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1.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 21(12): 71, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813080

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is an aging-associated and injury-induced joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation, bone sclerosis, and persistent low-grade inflammation in the joint. Aging and injury are triggers of joint pathological changes mediated by pro-inflammatory factors, some of which are secreted by white adipose tissue. Adipokines including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, IL-6, and TNF-α are major players not only during inflammation but also in metabolic regulation of joint cells including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts as well as mesenchymal stem cells. The purpose of this review is to summarize the signal transduction pathways of adipokines in the articular joint to provide new information on potential targets for intervention of OA. RECENT FINDINGS: The risk of knee osteoarthritis is associated with adipokine gene polymorphism. While the infrapatellar fat pad is a major source of adipokines in knee synovial fluid, adipocytes also accumulate in the bone marrow during aging and obesity. Adipokines can act as SASPs (senescence associated secretory phenotype factors) that participate in cellular senescence of chondrocytes, but they also regulate energy metabolism impacting bone remodeling. Thus, adipokines are closely related to the metabolic syndrome and degenerative pathological changes in cartilage and bone during OA. Modulating the effects of adipokines on different cell types in the intra-articular joint will be a promising new option for OA intervention.

2.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 195, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidaemia may be a potential risk factor for the occurrence of intestinal polyps. This study aimed to evaluate correlation between lipidaemia and the formation of colorectal polyps. METHODS: One hundred and fourteen patients with colorectal polyps and forty-eight healthy controls were included in this study. Colonoscopies were performed for all patients and controls within 1 week before blood samples were taken. The concentrations of serum lipids and lipoproteins were measured simultaneously using an automatic biochemical analyser. The colorectal lesions were classified based on pathological characteristics, and four types were identified in the study: hyperplastic polyp (HP), tubular adenoma (TA), tubulovillous adenoma (TVA) and adenoma with high-grade dysplasia (A-HGD). Advanced adenoma was classified according to the number, size and histological type of polyps. RESULTS: The value of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was significantly higher in the group with advanced adenoma than in the controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, the LDL-C values in the HP and TA groups were higher when compared to that of controls (p < 0.05). Obesity, age, and increased TG and LDL-C were independent risk factors for the formation of colorectal polyps. The cut-off values of triglyceride (TG) and LDL-C to distinguish polyp patients from healthy controls were 0.96 mmol/L (AUC = 0.604, p = 0.036) and 3.05 mmol/L (AUC = 0.654, p = 0.002). The combined use of increased LDL-C and TG levels to distinguish polyp patients was effective, with a sensitivity of 50.0% and a specificity of 89.6% (AUC = 0.733, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal polyps are more often found in obese and older patients. Increased LDL-C and TG were correlated with the occurrence of polyps. Combination of the two serum indicators was useful to assess risk of colorectal lesions, maybe more effective in screening hyperplastic polyp, tubular adenoma and advanced adenoma.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16750, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393390

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Crohn disease includes 3 phenotypes, inflammatory, stricturing, and penetrating. In cases where corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are not suitable treatment options, enteral nutrition (EN) can be used to reduce disease severity and enhance barrier defense with fewer potential adverse effects. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-year-old man with abdominal pain and diarrhea presented at our hospital in 2014. The frequency of defecation was 3 or 4 times a day without mucus or blood in the stool. His body mass index was 15.8, and in laboratory tests the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 42.4 mm/h, serum C reactive protein was 65.2 mg/L, the leukocyte count was 11.64 × 109/L, and hemoglobin was 111 g/L. DIAGNOSIS: In computed tomography (CT) enterography the ascending colon was thickened, and there was effusion and enlarged lymph nodes around the colon. Colonoscopy revealed ulcer, polypoid proliferation, and bowel stenosis in many segments. Chronic inflammation was evident in multiple biopsies. Crohn disease was diagnosed based on the above observations. INTERVENTIONS: Mesalazine was administered at a dose of 4 g daily for 2 years. The patient was hospitalized again due to severe abdominal pain and ongoing fever. Intestinal perforation was detected via CT. Percutaneous drainage was performed followed by administration of intravenous metronidazole (0.5 g) and ciprofloxacin (0.2 g) twice a day. Peptison liquid was used as exclusive EN. After 2 weeks the antibiotics regimen was changed to metronidazole 0.4 g twice a day and ciprofloxacin 0.25 g 3 times a day, both administered orally. OUTCOMES: CT revealed that the infection was eliminated and the fistula was healed after 10 weeks, at which point antibiotics and exclusive EN was discontinued. Azathioprine was prescribed at a dose of 2 mg/kg daily to maintain clinical remission. The patient did not report any pain or diarrhea at a 1-year follow-up visit. LESSONS: The present case suggests that exclusive EN combined with antibiotics is useful in inducing remission in Crohn disease patients with active disease and penetrating complications.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Perfuração Intestinal/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
J Ultrasound Med ; 38(11): 2901-2908, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic tracking method for the muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) on ultrasound (US) images using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The performance of the proposed method was evaluated and compared with that of the state-of-the art muscle segmentation method. METHODS: A real-time US image sequence was obtained from the rectus femoris muscle during voluntary contraction. A CNN was built to segment the rectus femoris muscle and calculate the CSA in each US frame. This network consisted of 2 stages: feature extraction and score map reconstruction. The training of the network was divided into 3 steps with output score map resolutions of one-fourth, one-half, and all of the original image. We evaluated the segmentation performance of our method with 5-fold cross-validation. The mean precision, recall, and dice similarity score were calculated. RESULTS: The mean precision, recall, and Dice's coefficient (DSC) ± SD were 0.936 ± 0.029, 0.882 ± 0.045, and 0.907 ± 0.023, respectively. Compared with the state-of-the-art muscle segmentation method (constrained mutual-information-based free-form deformation), the proposed method using CNN showed high performance. CONCLUSIONS: The automated method proposed in this study provides an accurate and efficient approach to the estimation of the muscle CSA during muscle contraction.

5.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 57(3): 302-307, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734971

RESUMO

For delayed dental implantation into the mandible, the implant size should be chosen according to the characteristics of that bone. This study investigated anatomic features of the mandible in beagle dogs, to develop recommendations regarding the correct implantation region and available bone area for delayed dental implantation surgery. We used 20 healthy male beagle dogs to create delayed dental implantation models. The dogs' mandibles underwent cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging; the locations of the middle mental foramen and canine root apex were measured on CBCT images. The dogs then were euthanized and their mandibles measured by using a digital vernier caliper. In addition, the correct implantation region and available bone areas were evaluated. The data obtained by using the 2 measuring methods were compared statistically. The results showed that the positions of the middle mental foramen and canine root apex were relatively fixed, with little variation. The implantation and available bone regions showed little variation among dogs and did not differ significantly between the 2 measuring methods. In conclusion, the correct implantation region (mean ± 1 SD) in the beagle mandible for delayed dental implantation surgery was 17.53 ± 0.46 mm in width. The recommended available bone areas (height × width) were 7.22 ± 0.68 mm × 5.32 ± 0.49 mm (P2), 8.21 ± 0.71 mm × 5.81 ± 0.56 mm (P3), and 9.17 ± 0.65 mm × 6.39 ± 0.56 mm (P4) in the premolar region.


Assuntos
Implantação Dentária/veterinária , Animais , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Implantação Dentária/métodos , Cães , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia
6.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 24(1): 43-50, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156514

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Esophageal baseline impedance, which is decreased in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients, is related to the severity of acid reflux and the integrity of the esophageal mucosa. The study aims to compare the baseline impedance and the dilated intercellular spaces (DIS) within patients with typical reflux symptoms and to evaluate the correlation of baseline impedance with DIS, esophageal acid exposure, as well as the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. Methods: Ninety-two patients and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. Erosive esophagitis (EE) was defined by esophageal mucosal erosion under upper endoscopy. Patients without mucosa erosion were divided into groups with pathologic acid reflux (non-erosive reflux disease [NERD]) or with hypersensitive esophagus. The biopsies of esophageal mucosa were taken 2-4 cm above the gastroesophageal junction Z-line during upper endoscopy for DIS measurement. All the patients received esomeprazole 20 mg twice-daily treatment for 8 weeks. The efficacy of esomeprazole was evaluated among all patients. Results: The intercellular spaces were dilated in both EE and NERD patients (P < 0.05). The value 0.73 µm could be used as the cut-off DIS value to distinguish patients from controls (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.849, P < 0.01). One thousand seven hundred sixty-four ohms could be used as the cut-off impedance values to distinguish patients from controls (AUC = 0.794, P < 0.01). The baseline impedance was decreased in both EE patients and NERD patients, and negatively correlated to the acid exposure time (r = -0.527, P < 0.05). There was a weak correlation between DIS and baseline impedance (r = -0.230, P < 0.05). "Baseline impedance > 1764 Ω" was an independent predictor for PPI failure (OR, 11.9; 95% CI, 2.4-58.9; P < 0.01). Conclusions: The DIS and decreased baseline impedance was observed in patients with mucosa erosion or pathological acid reflux. The baseline impedance reflected the mucosal integrity, it was more sensitive to esophageal acid exposure. Patients with high impedance might not benefit from the PPI treatment.

7.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 17(1): 118, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The anatomy of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) serves as the anti-reflux barrier. The gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV) is a component of EGJ. The aim of the current study was to assess its correlation with the esophageal acid exposure and the impact on anti-reflux barrier function by using the metrics of EGJ contraction. METHODS: Eighty three patients with typical GERD symptoms were included in the study. Upper endoscopy, high-resolution manometry (HRM) and 24 h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring were performed in all patients. GEFV was determined as four grades during endoscopic examination based on the Hill classification. The esophageal pressure topography (EPT) metrics defined in the updated Chicago Classification were measured by HRM, including integrated relaxation pressure (IRP), EGJ contractile index (EGJ-CI),expiratory EGJ pressure(EGJP-exp) and inspiratory EGJ pressure (EGJP-insp). RESULTS: The GEFV grade III and IV was more commonly found in patients with esophagitits (p < 0.05). The acid exposure time (AET%) and supine AET% were lower in patients with GEFV grade I (p < 0.01). There was weak correlation between AET% and GEFV grades (r = 0.27, p = 0.013). There were more EGJ morphology type III in patients with GEFV grade IV (p < 0.05).There were no significant differences on the values of four HRM metrics among the patients with different GEFV grades (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The GEFV grades were associated with acid reflux positively and could be a good reflection of EGJ morphology in HRM. But it had no impact on the four HRM metrics. Our research revealed that GEFV may play an assistant role in the anti-reflux barrier.


Assuntos
Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/patologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Esofagite Péptica/patologia , Esofagite Péptica/fisiopatologia , Esofagoscopia , Gastroscopia , Azia/etiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Manometria/métodos
8.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 23(4): 517-525, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992675

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Increased salivary pepsin could indicate an increase in gastro-esophageal reflux, however, previous studies failed to demonstrate a correlation between salivary pepsin concentrations and 24-hour esophageal acid exposure. This study aims to detect the salivary pepsin and to evaluate the relationship between salivary pepsin concentrations and intercellular spaces (IS) in different gastroesophageal reflux disease phenotypes in patients. Methods: A total of 45 patients and 11 healthy volunteers were included in this study. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 24-hour ambulatory multichannel impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, and salivary sampling at 3-time points during the 24-hour MII-pH monitoring. IS were measured by transmission electron microscopy, and salivary pepsin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The IS measurements were greater in the esophagitis (EE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and hypersensitive esophagus (HO) groups than in the functional heartburn (FH) and healthy volunteer groups, and significant differences were indicated. Patients with NERD and HO had higher average pepsin concentrations compared with FH patients. A weak correlation was determined between IS and salivary pepsin among patients with NERD (r = 0.669, P = 0.035). Conclusions: We confirmed the presence of a higher level of salivary pepsin in patients with NERD than in patients with FH. Salivary pepsin concentrations correlated with severity of mucosal integrity impairment in the NERD group. We suggest that in patients with NERD, low levels of salivary pepsin can help identify patients with FH, in addition the higher the pepsin concentration, the more likely the severity of dilated IS.

9.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 23(1): 27-33, 2017 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27426485

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Anti-reflux barrier dysfunction is one of the primary mechanisms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pathogenesis. The esophagogastric junction contractile integral (EGJ-CI) is a new metric adopted to evaluate the EGJ contractility, which implies the antireflux barrier function. The aim of the current study was to validate this new metric in patients with GERD and its correlation with the esophageal acid exposure, as well as the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor treatment. Methods: Ninety-eight patients with GERD and 21 healthy controls were included in the study. Upper endoscopy, high-resolution manometry (HRM) and 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring were performed in all patients. Three respiration cycles were chosen at the initial HRM resting frame and the value computed with distal contractile integral tool was then divided by the duration of the cycles to yield EGJ-CI. All the patients were treated with esomeprazole 20 mg twice-daily for 8 weeks. Results: EGJ-CI was lower in the patients with GERD than that of the controls (P < 0.05). For patients with GERD, EGJ-CI was lower in those with hiatal hernia (P < 0.05). The new metric correlated with esophageal acid exposure in the supine position (P < 0.05), and it also negatively correlated to the total reflux episodes (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference on EGJ-CI between patients with and without response to the esomeprazole treatment (P = 0.627). Conclusions: EGJ-CI reflected the dysfunction of the anti-reflux barrier in patients with GERD, but it had little impact on the esomeprazole response.

10.
Am J Transl Res ; 9(12): 5320-5331, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the influence of IL-25 on the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to induce intestinal epithelial cell regeneration. METHODS: The CD4+IL-25R+ cells and LGR5+IL-25R+ cells in colonic mucosa of Crohn's disease (CD) patients, ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls were detected by immunofluorescence staining, and the CD4+IL-25R+ cells in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. Rat MSCs were separated and stimulated with IL-25. Then, MSCs were further incubated in IL-25-free DMEM for 24 h, and this DMEM was collected as conditioned medium (CM). IEC-6 cells were divided into 3 groups: experimental group (CM and TNF-α), control group (DMEM and TNF-α) and negative control group (DMEM). RESULTS: The CD4+IL-25R+ cells and LGR5+IL-25R+ cells significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of active CD patients and UC patients compared with IBD patients in remission and healthy controls. The CD4+IL-25R+ cells reduced in peripheral blood of IBD patients, which was inversely correlated with inflammatory markers (ESR and CRP). CM facilitated the migration and proliferation of IEC-6 cells in the presence of TNF-α. The protein expression of AKT, p38 and ERK increased in IEC-6 cells after treatment with CM and TNF-α. CONCLUSION: IL-25R is involved in Th-related mucosal inflammation and proliferation of intestinal stem cells in IBD. IL-25 enhances the capacity of MSC to induce intestinal epithelial cell regeneration, and MSC therapy with IL-25 may be a new direction for IBD treatment.

11.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 16: 106, 2016 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defects in distal oesophageal peristalsis was thought to be an indication of incomplete bolus transit (BT). However, the role of transition zone (TZ) defects in the BT in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients needs clarification. The aim of this study was to assess the TZ defects in GORD patients and to explore the relationship between TZ defects and BT. METHODS: One hundred and two patients with reflux symptoms and 20 healthy adults were included in the study. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, high resolution impedance manometry (HRiM) and 24-h ambulatory multichannel impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring. Patients were subgrouped into reflux oesophagitis (RE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), hypersensitive oesophagus (HO) and functional heartburn (FH) classified following MII-pH monitoring. Oesophageal pressure topography was analysed to define TZ defects by spatial or temporal TZ measurements exceeding 2 cm or 1 s, weak and fragmented swallows were excluded, and the association between TZ and BT was investigated. RESULTS: Following liquid swallows, there were no significant differences in TZ delay time and TZ length between groups (RE: 1.75 s (1.32-2.17) and 2.50 cm (2.40-3.20); NERD: 1.60 s (1.10-2.00) and 2.20 cm (2.10-2.65); HO: 1.60 s (1.30-1.80) and 2.70 cm (2.30-3.00); FH: 1.55 s (1.20-2.17) and 3.10 cm (2.25-5.00); Healthy volunteers: 1.50 s (1.20-1.90) and 2.30 cm (2.10-3.00). However, individuals with TZ defects had lower complete BT rates compared with those without TZ defects (p < 0.001). There were also significantly more incomplete BT in patients with RE, HO and FH than in healthy controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In GORD patients, TZ defects correlated with proximal bolus retention in the corresponding area independent of distal weak peristalsis.


Assuntos
Junção Esofagogástrica/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Peristaltismo/fisiologia , Adulto , Impedância Elétrica , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 25(10): 1702-9, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20880182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses great challenges to humans, claiming one million lives annually worldwide. Solid data have related HBV to hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: In the present research, we verified the interaction between surface protein (HBs) encoded by HBV and aldolase A (ALDA) using yeast two-hybrid, mammalian two-hybrid, co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down and laser scanning confocal. RESULTS: Anti-ALDA antibody precipitated Gal4-HBs fusion protein in the presence of HBs. Anti-HBs antibody precipitated p65ΔN-ALDA only in the presence of ALDA. Small HBs could be pulled down by GST-ALDA. Cells transfected with pCMV-AD-ALDA showed a protection from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis (21.3% ± 1.3% for ALDA, 35.4% ± 2.1% for control, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An interaction does exist between ALDA and HBs. The S region within HBs is sufficient for binding ALDA. In addition, ALDA conferred protection to ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis, and this effect was enhanced by the interaction between HBs and ALDA.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Western Blotting , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , DNA/análise , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Microscopia Confocal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
13.
Cancer Lett ; 285(2): 151-6, 2009 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19487072

RESUMO

Jumping translocation breakpoint protein (JTB) is suppressed in many cancers, implying it plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of cells. In order to explore the role of JTB in the carcinogenesis of liver, we used mammalian two-hybrid, co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down and laser scanning confocal to verify the interaction between HBs and JTB. According to the results, HBs interacts with JTB. In addition, we further determined that S region within HBs is sufficient for binding JTB. Overexpression of JTB conferred resistance to apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation, whereas this effect was compromised by the co-overexpression of HBs.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação/fisiologia , Apoptose/fisiologia , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Western Blotting , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos da radiação , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofluorescência , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Microscopia Confocal , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transfecção , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Raios Ultravioleta
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