol ; 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is characterized by alveolar bone destruction and degenerative lesions of the periodontal ligament (PDL); it is initiated by bacterial infection of the oral cavity, but the clinical effects are secondary to an aberrant host immune response. Primary hypertension (PH), which causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, has also been shown to be an inflammatory disease characterized by aberrant immune cell infiltration and activation. Clinical retrospective studies have shown a link between PH and periodontitis with PH exacerbating periodontitis and vice versa, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for this remain unknown. METHODS: In this study, we investigate the underlying mechanisms behind PH exacerbation of periodontitis by using a bacteria-induced periodontitis model in normotensive and hypertensive (Nos3-/- ) mice treated with or without an Angiotensin II (Ang II) specific receptor 1 (AT1) antagonist, losartan. The histologic analyses including immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence were carried out. The qRT-PCR and ELISAs were applied for the target gene and protein detection. RESULTS: We find that PH worsens bone resorption and PDL destruction in periodontitis and that treatment with losartan, rescues this. We also show that PH increases dendritic cell (DC) and osteoclast (OC) infiltration in periodontitis, which is also dependent on Ang II. Finally, we show that PH augments the pro-inflammatory state in periodontitis infiltrating DCs in an Ang II-dependent manner and use in vitro studies to show that Ang II directly augments DC Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. CONCLUSION: Our studies show a central role for Ang II as a pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor mediator in the pathogenesis of PH-exacerbated periodontitis, indicating that Ang II may be a reasonable target in patients with PH and periodontitis comorbidity.

18.
Curr Med Sci ; 38(1): 19-25, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074147

RESUMO

Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) are attractive targets for tumor immunotherapy because of their tumor-specific expression. Since more than half of confirmed CTAs are located on the X-chromosome, we asked whether there is a link between CTA expression and X-chromosomes. Recent reports have shown that reactivation of the inactive X-chromosome, known as X-chromosome reactivation (XCR), a unique phenomenon that exists in many high-risk tumors in women, can transform the expression of many X-linked genes from monoallelic to biallelic. In this review, we discuss the link between CTA and XCR with the hopes of providing some novel insights into tumor biology.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Inativação do Cromossomo X , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(18): 17321-17329, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654456

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of mariculture on phthalate esters speciation and distribution in sediments and cultured fish in the Hong Kong regions and near mainland China. Concentrations of ∑phthalate esters in mariculture surface sediments (0 to 5 cm) ranged from 0.20 to 54.3 mg/kg dw (mean 10.3 mg/kg dw), with the highest recorded at M2 (20.4 mg/kg dw). Concentrations of phthalate esters were not significantly (p > 0.05) enriched in surface and sediment cores at mariculture sites relative to the reference sediments, 1 to 2 km away in areas without mariculture activities. Among different congeners, only butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) concentrations demonstrated a significant correlation (R2 = 0.40, p < 0.05) with TOC values of sediments. The median concentrations of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in the sediments were 1.57 and 6.96 times higher than the environmental risk levels (ERL), which may pose environmental risks. Results of health risk assessments revealed that the cultured fish (snubnose pompano, orange-spotted grouper, and red snapper) were safe for consumption, in terms of phthalate esters. This is the first study to assess the differences of phthalate esters contamination between mariculture and natural coastal sediments.

20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(9): 6383-6389, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29441376

RESUMO

Tetrathiafulvalenes (TTFs) are a class of important functional materials whose intermolecular interaction, which will contribute to constructing a supramolecular structure, still needs further understanding. In this study, the self-assembly behavior and structure of a series of TTFs bearing different alkyl chains and substituents were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Contrary to previous reports, herein, a series of benzoic acid-functionalized TTFs (CnTTFCOOH) and pyridine-functionalized TTFs (CnTTFN) with different lengths of alkyl chains have been substituted on the sulfur atom, where n is equal to 8, 10, 14, or 16. Due to the weak intra- and intermolecular interactions, CnTTFN (n = 8 and 10) molecules cannot be observed during STM scanning. For other cases, various self-assembled monolayers with different nanostructures were observed depending on different substituents. The results reveal that the alkyl chains and functional groups on the TTF skeleton synergistically affect the molecular self-assembly process, which results from the synergism of van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and SS interactions. These results not only help to explain the relationship between structures and properties, but also help to design better molecular structures for various fields.

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