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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1618: 460847, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928768

RESUMO

The functionalization of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) enhances chemical properties and expands future applications. Herein, a facile strategy for sulfoacid-functionalized COF is presented through post-modification of covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) platform. The magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) material is obtained by anchoring in situ Ni particles on CTF support (Ni/CTF-SO3H) possessing a dual retention mechanism combining hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance (HLB) and cation-exchange interaction. We established the (Ni/CTF-SO3H)-MSPE method for selectively enriching carbendazim (CBZ) and thiabendazole (TBZ) from food samples and reducing matrix effect simultaneously. The method detection limit is 1.23-7.05 µg kg-1 for CBZ and TBZ in vegetable, fruit and juice samples, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector. The recoveries of spiked CBZ and TBZ in the samples are 80.2-115.1% and RSDs 6.0-11.4%, depending on both analytes and samples. Our work provides a unique perspective in the development of functionalized COFs as a versatile HLB/cation-exchange mixed-mode SPE sorbent for extraction of basic analytes in complex matrix.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/análise , Bebidas/análise , Frutas/química , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Triazinas/química , Verduras/química , Adsorção , Cátions , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Ácidos Sulfônicos/síntese química
2.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 21, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have been reported to boost plant growth, while the mechanism that CNPs enhanced potassium uptake for plant growth has not been reported so far. RESULTS: In this study, the function that CNPs promoted potassium uptake in BY-2 cells was established and the potassium accumulated in cells had a significant correlation with the fresh biomass of BY-2 cells. The K+ accumulation in cells increased with the increasing concentration of CNPs. The K+ influx reached high level after treatment with CNPs and was significantly higher than that of the control group and the negative group treated with K+ channels blocker, tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA+). The K+ accumulation was not reduced in the presence of CNPs inhibitors. In the presence of potassium channel blocker TEA+ or CNPs inhibitors, the NKT1 gene expression was changed compared with the control group. The CNPs were found to preferentially transport K+ than other cations determined by rectification of ion current assay (RIC) in a conical nanocapillary. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that CNPs upregulated potassium gene expression to enhance K+ accumulation in BY-2 cells. Moreover, it was speculated that the CNPs simulated protein of ion channels via bulk of carboxyl for K+ permeating. These findings will provide support for improving plant growth by carbon nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/genética , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Melhoramento Genético , Humanos , Potenciais da Membrana , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/química , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Tetraetilamônio/química , Tetraetilamônio/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 10-19, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476341

RESUMO

Rapid risk assessment models for different types of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure are critical to understanding the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present study investigated inflammation of cultured tracheal tissues with CSE exposure. Rat trachea rings were isolated, cultured, then exposed to various concentrations of CSE from 3R4 F reference cigarettes for 4 h. Tissue/cellular morphology, ultrastructure, viability and damage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inflammatory protein levels were measured and compared to untreated controls. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) exposed to 0 or 300 µg/mL CSE were cocultured with macrophages to assess extent of mobilization and phagocytosis. Endotracheal epithelium cilia densities were significantly reduced with increasing CSE concentrations, while mucous membranes became increasingly disordered; both eventually disappeared. Macrophages became larger as the CSE concentration increased, with microvilli and extended pseudopodium covering their surface, and many primary and secondary lysosomes present in the cytoplasm. Inflammatory cell infiltration also increased with increasing CSE dose, as did intracellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), interleukin-6(IL-6). The method described here may be useful to qualitatively characterized the effects of the compound under study. Then, we use BEAS-2B cell line system to strength the observation made in the cultured tissues. Probably, an approach to integrate results from both experiments will facilitate its application. These results demonstrate that cultured rat tracheal rings have a whole-tissue structure that undergoes inflammatory processes similar to in vivo tissues upon CSE exposure.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Traqueia/metabolismo , Traqueia/ultraestrutura
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109617, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476449

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking, as an individual consumption habit, is associated with a variety of related diseases. Exposure of cigarette smoke was reported to induce autophagy and inflammation in experimental animals and humans. However, the toxicity mechanism of cigarette smoke in organisms has not been entirely investigated. In this present study, we studied the role of autophagy played in the inflammation caused by cigarette smoke in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), as well as the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways underlying autophagy and inflammation. We found that cigarette smoke induced autophagy and inflammation in BEAS-2B, and the blockage of autophagy significantly reduced the release levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-8 in BEAS-2B exposed to cigarette smoke for 24 h. Cigarette smoke downregulated the activity of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and elevated the activity of MAPK pathways. Pretreatment of autophagic inhibitor could inhibit autophagy and the activity of JNK and p38 pathways. These results suggested that cigarette smoke-induced autophagy triggered inflammation through the activation of JNK and p38 pathways, which might contribute to understanding the adverse outcome pathways induced by cigarette smoke exposure and provide the information about the risk assessment of tobacco products.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Produtos do Tabaco/toxicidade
5.
Analyst ; 144(19): 5829-5841, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475698

RESUMO

A novel dual-shell magnetic nanoparticle coated with a cationic covalent organic framework, containing ethidium bromide, is easily prepared, characterized and applied as an adsorbent for fast, simple and highly selective capture of nine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine samples of non-smokers and smokers who smoked cigarettes with different tar yields. This is the first time that a cationic crystalline framework with high thermal and chemical stability was used for magnetic solid phase extraction. Multiple probes and quantum chemistry theory calculations were conducted to describe the versatile adsorption property directly and quantifiably. A method using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector based on the prepared magnetic adsorbent was established and used to investigate differences in the exposure levels of OH-PAHs in non-smokers and smokers smoking cigarettes with different tar yields. All the OH-PAH analyses present good linearities in the range of 0.1-100 ng mL-1, with R2 > 0.9965. The LOD for the 9 OH-PAHs ranged from 0.0030 to 0.0096 ng mL-1 and the LOQ ranged from 0.096 to 0.030 ng mL-1. The recoveries of the 9 OH-PAHs ranged from 93.3 to 121.3% with the RSD ranging from 0.47 to 3.53%. These results imply that the versatile EB-DS MNPs as adsorbents have great potential in the analysis of trace targets in samples with complex matrices.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Fumantes , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Etídio/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 138: 29-36, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302123

RESUMO

In this study, we employed multiple spectroscopic methods to analyze the effects of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) on structure of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and mitochondrial function in plant cells. The tertiary structures of aromatic amino acid in Cyt c were not changed after addition of CNPs. Cyt c was found to be absorbed on the surfaces of CNPs in a non-linear manner and only bound Cyt c can be reduced. In addition, the binding of Cyt c was found to increase the diameter of CNPs at lower concentrations. The redox potential of Cyt c was almost not affected after treatment with CNPs. There were no obvious differences in cellular ATP after exposure to CNPs, and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was significantly decreased once the CNPs concentration exceeded 31.25 µg/mL. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also were increased in BY-2 cells. Taken together, these findings provide basis for the interactions between CNPs and Cyt c, as well as the effect of CNPs treatment on the mitochondria function in plant cells.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Carbono/farmacologia , Citocromos c/química , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nanopartículas , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Eletroquímica , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Análise Espectral
7.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 29(7): 499-510, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050318

RESUMO

The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is classified as a Group 1 human carcinogen. It is metabolically activated by P450 enzymes to intermediate methylate and pyridyloxobutylate DNA, resulting in the formation of DNA adduct that is critical for the carcinogenicity of NNK. To directly and objectively examine the DNA adduct formation profiles without the complexity of factors in vivo, in the present study, five kinds of methyl DNA adducts were first identified in the incubation model of NNK established with human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The level of methyl DNA adducts and metabolites of NNK were quantitatively analyzed, respectively. With the increase of exposure time and dose, the level of methyl DNA adducts and metabolites increased. Furthermore, with the changes of the activity of P450 enzymes, which is the main enzyme regulating the α-hydroxylation of NNK, we found the levels of both methyl adducts and metabolites formed via α-hydroxylation in experimental groups showed the same trend compared with those in control group, while the metabolites formed via other pathways changed in the opposite trend. The result proves that the methyl adducts induced by NNK generate via α-hydroxylation pathway in BEAS-2B cells.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Adutos de DNA/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrosaminas/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Nitrosaminas/metabolismo
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 172: 50-57, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026772

RESUMO

Two novel sorbents based on polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic graphite oxide-metal organic frameworks nanoparticles [Cu(L-mal)(bpy)]·H2O (MGO-CuLBH) and [Cu(D-mal)(bpy)]·H2O (MGO-CuDBH) possessing of both magnetic property and excellent enantioselective ability were prepared and characterized. Solutions of racemic propranolol hydrochloride (Rac-PRO) were chosen to investigate the enantioselective performance of MGO-CuLBH and MGO-CuDBH by dispersive magnetic nanoparticle solid phase extraction (d-MNSPE). The results showed that the nanocomposites have excellent enantioselectivity to PROs with enantiomeric excess (ee) values reaching up to 98%. The entire process with PROs by the d-MNSPE method was fast, convenient and the collected composites could be easily recycled. Multi-stage operations using MGO-CuLBH and MGO-CuDBH were scaled up to obtain milligram quantities of R-propranolol hydrochloride (R-PRO) and S-propranolol hydrochloride (S-PRO). Furthermore, on the basis of the successful preparations, the differences in the cytotoxicity of Rac-PRO, R-PRO and S-PRO on A549 cells in vitro were all evaluated.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Propranolol/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Células A549 , Humanos , Magnetismo , Propranolol/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo , Testes de Toxicidade
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(13): 3733-3743, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835454

RESUMO

The facile preparation, characterization, and application of novel dual-shell TpBD (a kind of covalent-organic framework) coated magnetic nanospheres as sorbents for simple, fast, and high selectivity capture of 14 heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are reported. Quantum chemistry theory calculations were conducted to directly and quantifiably describe the multiple interactions, including π-π, hydrogen bonding, cation-π, static electricity, and ion-exchange, between TpBD and heterocyclic aromatic amines. The excellent adsorption capacity of TpBD coated magnetic nanospheres was further evaluated by extraction of 14 HAAs from nonsmokers' and smokers' urine samples. Under the optimized conditions, the magnetic solid phase extraction process can be completed with high recovery ranging from 95.4% to 129.3%. After being washed with acetonitrile and water successively, the collected sorbents can be easily recycled and reused five times without any significant difference in performance. Coupled with the ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer detection, the exposure level of HAAs in nonsmokers and smokers smoking cigarettes with different tar yields were successfully explored. And, this implied that the robust method based on the versatile TpBD coated dual-shell magnetic nanospheres sorbents represents a great potential application in the analysis of disease markers and body fluids.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanosferas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Alcatrões/química , Produtos do Tabaco/análise , Aminas/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetismo , Masculino , não Fumantes , Fumantes
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1556: 1-9, 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735279

RESUMO

This study reports a novel strategy for the preparation of porous aromatic framework (PAF-6) coated magnetic nanoparticles (PAF-6 MNPs) using cyanuric chloride as a planar trigonal basis upon which to build a linear piperazine linker unit. The PAF-6 MNPs were examined as an efficient solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for enrichment of trace organic pollutants including phenol, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, naphthalene, naphthol, bisphenol A, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 3-nitrochlorobenzene in water. The high-performance liquid chromatography detection limits of such analytes were in the range of 0.08-5.02 ng/mL and recoveries were found to be 84.0-94.0% in well water, tap water, river water and wastewater. The main toxic components of cigarette smoke, including phenolic compounds and benzo[a]pyrene, are efficiently adsorbed by PAF-6 MNPs, and over 50% of such toxins are removed. Theoretical computations were performed to understand the molecular interaction mechanism between PAF-6 and such analytes. The results demonstrate that the PAF-6 MNPs sorbents show excellent adsorption of phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitroaromatics based on multiple π-π stacking and hydrogen-bond interactions. These results suggest that the PAF-6 MNPs can be applied to extraction, removal and determination of diverse trace multi-target analytes from complex media.


Assuntos
Magnetismo/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cinética , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Compostos Orgânicos/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Porosidade , Fumaça , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química
11.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1081-1082: 15-24, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499464

RESUMO

Three alkylated DNA adducts, N3­methyladenine, N3­ethyladenine and N7­ethylguanine, have been proved to be potential biomarkers for DNA injury caused by exposure to cigarette smoke. In this study, a highly specific and sensitive method using a new mixed-mode sulfonate-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) as a solid-phase extraction sorbent was developed for the analysis of these three alkylated-purine adducts in human urine. Under optimized conditions, the prepared sorbent interacts strongly with these urinary adducts, demonstrating high clean-up efficiency and extraction recovery. The method detection limits (S/N ≥ 3) of N3-MeA, N3-EtA and N7-EtG were 1.75, 0.20, and 0.15 pg mL-1, respectively, while the method quantitation limits were found to be 5.78, 0.66, and 0.49 pg mL-1 for N3-MeA, N3-EtA and N7-EtG, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were investigated, of which were in the range of 1.6-3.8% and 3.2-5.6%, respectively. The recovery values of the alkylated DNA adducts in spiked urine sample were ranged 89.7-104.5%. Their concentrations were statistically significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. These results show that the proposed method is suitable for the analysis of alkylated DNA adducts.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Adutos de DNA/urina , Microesferas , Purinas/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto , Alquilação , Biomarcadores , Adutos de DNA/química , Adutos de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metacrilatos/química , Purinas/química , Purinas/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumar , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Compostos de Vinila/química , Adulto Jovem
12.
Talanta ; 182: 202-209, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501141

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel prototype liquid-air dual gradient chip is introduced, which has paved the way for effective synergic effect bio-evaluation of air pollutant. The chip is composed of an array of the agarose liquid-air interfaces, top air gradient layer and bottom liquid gradient layer. The novel agarose liquid-air interface allows for non-biased exposure of cells to all the substances in the air and diffusive interactions with the liquid phase; while the dual liquid-air gradient provides powerful screening abilities, which well reduced errors, saved time and cost from repeated experiment. Coupling the two functions, the chip subsequently facilitates synergic effect evaluation of both liquid and air factors on cells. Here cigarette smoke was taken as the model air pollutant, and its strong synergic effects with inflammatory level of A549 lung cancer cells on their fate were successfully quantified for the first time. These results well testified that the proposed dual-gradient chip is powerful and indispensable for bio-evaluation of air pollutant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Fumaça/análise , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Células A549 , Ar/análise , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Perfusão , Sefarose/química , Água/química
13.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 28(3): 230-237, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29022416

RESUMO

2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), which is a hazardous compound present in cigarette smoke, has been listed as probable human carcinogens (Group 2B). The carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of AαC were activated by the process of metabolic bio-activation. Whereas, few studies about genotoxicity induced by AαC have been reported. In this study, we took HepG2 cells as the model to investigate the relationship between oxidative DNA damage induced by AαC and metabolic bio-activation of AαC, which is of importance to unveil the mechanism of AαC genotoxicity. Firstly, the HepG2 cells were treated with 10 and 20 µg/mL AαC, respectively. Then different concentrations of protein ranging from 0 to 1 mg/mL in S9 mixture solution were utilized to make cells have different capacities for metabolic activation. Intracellular AαC hydroxylated metabolites and 8-OHdG were estimated by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that, at the same concentration of AαC, with the increment of concentration of protein in S9 mixture solution, the levels of hydroxylated metabolites and 8-OHdG/106dG increased. And at the same concentration of protein in S9 mixture solution, with the increment of concentration of AαC, the levels of hydroxylated metabolites and 8-OHdG/106dG increased. The hydroxylated metabolites and 8-OHdG were positively related by correlation analysis. In addition, the correlation coefficients of N-OH-AαC and 8-OHdG were maximum (R2 = 0.73 and 0.66). Taken together, these results indicated that the metabolic bio-activation of AαC might result in oxidative DNA damage.


Assuntos
Carbolinas/toxicidade , Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Hepatoblastoma/induzido quimicamente , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Ativação Metabólica , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carbolinas/química , Carbolinas/metabolismo , Carcinógenos Ambientais/química , Carcinógenos Ambientais/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Hepatoblastoma/metabolismo , Hepatoblastoma/patologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Hidroxilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Microssomos/enzimologia , Microssomos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Mutagênicos/química , Mutagênicos/metabolismo , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Ratos
14.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 54: 40-47, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28672163

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke is a complex and oxidative aerosol. Previous researches on the hazards of cigarette smoke mainly focused on the adverse bioeffects induced by its condensates or gas vapor phase, which ignored the dynamic processes of smoking and the cigarette smoke aging. To overcome these disadvantages, we performed air-liquid interface exposure of whole smoke, which used native and unmodified smoke and ensured the exposure similar to physiological inhalation. Our results indicated that whole cigarette smoke induced lung epithelial cells (A549) and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) damages in cytotoxicity assays (methyl thiazoly tetrazolium and neutral red uptake assays). In addition, A549 and BEAS-2B cells showed oxidative damages in whole smoke exposure, with concentration change of several biomarkers (reduced and oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxyhydroxy-2-nonenal, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and 8-hydroxyl deoxyguanosine). These results indicate that whole smoke-induced oxidative stress occurs in two different kinds of cells at air-liquid interface.


Assuntos
Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Células A549 , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 30(3): 315-321, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627972

RESUMO

Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the secretion of cytokines may be associated with cigarette smoke-induced immunomodulatory effects, but a comprehensive analysis of the cytokine profile for cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) exposure is lacking. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the release of 20 cytokines induced by CSC from 12 brands of cigarettes in macrophages cells (Ana-1) and (2) to investigate the general characteristics of the immunomodulatory effects of CSC. Luminex technology was used to simultaneously determine the levels of 20 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), keratinocyte-derived Chemokine (KC), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), induced protein 10 (IP-10), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monkine inducible by γ interferon (MIG), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-basic) in the supernatants from Ana-1 cells treated with the CSC. The results showed that the release of eight cytokines was altered (IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, VEGF, IP-10, MCP-1, and MIP-1α) compared with the control. These cytokines fall into two major subtypes: proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, and VEGF, and chemokines, including IP-10, MCP-1, and MIP-1α. Compared with control, the remaining 12 cytokines were not significantly affected by CSC from the 12 brands of cigarettes. As a general characteristic, CSC exerts potently suppressive immunomodulatory effects on cytokine production of Ana-1 cells. Proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines may account for or contribute to the immunosuppressive properties of CSC.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Tabaco
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157663

RESUMO

2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), which has been reported to be 40-258ng per cigarette, was regarded as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2B) and harmful composition in Hoffman list. Thus, it is of great significance to develop an effective method for the accurate identification of AαC and its metabolites. In the present study, we have investigated for the first time the in vivo and in vitro metabolites of AαC using ultra performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detector and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). A comparative study showed that the metabolic patterns of AαC in beagle, mouse, rat and human liver microsomes were of significant difference with these in rat urine. For the metabolism of AαC in liver microsomes, nine metabolites of AαC, including five hydroxy metabolites, two quinone metabolites and two N-dimer metabolites, have been found. However, metabolism of AαC in rats is a phase II process with complex enzyme catalysis, 23 metabolites including C- and N-oxidation, O- and N-glycosylation, O- and N-sulfonation, and N-acetylation were identified in rat urine. In addition, five new N-acetyl-AαC-OH metabolites were identified for the first time, indicating a possible new pathway for the metabolism. This study significantly enriched our knowledge about the metabolism of AαC, and will be useful for a better understanding of its harmfulness and toxicity.


Assuntos
Carbolinas/química , Carbolinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Carbolinas/análise , Carbolinas/farmacocinética , Feminino , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Ratos
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1485: 44-51, 2017 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28108079

RESUMO

Pillararene bonded stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography were prepared using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as coupling reagent. The structure of the new materials was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. The chromatographic performance and retention mechanism of the new stationary phases were evaluated in reversed-phase mode compared with C18 using different solute probes including Tanaka test solutes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols and aromatic positional isomers. The new stationary phases could provide various interactions for different solutes, such as hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, π-π and inclusion interactions. The synergistic effects resulting from aromatic rings, oxygen atoms, alkyl linkers and cavities in the new host molecules improved the separation selectivity by multiple retention mechanisms. Such hybrid stationary phases can provide more versatility and have great potential for the analysis of complex samples.


Assuntos
Propilaminas/química , Silanos/química , Sílica Gel/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Indicadores e Reagentes , Isomerismo , Fenóis/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
18.
Anal Chem ; 88(21): 10523-10532, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27712071

RESUMO

To satisfy the requirement of simultaneous extraction and characterization of diverse kinds of multitarget analytes, the preparation, characterization, and application of a novel tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazine (TCT) coated magnetic nanoparticle (TCT MNP) adsorbent are presented in this paper. TCT assembles two benzene rings and two triazines with nitrogen cross-bridging links, which exhibits a unique structural framework and versatile recognition features based on the multiple recognition sites. These include π electron stacking, charge transfer, hydrogen bonding, and ion-exchange. TCT MNPs acted as a dispersive SPE adsorbent showing strong interaction with and adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroaromatics, and heavy metal ions. The dispersive magnetic nanoparticle solid phase extraction (d-MNSPE) strategy with the simultaneous extraction and stepwise elution (SESE) procedure was designed and optimized for the five PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene), six nitroaromatics (4-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol), and four metal ions (Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd) in aqueous samples. Due to the high stability, desirable durability, larger saturation magnetization, reuse and distinct enrichment capacity of TCT MNPs, the d-MNSPE method with the SESE strategy provided high recovery (>90%) and good precision (relative standard deviations, RSD < 10%). Coupled with the commonly used HPLC-fluorescence detection, HPLC-UV detection, and atomic absorption spectrometry, these trace probes in tap water, river water, and lake water were determined with very low detection limits, in the range of 0.09-0.15 pg mL-1 for PAHs, 6-11 pg mL-1 for nitroaromatics, and 17-53 pg mL-1 for metal ions after being enriched by the d-MNSPE. The determination of trace PAHs in urine samples from smokers and nonsmokers was successfully carried out with this method, which implied that the versatile TCT MNPs and the robust method together represent a significant potential application in the analysis of body fluids and disease markers. Such methods for accurate quantification of trace components in water are very valuable as they fulfill an unmet need in environmental and medicinal chemistry.

19.
J Sep Sci ; 39(11): 2123-8, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27059265

RESUMO

A method was developed for the determination of nine volatile N-nitrosamines in tobacco and smokeless tobacco products. The targets are N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosomorpholine, N-nitrosoethylmethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodipropylamine, N-nitrosobuylmethylmine, and N-nitrosodibutylamine. The samples were treated by dispersive solid-phase extraction using 1 g of primary secondary amine and 0.5 g of carbon and then analyzed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry with an electron impact ion source. The recoveries for the targets ranged from 84 to 118%, with <16% relative standard deviations at three spiking levels of 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 ng/g. The limits of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.15 ng/g. With the use of the proposed method, we detected the presence of six nitrosamines in the range of 0.4-30.7 ng/g. The study demonstrated that the method could be used as a rapid, convenient, and high-throughput method for N-nitrosamines analysis in tobacco matrix.


Assuntos
Nitrosaminas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Produtos do Tabaco/análise , Tabaco sem Fumaça/análise , Tabaco/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Talanta ; 150: 455-62, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26838430

RESUMO

In this work, we report a novel microfluidic gas collecting platform aiming at simultaneous sample extraction and multiplex mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. An alveolar-mimicking elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures was designed to move dynamically driven by external pressure. The movement was well tuned both by its amplitude and rhythm following the natural process of human respiration. By integrating the alveolar units into arrays and assembling them to gas channels, a cyclic contraction/expansion system for gas inhale and exhale was successfully constructed. Upon equipping this system with a droplet array on the alveolar array surface, we were able to get information of inhaled smoke in a new strategy. Here, with cigarette smoke as an example, analysis of accumulation for target molecules during passive smoking is taken. Relationships between the breathing times, distances away from smokers and inhaled content of nicotine are clarified. Further, by applying different types of extraction solvent droplets on different locations of the droplet array, simultaneous extraction of nicotine, formaldehyde and caproic acid in sidestream smoke (SS) are realized. Since the extract droplets are spatially separated, they can be directly analyzed by MS which is fast and can rid us of all complex sample separation and purification steps. Combining all these merits, this small, cheap and portable platform might find wide application in inhaled air pollutant analysis both in and outdoors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/instrumentação , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Fumaça/análise , Produtos do Tabaco/análise , Biomimética , Testes Respiratórios , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Humanos , Nicotina/análise , Nicotina/isolamento & purificação , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
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