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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219452

RESUMO

Solar steam generation is considered as an efficient way for addressing water shortage issues via seawater desalination and wastewater purification. In a solar evaporator, an absorber would convert optical energy to heat for evaporating nearby water. In this process, many low-boiling-point contaminants can also be evaporated along with water steam, which compromises the effectiveness of purification. There is, so far, no study on the removal of such low-boiling-point contaminants such as organic pesticides in wastewater. To address this problem, we demonstrate a versatile carbon hybrid aerogel (CHA) as a solar powered water purification platform. With an elaborate absorber design, the maximum solar evaporation rate of 2.1 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved under 1 sun illumination. More importantly, CHA can effectively suppress the evaporation of low-boiling-point contaminants including common pesticides and mercury ion via its strong adsorption and retention effect. Synergetic steaming and the adsorption of CHA will inspire more paradigms of solar steam generation technologies for applications relevant to detoxification and water remediation.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 30274-30283, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170100

RESUMO

In this work, an iron self-boosting polymer nanoenzyme was prepared by using pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid as a monomer and iron as an oxidizing agent via a simple and one-step method [hereafter referred to as FePPy nanoparticles (NPs)]. In fact, researchers previously paid negligible attention on the iron element during the polymerization reaction of polypyrrole, thus the intrinsically catalytic functions and enzymatic activities of the high iron content (wt %: 21.11%) are ignored and not fully explored. As expected, results demonstrate that the as-synthesized FePPy NPs can decompose H2O2 to generate hydroxyl radicals (•OH) which exhibit enzyme characteristics, further inducing a nonapoptotic ferroptosis pathway. Moreover, the nanoenzyme shows impressive photothermal properties which can accelerate the Fenton reactions to enhance ferroptosis. The combined photothermal and ferroptosis therapy of FePPy NPs was found to have high efficacy. With the properties of easy synthesis, high efficacy, and good biocompatibility, the FePPy NPs are considered as potential agents for cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Carboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Catálise , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Ferro/química , Ferro/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/efeitos da radiação , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos da radiação , Terapia Fototérmica , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/efeitos da radiação , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/efeitos da radiação , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Temperatura
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(40): 4902-4905, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870972

RESUMO

A bromine-substituted thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) molecule AQCzBr2 is designed with both small singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) and increased spin-orbit coupling (SOC) to boost intersystem crossing (ISC) for singlet oxygen generation. AQCzBr2 nanoparticles (NPs) demonstrate high productivity of singlet oxygen generation (ΦΔ = 0.91) which allows highly efficient photodynamic therapy toward cancer cells.

4.
Nanoscale ; 13(17): 8012-8016, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884397

RESUMO

While photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer has attracted much recent attention, its general applications are limited by the shallow tissue penetration depth of short-wavelength photons and the low oxygen contents in typical solid tumors. Herein, we develop small molecule (BthB)-based nanoparticles (NPs) which not only generate heat for effective photothermal therapy (PTT), but also generate superoxide radicals (O2˙-) for hypoxia-overcoming photodynamic therapy (PDT) upon irradiation with an 808 nm laser. To the best of our knowledge, there are few reports of organic PDT agents which can work in hypoxia upon irradiation with photons having wavelengths longer than 800 nm. With the merits of NIR-excitability for better penetration depth, the BthB NPs are demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo to be highly effective for cancer ablation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Hipóxia , Nanomedicina , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Oxigênio Singlete , Superóxidos
5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(21): 11758-11762, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724623

RESUMO

Extensive recent efforts have been put on the design of high-performance organic near-infrared (NIR) photothermal agents (PTAs), especially over NIR-II bio-window (1000-1350 nm). So far, the development is mainly limited by the rarity of molecules with good NIR-II response. Here, we report organic nanoparticles of intermolecular charge-transfer complexes (CTCs) with easily programmable optical absorption. By employing different common donor and acceptor molecules to form CTC nanoparticles (CT NPs), absorption peaks of CT NPs can be controllably tuned from the NIR-I to NIR-II region. Notably, CT NPs formed with perylene and TCNQ have a considerably red-shifted absorption peak at 1040 nm and achieves a good photothermal conversion efficiency of 42 % under 1064 nm excitation. These nanoparticles were used for antibacterial application with effective activity towards both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This work opens a new avenue into the development of efficient PTAs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/efeitos da radiação , Derivados de Benzeno/química , Derivados de Benzeno/farmacologia , Derivados de Benzeno/efeitos da radiação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Infravermelhos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/efeitos da radiação , Nitrilas/química , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Nitrilas/efeitos da radiação , Perileno/química , Perileno/farmacologia , Perileno/efeitos da radiação , Compostos Policíclicos/química , Compostos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Compostos Policíclicos/efeitos da radiação , Solubilidade , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletricidade Estática/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/efeitos da radiação , Água/química
6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(5): 2478-2484, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080106

RESUMO

Developing red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters for high-performance OLEDs is still facing great challenge. Herein, three red TADF emitters, pDBBPZ-DPXZ, pDTBPZ-DPXZ, and oDTBPZ-DPXZ, are designed and synthesized with same donor-acceptor (D-A) backbone with different peripheral groups attaching on the A moieties. Their lowest triplet states change from locally excited to charge transfer character leading to significantly enhance reverse intersystem crossing process. In particular, oDTBPZ-DPXZ exhibits efficient TADF feature and exciton utilization. It not only achieves an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 20.1 % in red vacuum-processed OLED, but also realize a high EQE of 18.5 % in a solution-processed OLED, which is among the best results in solution-processed red TADF OLEDs. This work provides an effective strategy for designing red TADF molecules by managing energy level alignments to facilitate the up-conversion process and thus enhance exciton harvesting.

7.
Small ; 16(47): e2004551, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125185

RESUMO

Water-splitting has been extensively studied especially for energy applications. It is often not paid with enough attention for biomedical applications. In fact, several innovative breakthroughs have been achieved in the past few years by employing water-splitting for treating cancer and other diseases. Interestingly, among these important works, only two reports have mentioned the term "water-splitting." For this reason, the importance of water-splitting for biomedical applications is significantly underestimated. This progress work is written with the aims to explain and summarize how the principle of water-splitting is employed to achieve therapeutic results not offered by conventional approaches. It is expected that this progress report will not only explain the importance of water-splitting to scientists in the biomedical fields, it should also draw attention from scientists working on energy applications of water-splitting.


Assuntos
Terapêutica , Água , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias/terapia , Terapêutica/métodos , Terapêutica/tendências , Água/química
8.
ACS Nano ; 14(8): 9917-9928, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706236

RESUMO

Effective multimodality phototheranostics under deep-penetration laser excitation is highly desired for tumor medicine, which is still at a deadlock due to lack of versatile photosensitizers with absorption located in the long-wavelength region. Herein, we demonstrate a stable organic photosensitizer nanoparticle based on molecular engineering of benzo[c]thiophene (BT)-based photoactivated molecules with strong wavelength-tunable absorption in the near-infrared region. Via molecular design, the absorption and singlet oxygen generation of BT molecules would be reliably tuned. Importantly, the nanoparticles with a red-shifted absorption peak of 843 nm not only show over 10-fold reactive oxygen species yield compared with indocyanine green but also demonstrate a notable photothermal effect and photoacoustic signal upon 808 nm excitation. The in vitro and in vivo experiments substantiate good multimodal anticancer efficacy and imaging performance of BT theranostics. This work provides an organic photosensitizer nanoparticle with long-wavelength excitation and high photoenergy conversion efficiency for multimodality phototherapy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Fototerapia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
9.
Small ; 16(34): e2002672, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697430

RESUMO

Multi-modality imaging-guided cancer therapy is considered as a powerful theranostic platform enabling simultaneous precise diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, recently reported multifunctional systems with multiple components and sophisticate structures remain major obstacles for further clinical translation. In this work, a single-photomolecular theranostic nanoplatform is fabricated via a facile nanoprecipitation strategy. By encapsulating a semiconductor oligomer (IT-S) into an amphiphilic lipid, water-dispersible IT-S nanoparticles (IT-S NPs) are prepared. The obtained IT-S NPs have a very simple construction and possess ultra-stable near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence (FL)/photoacoustic (PA) dual-modal imaging and high photothermal conversion efficiency of 72.3%. Accurate spatiotemporal distribution profiles of IT-S NPs are successfully visualized by NIR FL/PA dual-modal imaging. With the comprehensive in vivo imaging information provided by IT-S NPs, tumor photothermal ablation is readily realized under precise manipulation of laser irradiation, which greatly improves the therapeutic efficacy without any obvious side effects. Therefore, the IT-S NPs allow high tumor therapeutic efficacy under the precise guidance of FL/PA imaging techniques and thus hold great potential as an effective theranostic platform for future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Imagem Óptica , Fototerapia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
10.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 877, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a serious heavy metal (HM) soil pollutant. To alleviate or even eliminate HM pollution in soil, environmental-friendly methods are applied. One is that special plants are cultivated to absorb the HM in the contaminated soil. As an excellent economical plant with ornamental value and sound adaptability, V. bonariensis could be adapted to this very situation. In our study, the Cd tolerance in V. bonariensis was analyzed as well as an overall analysis of transcriptome. RESULTS: In this study, the tolerance of V. bonariensis to Cd stress was investigated in four aspects: germination, development, physiological changes, and molecular alterations. The results showed that as a non-hyperaccumulator, V. bonariensis did possess the Cd tolerance and the capability to concentration Cd. Under Cd stress, all 237, 866 transcripts and 191, 370 unigenes were constructed in the transcriptome data of V. bonariensis roots. The enrichment analysis of gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under Cd stress were predominately related to cell structure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system, chelating reaction and secondary metabolites, transpiration and photosynthesis. DEGs encoding lignin synthesis, chalcone synthase (CHS) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were prominent in V. bonariensis under Cd stress. The expression patterns of 10 DEGs, validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), were in highly accordance with the RNA-Sequence (RNA-Seq) results. The novel strategies brought by our study was not only benefit for further studies on the tolerance of Cd and functional genomics in V. bonariensis, but also for the improvement molecular breeding and phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Transcriptoma , Verbena/efeitos dos fármacos , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transpiração Vegetal/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Verbena/genética , Verbena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verbena/metabolismo
11.
ACS Nano ; 13(11): 12901-12911, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682416

RESUMO

We developed a biodegradable photothermal therapeutic (PTT) agent, π-conjugated oligomer nanoparticles (F8-PEG NPs), for highly efficient cancer theranostics. By exploiting an oligomer with excellent near-infrared (NIR) absorption, the nanoparticles show a high photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 82%, surpassing those of reported inorganic and organic PTT agents. In addition, the oligomer nanoparticles show excellent photostability and good biodegradability. The F8-PEG NPs are also demonstrated to have excellent biosafety and PTT efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. This contribution not only proposes a promising oligomer-based PTT agent but also provides insight into developing highly efficient nanomaterials for cancer theranostics.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/terapia , Fototerapia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
12.
Small ; 15(38): e1903121, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379108

RESUMO

The combination of diagnostic and therapeutic functions in a single theranostic nanoagent generally requires the integration of multi-ingredients. Herein, a cytotoxic near-infrared (NIR) dye (IR-797) and its nanoassembly are reported for multifunctional cancer theranostics. The hydrophobic IR-797 molecules are self-assembled into nanoparticles, which are further modified with an amphiphilic polymer (C18PMH-PEG5000) on the surface. The prepared PEG-IR-797 nanoparticles (PEG-IR-797 NPs) possess inherent cytotoxicity from the IR-797 dye and work as a chemotherapeutic drug which induces apoptosis of cancer cells. The IR-797 NPs are found to have an ultrahigh mass extinction coefficient (444.3 L g-1 cm-1 at 797 nm and 385.9 L g-1 cm-1 at 808 nm) beyond all reported organic nanomaterials (<40 L g-1 cm-1 ) for superior photothermal therapy (PTT). In addition, IR-797 shows some aggregation-induced-emission (AIE) properties. Combining the merits of good NIR absorption, high photothermal energy conversion efficiency, and AIE, makes the PEG-IR-797 NPs useful for multimodal NIR AIE fluorescence, photoacoustic, and thermal imaging-guided therapy. The research exhibits the possibility of using a single ingredient and entity to perform multimodal NIR fluorescence, photoacoustic, and thermal imaging-guided chemo-/photothermal combination therapy, which may trigger wide interest from the fields of nanomedicine and medicinal chemistry to explore multifunctional theranostic organic molecules.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Polímeros/química
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(32): 29086-29093, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329407

RESUMO

Development of red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters has been lagging behind when compared with those of blue and green fluorophores, especially for solution-processable ones. In this work, two novel orange-red TADF emitters 3,6-di(10H-phenoxazin-10-yl)dibenzo[a,c]phenazine (DBPZ-DPXZ) and 10,10'-(11,12-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)dibenzo[a,c]phenazine-3,6-diyl)bis(10H-phenoxazine) (tDBBPZ-DPXZ) are developed. A high-performance orange-red TADF emitter, DBPZ-DPXZ, is first prepared by connecting a rigid acceptor and two rigid donor segments. While this design strategy endows DBPZ-DPXZ with an excellent TADF performance leading to a vacuum-processed organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 17.8%, the rigid segments limit its solubility and applications in solution-processed devices. Based on this prototype, tDBBPZ-DPXZ is designed with the addition of 3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl groups to boost its solubility with barely an influence on the photophysical properties. In particular, tDBBPZ-DPXZ maintains nearly an identical photoluminescence quantum yield of 83% and singlet-triplet energy splitting of 0.03 eV with EQE of 17.0% in a vacuum-processed orange-red OLED. Furthermore, it can be applied on the orange-red solution-processed OLED realizing an EQE as high as 10.1%, representing one of the state-of-the-art results of the reported orange-red solution-processed TADF-OLEDs. This work provides an effective strategy to address the conflicting requirements between high efficiency and good solubility and develop efficient soluble orange-red TADF emitters.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(41): 14660-14665, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313424

RESUMO

Developing red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters, attainable for both high-efficient red organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and non-doped deep red/near-infrared (NIR) OLEDs, is challenging. Now, two red emitters, BPPZ-PXZ and mDPBPZ-PXZ, with twisted donor-acceptor structures were designed and synthesized to study molecular design strategies of high-efficiency red TADF emitters. BPPZ-PXZ employs the strictest molecular restrictions to suppress energy loss and realizes red emission with a photoluminescence quantum yield (ΦPL ) of 100±0.8 % and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 25.2 % in a doped OLED. Its non-doped OLED has an EQE of 2.5 % owing to unavoidable intermolecular π-π interactions. mDPBPZ-PXZ releases two pyridine substituents from its fused acceptor moiety. Although mDPBPZ-PXZ realizes a lower EQE of 21.7 % in the doped OLED, its non-doped device shows a superior EQE of 5.2 % with a deep red/NIR emission at peak of 680 nm.

15.
J Mater Chem B ; 6(22): 3692-3702, 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32254832

RESUMO

Photo/chemo combination therapy has been demonstrated to be a generally more powerful strategy for treating cancers than a single treatment modality. However, it is unknown whether the timing of light irradiation has any impact on therapeutic efficacy. We designed a carrier-free and self-monitoring nanodrug to monitor the entire dual-drug release profile and determined the impact of photodynamic therapy (PDT) at different time points. The designed nanodrug consists of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) and the photosensitizer pheophorbide A (PhA). The drugs form a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair (DOX transferring energy to PhA) when present at a precise ratio in the combination nanodrug. Due to the FRET effect, the DOX-PhA nanoparticles (NPs) show PhA fluorescence in a normal pH environment (such as cytoplasm). However, the FRET effect is lost when the NPs are disassembled in an acidic environment (such as lysosomes), and the DOX fluorescence is recovered. By real-time fluorescence variation monitoring, we determined the key time points when the drugs reached various subcellular locations, which helped us to determine the PDT-triggering time points and investigate the impact on the therapeutic effect in the combination therapy. Furthermore, the PDT was triggered at these established time points both in vitro and in vivo, which revealed that the best PDT-triggering time point in the combination therapy was achieved after nuclear entry of DOX. The study suggests that the optimization of combination therapy, not only photo/chemo but also chemo/chemo combination therapy, may require not only a controlled drug ratio but also a controlled drug release profile and target arrival time.

16.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 15(1): 80, 2017 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidences indicate that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) could induce adverse vascular effects, but the role of length of MWCNTs in determining the toxic effects is less studied. This study investigated the adverse effects of two well-characterized MWCNTs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: The internalization and localization of MWCNTs in HUVECs were examined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of MWCNTs to HUVECs was assessed by water soluble tetrazolium-8 (WST-8), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neutral red uptake assays. Oxidative stress was indicated by the measurement of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). ELISA was used to determine the release of inflammatory cytokines. THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs was also measured. To indicate the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the expression of ddit3 and xbp-1s was measured by RT-PCR, and BiP protein level was measured by Western blot. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy observation indicates the internalization of MWCNTs into HUVECs, with a localization in nuclei and mitochondria. The longer MWCNTs induced a higher level of cytotoxicity to HUVECs compared with the shorter ones. Neither of MWCNTs significantly promoted intracellular ROS, but the longer MWCNTs caused a higher depletion of GSH. Exposure to both types of MWCNTs significantly promoted THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs, accompanying with a significant increase of release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) or soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1). Moreover, THP-1 adhesion and release of IL-6 and sVCAM-1 induced by the longer MWCNTs were significantly higher compared with the responses induced by the shorter ones. The biomarker of ER stress, ddit3 expression, but not xbp-1s expression or BiP protein level, was significantly induced by the exposure of longer MWCNTs. CONCLUSIONS: Combined, these results indicated length dependent toxic effects of MWCNTs to HUVECs in vitro, which might be associated with oxidative stress and activation of ER stress.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Glutationa/antagonistas & inibidores , Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células THP-1 , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/genética , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo
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