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1.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 29297-29308, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684666

RESUMO

We investigate theoretically the generation and enhancement of sum sideband in a quadratically coupled optomechanical system with parametric interactions. It is shown that the generation of frequency components at the sum sideband stems from the nonlinear optomechanical interactions via two-phonon processes in the quadratically coupled optomechanical system, while an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) inside the system can considerably improve the sum sideband generation (SSG). The dependence of SSG on the system parameters, including the power of the control field, the frequency detuning of the probe fields and the nonlinear gain of OPA are analyzed in detail. Our analytic calculation indicates that the SSG can be obtained even under weak driven fields and greatly enhanced via meeting the matching conditions. The effect of SSG may have potential applications for achieving measurement of electric charge (or other weak forces) with higher precision and on-chip manipulation of light propagation.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(17): 173903, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702248

RESUMO

The dynamical evolution of light in asymmetric microcavities is of primary interest for broadband optical coupling and enhanced light-matter interaction. Here, we propose and demonstrate that the chaos-assisted photon transport can be engineered by regular periodic orbits in the momentum-position phase space of an asymmetric microcavity. Remarkably, light at different initial states experiences different evolution pathways, following either regular-chaotic channels or pure chaotic channels. Experimentally, we develop a nanofiber technique to accurately control the excitation position of light in the phase space. We find that the coupling to high-Q whispering gallery modes depends strongly on excitation in islands or chaotic sea, showing a good agreement with the theoretical prediction. The engineered chaotic photon transport has potential in light manipulation, broadband photonic devices, and phase-space reconstruction.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(17): 173902, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702269

RESUMO

We report enhanced optical nonlinear effects at the surface of an ultrahigh-Q silica microcavity functionalized by a thin layer of organic molecules. The maximal conversion efficiency of third harmonic generation reaches ∼1680%/W^{2} and an absolute efficiency of 0.0144% at pump power of ∼2.90 mW, which is approximately 4 orders of magnitude higher than that in a reported silica microcavity. Further analysis clarifies the elusive dependence of the third harmonic signal on the pump power in previous literature. Molecule-functionalized microcavities may find promising applications in high-efficiency broadband optical frequency conversion and offer potential in sensitive surface analysis.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17920, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702672

RESUMO

There is little information concerning the predictive ability of the preoperative platelet to albumin ratio (PAR) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after liver resection. In the current study, we aimed to assess the prognostic power of the PAR in HCC patients without portal hypertension (PH) following liver resection.Approximately 628 patients were included in this study. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value of the PAR for both recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the independent risk factors for both RFS and OS.During the follow-up period, 361 patients experienced recurrence, and 217 patients died. ROC curve analysis suggested that the best cut-off value of the PAR for RFS was greater than 4.8. The multivariate analysis revealed that microvascular invasion (MVI), tumor size >5 cm, high aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet count ratio index (APRI) and high PAR were four independent risk factors for both RFS and OS. Patients with a low PAR had significantly better RFS and OS than those with a high PAR.The PAR may be a useful marker to predict the prognosis of HCC patients after liver resection. HCC patients with a high preoperative PAR had a higher recurrent risk and lower long-term survival rate than those with a low preoperative PAR.

5.
Trials ; 20(1): 619, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are the most common perioperative complications following surgical site infection (SSI). They prolong the hospital stay and increase health care costs. A lung-protective ventilation strategy is considered better practice in abdominal surgery to prevent PPCs. However, the role of the inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) in the strategy remains disputed. Previous trials have focused on reducing SSI by increasing the inhaled oxygen concentration but higher FiO2 (80%) was found to be associated with a greater incidence of atelectasis and mortality in recent research. The trial aims at evaluating the effect of different FiO2 added to the lung-protective ventilation strategy on the incidence of PPCs during general anesthesia for abdominal surgery. METHODS AND DESIGN: PROtective Ventilation with a low versus high Inspiratory Oxygen fraction trial (PROVIO) is a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial planning to recruit 252 patients undergoing abdominal surgery lasting for at least 2 h. The patients will be randomly assigned to (1) a low-FiO2 (30% FiO2) group and (2) a high-FiO2 (80% FiO2) group in the lung-protective ventilation strategy. The primary outcome of the study is the occurrence of PPCs within the postoperative 7 days. Secondary outcomes include the severity grade of PPCs, the occurrence of postoperative extrapulmonary complications and all-cause mortality within the postoperative 7 and 30 days. DISCUSSION: The PROVIO trial assesses the effect of low versus high FiO2 added to a lung-protective ventilation strategy on PPCs for abdominal surgery patients and the results should provide practical approaches to intraoperative oxygen management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ChiCTR.org.cn , identifier: ChiCTR18 00014901 . Registered on 13 February 2018.

6.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3207-3216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686783

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab (CTX) or nimotuzumab (NTZ) on the addition of palliative chemotherapy (PCT) in patients with de novo metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and methods: From 2007 to 2016, 451 eligible patients with de novo metastatic NPC were enrolled in the study. With propensity score matching technique, we created a well-balanced cohort by matching patients who received CTX/NTZ plus PCT (62 patients) with those receiving PCT alone (248 patients) in a ratio of 1:4. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). All potential prognostic factors were involved in the multivariate analysis with the Cox regression hazards model. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the survival status, and log-rank test to measure the significance. Results: The median follow-up time was 27.7 months (range, 1-126 months). No significant difference in survival was observed between the CTX/NTZ plus PCT group and PCT group. (3-year OS: 63.0% vs 58.1%; P=0.485). The administration of CTX/NTZ was not found to be an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. With regard to toxicity, the development of a G3-4 skin reaction and mucositis was more common in patients receiving CTX plus PCT. Interaction effects analysis did not show any significant interaction effects on OS between the treatment regimen and prognostic factors (P>0.05). Conclusion: The efficacy of CTX/NTZ and PCT is comparable to single PCT treatment in terms of survival outcomes among de novo metastatic NPC patients. Moreover, the application of CTX exacerbated skin reactions and mucositis.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14788, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616021

RESUMO

We applied Simmons-Balluffi methods, positron measurements, and neutron diffraction to estimate the vacancy of CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs) using Cu as a benchmark. The corresponding formation enthalpies and associated entropies of the HEAs and Cu were calculated. The vacancy-dependent effective free volumes in both CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi alloys are greater than those in Cu, implying the easier formation of vacancies by lattice structure relaxation of HEAs at elevated temperatures. Spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray measurements revealed different characteristics of CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi HEAs subjected to quasi-equilibrium conditions at high temperatures. Element-dependent behavior revealed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping indicates the effect of Mn on the Cantor Alloy.

9.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To further explore the role of BCL-2 associated anthanogen-1 (BAG-1) in neuronal apoptosis and whether the effect of BAG-1 depends on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). METHODS: RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to inhibit the expression of BAG-1 in SH-SY5Y cells. Hypoxia-reoxygenation injury model in the SH-SY5Y cells was established. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was performed for cell viability. Annexin V-APC/7-AAD double-staining followed by flow cytometry was used to measure cell apoptosis. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of genes, respectively. RESULTS: BAG-1 gene silencing decreased SH-SY5Y cell viability and promoted SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis after hypoxia-reoxygenation. However, the down-regulation of BAG-1 had no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of HSP70. CONCLUSION: BAG-1 could protect SH-SY5Y cells from the hypoxia-reoxygenation injury without affecting HSP70 expression.

10.
HLA ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628781

RESUMO

The novel allele HLA-A*33:131 was identified in a Chinese individual using the sequencing-based typing method.

11.
J Biol Chem ; 294(43): 15613-15622, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484726

RESUMO

Over the past decade, thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified, many of which play crucial roles in normal physiology and human disease. LncRNAs can interact with chromatin and then recruit protein complexes to remodel chromatin states, thus regulating gene expression. However, how lncRNA-chromatin interactions contribute to their biological functions is largely unknown. Here, we collected and constructed an atlas of 188,647 lncRNA-chromatin interactions in human and mouse. All lncRNAs showed diverse epigenetic modification patterns at their binding sites, especially the marks of enhancer activity. Functional analysis of lncRNA target genes further revealed that lncRNAs could exert their functions by binding to both promoter and distal regulatory elements, especially the distal regulatory elements. Intriguingly, many important pathways were observed to be widely regulated by lncRNAs through distal binding. For example, NEAT1, a cancer lncRNA, controls 13.3% of genes in the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway by interacting with distal regulatory elements. In addition, "two-gene" signatures composed of a lncRNA and its distal target genes, such as HOTAIR-CRIM1, provided significant clinical benefits relative to the lncRNA alone. In summary, our findings underscored that lncRNA-distal interactions were essential for lncRNA functions, which would provide new clues to understand the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in complex disease.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(19): 10340-10356, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504769

RESUMO

Mitochondrial tRNA processing defects were associated with human diseases but their pathophysiology remains elusively. The hypertension-associated m.4401A>G mutation resided at a spacer between mitochondrial tRNAMet and tRNAGln genes. An in vitro processing experiment revealed that the m.4401A>G mutation caused 59% and 69% decreases in the 5' end processing efficiency of tRNAGln and tRNAMet precursors, catalyzed by RNase P, respectively. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells-derived cybrids, we demonstrated that the m.4401A>G mutation caused the decreases of all 8 tRNAs and ND6 and increases of longer and uncleaved precursors from the Light-strand transcript. Conversely, the m.4401A>G mutation yielded the reduced levels of tRNAMet level but did not change the levels of other 13 tRNAs, 12 mRNAs including ND1, 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA from the Heavy-strand transcript. These implicated the asymmetrical processing mechanisms of H-strand and L-strand polycistronic transcripts. The tRNA processing defects play the determined roles in the impairing mitochondrial translation, respiratory deficiency, diminishing membrane potential, increasing production of reactive oxygen species and altering autophagy. Furthermore, the m.4401A>G mutation altered the angiogenesis, evidenced by aberrant wound regeneration and weaken tube formation in mutant cybrids. Our findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of hypertension arising from mitochondrial tRNA processing defects.

13.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 908, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of maximal standard uptake values (SUVmax) of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET) comparing with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels in de novo metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. METHODS: From December 2006 to December 2016, 253 de novo metastatic NPC patients assessed by PET/ computed tomography were involved in current study. SUVmax-T, SUVmax-N, and SUVmax-M referred to the SUVmax at the primary tumor, cervical lymph nodes, and metastatic lesions respectively. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. RESULT: Patients who died during the follow-up had significantly higher SUVmax-N, SUVmax-M, and EBV DNA level than those in the patients who were alive. SUVmax-N and SUVmax-M were positively correlated with EBV DNA level. The cut-off values of SUVmax-T, SUVmax-N, SUVmax-M, and EBV DNA were 17.0, 12.7, and 6.9, and 13,800 copies/mL respectively, which were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Patients with elevated SUVmax-N, SUVmax-M, and EBV DNA levels had a lower 3-year OS rate. In multivariate analysis, the independent prognostic factors of OS included EBV DNA, metastatic site, and locoregional radiotherapy application, while SUVmax was not an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSION: In de novo metastatic NPC patients, higher SUVmax-N and SUVmax-M were associated with worse prognosis. However, the predictive ability of SUVmax-N and SUVmax-M was poorer than that of EBV DNA.

14.
Oncogene ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537905

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in modulating gene expression, yet their roles in regulatory networks in human cell lines remain poorly characterized. We integrated multiomics data to construct directed regulatory networks with nodes and edges labeled with chromatin states in human cell lines. We observed extensive association of diverse chromatin states and network motifs. The gene expression analysis showed that diverse chromatin states of coherent type-1 feedforward loop (C1-FFL) and incoherent type-1 feedforward loops (I1-FFL) contributed to the dynamic expression patterns of targets. Notably, diverse chromatin state compositions could help C1- or I1-FFL to control a large number of distinct biological functions in human cell lines, such as four different types of chromatin state compositions cooperating with K562-associated C1-FFLs controlling "regulation of cytokinesis," "G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle," "DNA recombination," and "telomere maintenance," respectively. Remarkably, we identified six chromatin state-marked C1-FFL instances (HCFC1-NFYA-ABL1, THAP1-USF1-BRCA2, ZNF263-USF1-UBA52, MYC-ATF1-UBA52, ELK1-EGR1-CCT4, and YY1-EGR1-INO80C) could act as prognostic biomarkers of acute myelogenous leukemia though influencing cancer-related biological functions, such as cell proliferation, telomere maintenance, and DNA recombination. Our results will provide novel insight for better understanding of chromatin state-mediated gene regulation and facilitate the identification of novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of human cancers.

15.
Arch Toxicol ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552475

RESUMO

Prediction of pEC50 values of dioxins binding with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is of great significance for exploring how dioxins induce toxicity in human body and evaluating their environmental behaviors and risks. To reveal the factors that influence the toxicity of dioxins, provide more accurate mathematical models for predicting the pEC50 values of dioxins, and supplement the toxicity database of persistent organic pollutants, qualitative structure-activity relationship (SAR) and two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) were used in this study. The research objects in this study were 60 organic compounds with pEC50 values and 162 compounds without pEC50 values, which included polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs). The qualitative structure-activity relationship (SAR) was performed first and concluded that halogen substitutions at any of the 2, 3, 7, and 8 sites increased the pEC50 value of the compound. Moreover, two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR) models were established by employing multiple linear regression (MLR) method and artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm to investigate the factors affecting the pEC50 values of dioxins molecules. MLR was used to establish the well-understood linear model and ANN was used to establish a more accurate non-linear model. Both models have good fitting, robustness, and predictive ability. Importantly, the ability of dioxins binding to AhR is mainly determined by molecular descriptors including E1m, SM09_AEA (dm), RDF065u, F05 [Cl-Cl], and Neoplastic-80. In addition, the pEC50 values of the 162 dioxins without toxicity data were predicted by MLR and ANN models, respectively.

16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(9): 942-948, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506158

RESUMO

Metabolomics is an emerging and popular subject in the post-genome era, and a large number of studies have been noted on the application of metabolomics in health evaluation, growth and development evaluation, disease diagnosis, and therapeutic efficacy evaluation. As a special period of life, the neonatal period is characterized by rapid cell renewing, consumption of a lot of energy and materials, and changes in metabolic pathways, all of which affect the level of metabolites. However, there is still no reference standard for metabolic level and profile in neonates. This article reviews the current status of metabolic research on neonatal growth and development and common diseases and related clinical application of metabolomics, so as to provide new ideas for nutrition guidance and evaluation, selection of therapeutic regimens, and new drug research in neonates.


Assuntos
Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6719-6726, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Bariatric procedures such as left gastric artery ligation (LGAL) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have emerged as important procedures for treating morbid obesity. In this study, we compared the effects of LGAL vs. SG on obesity-induced adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and inflammation in diet-induced obese rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to induce obesity. SG, GLAL, or corresponding sham surgeries were performed in anesthetized rats. Inflammatory factor expression in serum and epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were analyzed 4 weeks after surgery. Macrophage infiltration and phenotype transformation were also assessed with Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. RESULTS Both LGAL and SG strongly attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fat accumulation in retroperitoneal and epididymal tissues. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were downregulated after LGAL and after SG by promoting activation of M2 macrophages, despite continued exposure to HFD. Furthermore, both LGAL and SG resulted in increased macrophage infiltration, but did not contribute to phenotype transformation of macrophages to M1. CONCLUSIONS LGAL and SG both reduced fat accumulation caused by HFD feeding. Therapies designed to ameliorate the inflammatory response by promoting activation of M2 macrophages may be valuable.

18.
Med Eng Phys ; 73: 9-17, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402315

RESUMO

Acute ischaemic stroke can be treated by intravenous thrombolysis whereby tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is infused to dissolve clots that block blood supply to the brain. In this study, we aim to examine the influence of clot location and size on lysis pattern and recanalisation by using a recently developed computational modelling framework for thrombolysis under physiological flow conditions. An image-based patient-specific model is reconstructed which consists of the internal carotid bifurcation with the A1 segment of anterior cerebral arteries and M1 segment of middle cerebral arteries, and the M1 bifurcation containing the M2 segments. By varying the clot size and location, 7 scenarios are simulated mimicking thrombolysis of M1 and M2 occlusions. Our results show that initial breakthrough always occurs along the inner curvature of the occluded cerebral artery, due to prolonged tPA residence time in the recirculation zone. For a given occlusion site, lysis completion time appears to increase almost quadratically with the initial clot volume; whereas for a given clot volume, the simulated M2 occlusions take up to 30% longer for complete lysis compared to the corresponding M1 occlusions.

19.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(17): 2039-2045, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the publication of Sepsis-3 definition, epidemiological data based on Sepsis-3 definition from middle-income countries including China are scarce, which prohibits understanding of the disease burden of this newly defined syndrome in these settings. The purpose of this study was to describe incidence and outcome of Sepsis-3 in Yuetan sub-district of Beijing and to estimate the incidence rate of Sepsis-3 in China. METHODS: The medical records of all adult residents hospitalized from July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2014 in Yuetan sub-district of Beijing were reviewed. Patients with sepsis-3 and severe sepsis/septic shock were identified. The incidence rates and mortality rate of sepsis-3 and sepsis/septic shock were calculated, incidence rates and in-hospital mortality rates were normalized to the population distribution in the 2010 National Census. Population incidence rate and case fatality rate between sexes were compared with the Z test, as the data conformed to Poisson distribution. RESULTS: Of the 21,191 hospitalized patients, 935 patients were diagnosed with Sepsis-3, and 498 cases met severe sepsis/septic shock criteria. The crude annual incidence rate of Sepsis-3 in Yuetan sub-district was 363 cases per 100,000 population, corresponding to standardized incidence rates of 236 cases per 100,000 population per year, respectively. The overall case fatality rate of Sepsis-3 was 32.0%, the crude population mortality rates of Sepsis-3 was 116 cases per 100,000 population per year, the standardized mortality rate was 67 cases per 100,000 population per year, corresponding to a speculative extrapolation of 700,437 deaths in China. The incidence rate and mortality rate of Sepsis-3 were significantly higher in males, elderly people, and patients with more comorbidities. The 62.1% of patients with Sepsis-3 had community-acquired infections, compared with 75.3% of infected patients without Sepsis-3 (P < 0.001). The most common infection in patients with Sepsis-3 was lower respiratory tract infection. When compared with patients with Sepsis-3, patients diagnosed as severe sepsis/septic shock were more likely to have higher case fatality rate (53.4% vs. 32.0%, P < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS:: This study found the standardized incidence rate of 236 cases per 100,000 person-year for Sepsis-3, which was more common in males and elderly population. This corresponded to about 2.5 million new cases of Sepsis-3 per year, resulting in more than 700,000 deaths in China. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02285257, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT02285257.

20.
Acta Biomater ; 97: 74-92, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400521

RESUMO

Viscoelasticity of living tissues plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and regeneration, and its implication in disease development and progression is being recognized recently. In this review, we first explored the state of knowledge regarding the potential application of tissue viscoelasticity in disease diagnosis. In order to better characterize viscoelasticity with local resolution and non-invasiveness, emerging characterization methods have been developed with the potential to be supplemented to existing facilities. To understand cellular responses to matrix viscoelastic behaviors in vitro, hydrogels made of natural polymers have been developed and the relationships between their molecular structure and viscoelastic behaviors, are elucidated. Moreover, how cells perceive the viscoelastic microenvironment and cellular responses including cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, differentiation and matrix production, have been discussed. Finally, some future perspective on an integrated mechanobiological comprehension of the viscoelastic behaviors involved in tissue homeostasis, cellular responses and biomaterial design are highlighted. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Tissue- or organ-scale viscoelastic behavior is critical for homeostasis, and the molecular basis and cellular responses of viscoelastic materials at micro- or nano-scale are being recognized recently. We summarized the potential applications of viscoelasticity in disease diagnosis enabled by emerging non-invasive characterization technologies, and discussed the underlying mechanism of viscoelasticity of hydrogels and current understandings of cell regulatory functions of them. With a growing understanding of the molecular basis of hydrogel viscoelasticity and recognition of its regulatory functions on cell behaviors, it is important to bring the clinical insights on how these characterization technologies and engineered materials may contribute to disease diagnosis and treatment. This review explains the basics in characterizing viscoelasticity with our hope to bridge the gap between basic research and clinical applications.

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