Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 603
Filtrar
1.
Environ Res ; : 111071, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798515

RESUMO

Anxiety, a common and devastating mental disorder, has raised widespread interests. The impacts of air pollution on physical health are well known, whereas few studies have explored the association of atmospheric pollution, especially short-term air pollution exposure, with the risk of anxiety disorders. In addition, there are increasing concerns in emerging evidence supporting a possible etiological link. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the relationship between short-term exposure to atmospheric pollutants and anxiety outpatient visits in Xi'an, a city of northwestern China and a metropolis with relatively heavy air pollution. We collected the data of both daily outpatient visits and daily air pollution (SO2, NO2, and PM10) between January 1, 2010 and January 31, 2016 (2,222 days). To clarify the association between short-term ambient atmospheric pollution exposure and anxiety outpatient visits, an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was applied by adjusting the day of the week and weather conditions (including temperature, humidity, sunlight hours, and rainfalls). Positive association between gaseous air pollutants (SO2 and NO2) and anxiety daily outpatient visits was observed. Moreover, the largest estimated values of both SO2 and NO2 were evidence at lag 03 (4-day moving average lag), with 10 µg/m3 increase corresponded to the increase of outpatient anxiety visits at 4.11% (95% CI: 2.15%, 6.06%) for SO2 and 3.97% (95% CI: 1.90%, 6.06%) for NO2. However, there was no differences in susceptibility to air pollutants between different genders as well as different ages. Taken together, short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants, especially gaseous air pollutants (NO2 and SO2), can be related to higher risk of anxiety outpatient visits.

2.
Mol Oncol ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811456

RESUMO

Glioma cells are characterized by high migration and invasion ability, however the molecular mechanism behind both processes still remain to be investigated. Several studies have demonstrated that ubiquitin specific protease 39 (USP39) plays an oncogenic role in various cancer types. Here, we investigated the expression and function of USP39 in patients with glioma. Oncomine database analysis revealed that high USP39 expression significantly correlated with poor overall survival in patients with glioma. Knockdown of USP39 in U251 and U87 cell lines significantly inhibited their migration and invasion in vitro. Gene expression profiling of glioma cells transduced with shRNA against USP39 revealed that ADAM9, a molecule previously related to tumor cell migration and invasion, was significantly downregulated. Further on, USP39 induced ADAM9 mRNA maturation and decreased the expression of integrin ß1. Additionally, overexpression of ADAM9 inhibited the migration and invasion of glioma cells caused by USP39 depletion in vitro. USP39 promoted the invasion of glioma cells in vivo and reduced the overall survival of the mice. Altogether, our data shows that USP39 induces mRNA maturation and elevates the expression of ADAM9 in glioma cells and may thus be considered as potential target for treating patients with glioma.

3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1157: 338394, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832585

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) is a critical biomarker for a variety of neurological diseases. Methods for simple and rapid DA detection are crucial for clinical diagnosis and treatments for those diseases. In this work, we developed a novel pretreatment-free method for dopamine detection using carbon dots as a turn-on fluorescent probe synthesized in situ. The aminosilane-functionalized carbon dots (SiCDs) were produced in a mild condensation reaction between N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (AEATMS) and dopamine, which were directly used for probing of dopamine. The prepared SiCDs exhibited green fluorescence with excitation/emission maximum at 380/495 nm, the intensity of which can be measured to quantify the DA present in the reaction mixture. The linear range of the assay was between 0.1 and 100 µM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 56.2 nM. The probe is of good selectivity and the recoveries of the developed method were in the range of 101.77-119.91% with RSDs within 3.67% in human serum sample tests. The SiCDs were also synthesized within MN9D cells under 37 °C and generated bright fluorescence, which can probe the DA's distribution in the cells. The described method exhibit potential in DA detection and live-cell imaging for its feature of facility, inexpensiveness, and sensitivity.

4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 932-940, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742889

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is easily enriched in rice, resulting in an excessive Cd content in the grain, which seriously threatens human health. Manganese (Mn) is an essential element of plants. In a field experiment on Cd-contaminated acid soils, we investigated the effectiveness and mechanism of Mn in minimizing Cd accumulation in rice via foliar spraying using 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% nano-MnO2 solutions at an early stage of heading. Compared with a control treatment, foliar spraying effectively reduced the Cd content of rice leaves, husks, and brown rice; increased the Mn content of all rice organs; but had no effect on rice yield. Foliar application of nano-MnO2 alleviated the plant stress induced by Cd by improving leaf photosynthesis, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and increasing the content of the oxidative stress protein kinase. In addition, foliar application of nano-MnO2 limited the absorption of Cd by roots by increasing the content of iron-manganese plaque on the surfaces of rice roots and strengthening its adsorption/co-precipitation of Cd. Therefore, foliar application of nano-MnO2 during the early stages of rice heading is an effective measure to increase the Mn content and reduce the Cd content of brown rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 181: 113149, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713951

RESUMO

Chlorothalonil (CHL), imidacloprid (IMI) and oxyfluorfen (OXY) are commonly used in combination to increase crop yield. However, these three pesticides are toxic to aquatic organisms and do not easily degrade. In this study, a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow assay (SERS-LFA) test strip was prepared by combining antibodies with SERS nanotags, and then competitive immune binding was used to detect the three pesticides simultaneously. Moreover, the two-way binding effect of ssDNA-streptavidin bound to Ag4-NTP@AuNPs and Ag4-NTP@AuNPs with antibodies was used to further amplify the detection signal. Under the optimal conditions, the SERS-LFA test strips exhibited high sensitivity, a low detection limit, short detection time, high specificity and low cost. Furthermore, the detection range was within the values prescribed by international detection standards. By measuring the intensity of the SERS signal on the test line of the paper strip, accurate quantitative analysis was achieved. The practical application of the proposed system was demonstrated by simultaneous detection of CHL, IMI and OXY in environmental and food samples with satisfactory results.

6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1156: 338359, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781459

RESUMO

Ligand fishing for screening of enzyme inhibitors from complex chemical systems using baits prepared by cell surface display of the enzyme is herein demonstrated for the first time. Tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), used as a model enzyme in this work, is displayed on the surface of E. coli cells by using ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. Infusion of PTP1B is characterized by western blot, immunofluorescence, proteinase K accessibility, and enzyme activity assays. Surface displayed PTP1B exhibits a maximum of 5.62 ± 0.251 U/OD600 enzymatic activity and a better stability compared with free enzyme. PTP1B displayed cells are used as solid-phase extraction adsorbent in combination with HPLC-MS to screen the inhibitors from the extracts of Rhodiola rosea, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. Among many well-known active ingredients only arbutin is fished out with an IC50 value of 20.5 ± 0.873 µM, showing the inhibitor screening is highly selective. Furthermore, the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of the complex of arbutin and PTP1B was determined to be 79.6 µM by localized surface plasma resonance (LSPR) assay. The proposed ligand fishing technique using recombinant cells as baits opens a new avenue for screening of active compounds from natural products with accuracy and specificity.

7.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 808-812, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649283
8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(9): 5652-5664, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656501

RESUMO

To develop solid-state light-emitting materials with high luminescence efficiency, determining the potential photophysics and luminescence mechanisms of the aggregation state remains a challenge and a priority. Here, we apply density functional theory to study the photophysical properties of a series of square planar Pt(ii) complexes in both monomeric and dimeric forms. We reveal that four monomeric Pt(ii) complexes are dominated by triplet ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer, and the lack of the triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer feature results in weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which leads to limited radiative rates; moreover, calculated nonradiative transition rates are one or two orders of magnitude higher than those radiative rates because a large amount of reorganization energy caused by the vibration of the bipyrazolate (bipz) ligand cannot be readily suppressed in the monomeric form. Therefore, four monomers exhibit photoluminescence quenching in CH2Cl2 solution in both theoretical calculations and experiments. However, in the solid state, the intense luminescence phenomenon indicates obviously distinct properties between the monomer and aggregation. We carried out a dimer model to interpret that the interaction of PtPt induces a metal-metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excimeric state, which leads more metal components to participate in the charge transfer and enhance the SOC effect. At the same time, the ligand vibration can be significantly reduced by the shortened distance, and there is a strong π-π packing interaction in the dimer; thus, an excellent quantum yield can be achieved in aggregation. In addition, we disclose that introducing bulky substituents bearing electron-donating groups at R' and R'' positions have little effect on the properties of the monomers; however, there is a benefit of restricting the internal reorganization energy through the intermolecular interaction when packing in the solid state. Therefore, substitutions can be tuned to improve the properties of monomers (such as emission energy and reorganization energy). We hope that our work will shine some light on Pt(ii) emitters in the fabrication of efficient OLEDs.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116863, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735794

RESUMO

Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4) is a type II acute-phase protein; however, the role of pulmonary ITIH4 after exposure to air pollution remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of ITIH4 in the lungs in response to air pollution. ITIH4 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) of 47 healthy human subjects and of Sprague-Dawley rats whole-body exposed to air pollution was determined, and the underlying antiapoptotic and matrix-stabilizing pathways in alveolar epithelial A549 cells induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) as well as ITIH4-knockdown were investigated. We found that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a decrease of 2.673 ng/mL in ITIH4, an increase of 1.104 pg/mL of 8-isoprostane, and an increase of 6.918 pg/mL of interleukin (IL)-6 in human BAL. In rats, increases in 8-isoprostane, IL-6, and p53 and a decrease in sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) in the lungs and decreases in ITIH4 in the BAL, lungs, and serum were observed after PM2.5 and gaseous exposure. ITIH4 levels in lung lysates were correlated with levels in BAL samples (r = 0.377, p < 0.01), whereas ITIH4 levels in BAL were correlated with IL-6 levels (r = -0.420, p < 0.01). ITIH4 expression was significantly reduced in alveolar epithelial A549 cells by DEP in a dose-dependent manner. A decrease in Sirt1 and increases in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and caspase-3 were observed after DEP exposure and ITIH4-knockdown. In conclusion, air pollution decreased ITIH4 expression in the lungs, which was associated with alveolar epithelial cell senescence and apoptosis. ITIH4 could be a vital protein in regulating alveolar cell destruction and its inhibition after exposure to air pollution.

10.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 158-166, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582921

RESUMO

Myocardial fiber deformation measurements have been reported to be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with acute heart failure and those with myocardial infarction. However, few studies have addressed the prognostic value of global circumferential strain (GCS) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients with severely impaired systolic function. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived GCS in DCM patients with severely reduced ejection. Consecutive DCM patients with severely reduced ejection fraction (EF <35%) who underwent CMR were included. GCS was calculated from CMR cine images. The clinical endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, heart transplantation, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation and aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD). A total of 129 patients with a mean EF of 15.33% (11.36%-22.27%) were included. During a median follow-up of 518 days, endpoint events occurred in 50 patients. Patients with GCS ≥ the median (-5.17%) had significantly reduced event-free survival as compared with those with GCS < the median (P<0.01). GCS was independently associated with adverse events after adjusting for clinical and imaging risk factors including extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (P<0.05). Adding GCS into the model including the extent of LGE resulted in significant improvements in the C-statistic (from 0.706 to 0.742; P<0.05) with a continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) of 29.71%. It was concluded that GCS derived from CMR could be useful for risk stratification in DCM patients with severely reduced EF, which may increase common imaging risk factors including LGE.

11.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 22(2): 136-148, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535877

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to identify the potential risk of circulating-HPV-DNA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to analyze abnormally expressed miRNAs in circulating HPV-DNA-positive NSCLC. HPV universal primers were used to detect the presence of HPV-DNA in the peripheral blood of 100 patients with NSCLC. The relationship between circulating-HPV-DNA and NSCLC patients characteristics was analyzed. Then, eight differentially expressed miRNAs in NSCLC were screened based on the TCGA database. The levels of miRNAs in circulating HPV-DNA-positive NSCLC patients were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. ROC curves were generated to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Circulating-HPV-DNA was found in 16 patients. The proportion of HPV-DNA-positive patients with poorly differentiated NSCLC, advanced lung cancer and lymph node metastasis was higher than that of HPV-DNA-negative patients. The levels of miR-183, miR-210 and miR-182 were significantly higher and miR-144 was significantly lower in HPV-DNA-positive NSCLC than those in HPV-DNA-negative NSCLC patients. When using a single miRNA to identify circulating HPV-DNA-positive NSCLC patients, miR-210 had a higher area under the ROC curve (AUC) than other miRNAs, and its sensitivity and specificity were also higher. In addition, the combination of two miRNAs was more effective than a single miRNA. Among them, miR-210+ miR-144 had the highest AUC value and showed the best prediction performance. Circulating-HPV-DNA may serve as a risk factor in NSCLC. Plasma miR-183, miR-210, miR-182 and miR-144 can be used as reliable biomarkers to identify circulating HPV-DNA-positive NSCLC.

12.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 67, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital primary inguinal hernia is a common condition among children. Although much literature regarding inguinal hernia is available, large scale analysis are few, and rarely do they expand on gender difference or incarcerated hernias. METHODS: Patients with unilateral or bilateral inguinal hernia who were admitted to our hospital and received open inguinal hernia repair (OIHR) or laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR) under general anesthesia were included. LIHR was performed using single-site laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure (SLPEC). Medical records were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 12,190 patients were included in this study. The ratio of male to female was 4.8:1. There was a total of 10,646 unilateral hernias (87.3%) and 1544 bilateral hernias (12.7%), with a corresponding ratio of 6.9:1. 12,444 hernia repair surgeries, 11,083 (89.1%) OIHR and 1361 (10.9%) LIHR, were held. OIHR had a shorter operative time than LIHR for all unilateral and female bilateral repair, unlike for bilateral male repair. There was no difference between OIHR and LIHR for ipsilateral recurrent hernia in males. There was a difference between OIHR and LIHR for metachronous contralateral hernia. Incarcerated inguinal hernia was associated with longer operative time, hospital stay and higher hospital costs. Females and patients under 1 year were more likely to present with incarcerated hernia. CONCLUSIONS: OIHR should be considered for male patients, especially for unilateral and complete inguinal hernia. LIHR is highly recommended for female patients. For incarcerated hernia, attention should be paid to patients under 1 year old, as they can be 60 times more susceptible, and females. Surgeons should also be aware of ovary hernias in females.


Assuntos
Hérnia Inguinal , Herniorrafia , Laparoscopia , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hérnia Inguinal/complicações , Hérnia Inguinal/congênito , Hérnia Inguinal/epidemiologia , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Herniorrafia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 193(4): 1129-1146, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411133

RESUMO

A preliminary screening assay based on a microbial chromogenic reaction was developed to detect common antibiotic residues in meat rapidly. The assay comprised two bioassays: one for Escherichia coli and another for Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The assay was optimized and evaluated for the simultaneous screening of 30 antibiotics from five common antibiotic classes (tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides, ß-lactams, and quinolones) found in meat. Extraction using phosphate-acetonitrile buffer (pH 7.2) and a delipidating treatment using n-hexane resulted in a high extraction efficacy for the five antibiotics, without affecting the microbial color reaction. A carrier, polyvinyl alcohol (0.1 g/mL); a cross-linking agent, boric acid-sodium tetraborate solution (pH 5.5); and a bacterial suspension with an initial optical density of 1.0 were the optimal embedding conditions for stability, microbial activity, and chromogenic efficiency. The assay exhibited a 6-month shelf life, with detection limits of 40-60, 60-140, 60-100, 20-40, and 40-180 µg/kg for tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides, ß-lactams, and quinolones, respectively, which met the European Commission (37/2010) requirements for antibiotic residue limits. Our assay results were confirmed using LC-MS/MS with 160 samples, revealing a good correlation. This study demonstrates a reliable, easy-to-use, and economical method for preliminary screening of antibiotic residues in meat. This method may find an immediate application in food safety and general testing laboratories.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492119

RESUMO

Nanocarbon materials have been widely used for nanoelectronics and energy-related applications. In this work, composite films consisting of reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are synthesized and studied for their in-plane thermal conductivities. Different from pristine carbon nanotubes or graphene with decreased thermal conductivities above 300 K, the in-plane thermal conductivities of these composite films are found to follow the trend of the specific heat of graphene from 100 to 400 K, i.e., monotonously increasing at elevated temperatures. Such a trend can often be found within amorphous solids but has seldom been observed for nanocarbon. This unique temperature dependence of thermal conductivities is attributed to the largely restricted phonon mean free paths within the graphene sheets that mainly contribute to the in-plane thermal transport. The highest in-plane thermal conductivity among samples with different synthesis conditions is 62.8 W/(m·K) at 300 K. Such a high thermal conductivity, combined with its unique temperature dependency, can be ideal for applications such as flexible film-like thermal diodes based on the junction between two materials with a large contrast for their temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity.

15.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 83(2): 197-210, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484388

RESUMO

The structures of arthropod bacterial communities are complex. These microbiotas usually provide many beneficial services to their hosts, whereas occasionally they may be parasitical. To date, little is known about the bacterial communities of Tetranychus truncatus and the factors contributing to the structure of its bacterial communities are unexplored yet. Here, we used four symbiont-infected T. truncatus strains-including one Wolbachia and Spiroplasma co-infected strain, two symbiont singly-infected strains and one symbiont uninfected strain-to investigate the influence of endosymbionts on the structure of the host mites' microbiota. Based on 16S rRNA genes sequencing analysis, we found Wolbachia and Spiroplasma were the two most abundant bacteria in T. truncatus and the presence of both symbionts could not change the diversity of bacterial communities (based on alpha-diversity indexes such as ACE, Chao1, Shannon and Simpson diversity index). Symbiont infection did alter the abundance of many other bacterial genera, such as Megamonas and Bacteroides. The structures of bacterial communities differed significantly among symbiont-infected strains. These results suggested a prominent effect of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma on bacterial communities of the host T. truncatus. These findings advance our understanding of T. truncatus microbiota and will be helpful for further study on bacterial communities of spider mites.


Assuntos
Spiroplasma , Tetranychidae , Wolbachia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Spiroplasma/genética , Simbiose , Tetranychidae/genética , Wolbachia/genética
16.
Biochimie ; 182: 131-139, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460767

RESUMO

Tryptophan (Trp) metabolism is associated with diverse biological processes, including nerve conduction, inflammation, and the immune response. The majority of free Trp is broken down through the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway (KP), in which indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) catalyze the rate-limiting step. Clinical studies have demonstrated that Trp metabolism promotes tumor progression due to modulation of the immunosuppressive microenvironment through multiple mechanisms. In this process, IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) exhibit tolerogenic potential and orchestrate T cell immune responses. Various signaling molecules control IDO expression, initiating the immunoregulatory pathway of Trp catabolism. Based on these characteristics, KP enzymes and catabolites are emerging as significant prognostic indicators and potential therapeutic targets of cancer. The physiological and oncologic roles of Trp metabolism are briefly summarized here, along with great challenges for treatment strategies.

17.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459059

RESUMO

1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucopyranose (ß-PGG) is a compound commonly available in vegetables and fruits. It exhibited potential inhibition of α-glucosidase and hypoglycemic effect in vivo. This study explored its dynamics properties inhibiting α-glucosidase by Lineweaver - Burk plots, spectral analysis, docking analysis, and molecular dynamics simulations. ß-PGG showed a mix-type inhibition when it was interacting with α-glucosidase. The fluorescence quenching indicated that the PGG-glucosidase complex formed in a spontaneous exothermic process and was driven by enthalpy. The synchronous fluorescence and ECD spectra indicate that ß-PGG induced and changed the enzyme conformation in the complex formation. Docking results revealed multiple hydrogen bonds between the phenols and the amino acid residues. Further dynamic simulations indicated that the residues Asp345, Phe153, Arg435, Glu300, Pro305, and Phe296 played a more critical role in the interactions between ß-PGG and α-glucosidase.

18.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 12: 213-233, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317320

RESUMO

Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. are best understood for their applications as probiotics, which are often transient, but as commensals it is probable that stable colonization in the gut is important for their beneficial roles. Recent research suggests that the establishment and persistence of strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the gut are species- and strain-specific and affected by natural history, genomic adaptability, and metabolic interactions of the bacteria and the microbiome and immune aspects of the host but also regulated by diet. This provides new perspectives on the underlying molecular mechanisms. With an emphasis on host-microbe interaction, this review outlines how the characteristics of individual Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium bacteria, the host genotype and microbiome structure,diet, and host-microbe coadaptation during bacterial gut transition determine and influence the colonization process. The diet-tuned and personally tailored colonization can be achieved via a machine learning prediction model proposed here.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123911, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264964

RESUMO

Reclaimed asphalt binder (RAB) releases large amounts ·of hazardous sulfur-containing gases during combustion. This study attempts to introduce wood sawdust (WS) as an in-situ inhibitor of sulfur release during the combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) blended with RAB-WS. The combustion characteristics, gaseous sulfur-containing products, interactions and combustion kinetics of RDF were investigated through thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry (TG-MS), and the mechanisms on migration and distribution of sulfur were revealed. Results indicated that WS additive inhibits the volatilization of light components and promotes the degradation of macromolecular components. WS addition improved the combustibility, burnout performance and combustion stability of RAB. The sulfur release of RAB-based RDF was mainly derived from resins and asphaltenes. WS addition generally decreased all gaseous sulfur-containing compounds (CH3SH, COS, SO2, CS2 and thiophene). Interactions between RAB and WS restrained all sulfur-containing gas emissions, and the normalized sulfur inhibition ratio reached 40.99 %. The Sarink and DAEM models could well describe the kinetic process of the co-combustion of RAB and WS. WS addition led to a decrease in activation energy, namely, it lowered the reaction barrier. Sulfur could be retained in-situ into incineration residue through the formation of sulfate minerals during the co-combustion of RAB and WS.

20.
Evol Appl ; 13(10): 2821-2835, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294025

RESUMO

Local adaptation is particularly likely in invertebrate pests that typically have short generation times and large population sizes, but there are few studies on pest species investigating local adaptation and separating this process from contemporaneous and historical gene flow. Here, we use a population genomic approach to investigate evolutionary processes in the two most dominant spider mites in China, Tetranychus truncatus Ehara and Tetranychus pueraricola Ehara et Gotoh, which have wide distributions, short generation times, and large population sizes. We generated genome resequencing of 246 spider mites mostly from China, as well as Japan and Canada at a combined total depth of 3,133×. Based on demographic reconstruction, we found that both mite species likely originated from refugia in southwestern China and then spread to other regions, with the dominant T. truncatus spreading ~3,000 years later than T. pueraricola. Estimated changes in population sizes of the pests matched known periods of glaciation and reinforce the recent expansion of the dominant spider mites. T. truncatus showed a greater extent of local adaptation with more genes (76 vs. 17) associated with precipitation, including candidates involved in regulation of homeostasis of water and ions, signal transduction, and motor skills. In both species, many genes (135 in T. truncatus and 95 in T. pueraricola) also showed signatures of selection related to elevation, including G-protein-coupled receptors, cytochrome P450s, and ABC-transporters. Our results point to historical expansion processes and climatic adaptation in these pests which could have contributed to their growing importance, particularly in the case of T. truncatus.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...