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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800674

RESUMO

Food safety has attracted attention worldwide, and how to detect various kinds of hazardous substances in an efficient way has always been a focus. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are a class of hybrid porous materials formed by organic ligand and metal ions. Nanoscale MOFs (NMOFs) exhibit great potential in serving as fluorescence sensors for food safety due to their superior properties including high accuracy, great stability, fast response, etc. In this review, we focus on the recent development of NMOFs sensing for food safety. Several typical methods of NMOFs synthesis are presented. NMOFs-based fluorescence sensors for contaminants and adulterants, such as antibiotics, food additives, ions and mycotoxin etc. are summarized, and the sensing mechanisms are also presented. We explore these challenges in detail and provide suggestions about how they may be surmounted. This review could help the exploration of NMOFs sensors in food related work.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822578

RESUMO

FeOOH on the real catalytic interface for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is chemically unstable to dissolve in alkaline media. Herein, based on the perspective of the dynamically stable interface, we purposely design the well-dispersed nanorod arrays of CoMoO4 as a host on activated iron foam (IF) to realize the optimal redeposition of FeOOH, constructing a self-sacrificial template rich in the FeOOH surface. Notably, at long-time oxidation potential, the precatalyst FeOOH-CoMoO4 can realize MoO42- dissolution and redeposition of Co oxyhydroxides on FeOOH host simultaneously, constructing a dynamically stable Fe(Co)OOH interface. The introduction of CoOOH improves conductivity and provides synergistic effect with FeOOH to lower the energy barrier for OER and maintain long-time stability, eventually exhibiting a low overpotential of 298 mV to reach the current density of 100 mA cm-2 and high stability over 60 h. This work demonstrates the feasibility of manipulating metal dissolution-redeposition process for a dynamically stable interface.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764751

RESUMO

The use of superoxide dismutase (SOD) is currently limited by its short half-life, rapid plasma clearance rate, and instability. We synthesized a small library of biofriendly amphiphilic polymers that comprise methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(cyclohexane-1,4-diyl acetone dimethyleneketal) (mPEG-PCADK) and mPEG-poly((cyclohexane86.7%, 1,5-pentanediol13.3%)-1,4-diyl acetone dimethylene ketal) (PK3) for the targeted delivery of SOD. The novel polymers could self-assemble into micellar nanoparticles with favorable hydrolysis kinetics, biocompatibility, long circulation time, and inflammation-targeting effects. These materials generated a better pH-response curve and exhibited better hydrolytic kinetic behavior than PCADK and PK3. The polymers showed good biocompatibility with protein drugs and did not induce an acidic microenvironment during degradation in contrast to materials such as PEG-block-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PLGA. The SOD that contained reverse micelles based on mPEG2000-PCADK exhibited good circulation and inflammation-targeting properties. Pharmacodynamic results indicated exceptional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model and a rat peritonitis model. These results suggest that these copolymers are ideal protein carriers for targeting inflammation treatment.

4.
J Endod ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regenerative endodontics have created a desirable shift in treatment paradigm, despite current limitations of regenerative outcomes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) facilitate tissue regeneration and repair in a mild inflanmmatory environment. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) derived from MSCs play an imperative role in the paracrine modulation of regenerative responses modulated by MSCs. However, it remains unknown whether MSCs enhance dental pulp regeneration or whether this enhancement is mediated by sEVs in mild inflammatory environment. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of sEVs originated from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-preconditioned human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on dental pulp regeneration. METHODS: All sEVs were isolated from hDPSCs cultured with or without LPS; N-sEVs and L-sEVs, respectively. The effect of N-sEVs and L-sEVs on proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and differentiation of rat bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) was identified in vitro. Moreover, N-sEVs or L-sEVs were implanted into rat pulpless root canal models, and the regenerated tissue in root canals was assessed via hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson staining, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) after 30 days of transplantation. RESULTS: Both N-sEVs and L-sEVs could modulate BMSCs proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and differentiation. Both kinds of sEVs enhanced the structure of the regenerated tissue closer to that of a normal dental pulp in vivo. L-sEVs had a more significant effect than N-sEVs. CONCLUSIONS: sEVs released by hDPSCs in a mild inflammatory microenvironment are capable of facilitating the regeneration of dental pulp through functional healing instead of scar healing, which has potential applications as in regenerative endodontics.

5.
J Phys Chem A ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755470

RESUMO

We report an ion velocity imaging study of the charge exchange reactions between Ar+ ion and trans-/cis-dichloroethylene in the collision energy range of 2.1-9.5 eV, and we find that the energy-resonant charge transfer plays a dominant role in the large impact-parameter reaction. The parent yields C2H2Cl2+ in the high-lying excited states are directly produced in the charge exchange reactions, while they prefer spontaneous fragmentations in photoionization. This significant difference indicates that the present charge exchange reactions are much slower than the photoelectron detachment. The structural relaxations of the target molecule are allowed in multiple dimensions of freedom during the charge transfer, which should be frequently observed for the charge exchange reactions with large molecules.

6.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop a sensitive and clinically applicable risk assessment tool identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a high risk of mortality at hospital admission. This model would assist frontline clinicians in optimizing medical treatment with limited resources. METHODS: 6,415 patients from seven hospitals in Wuhan city were assigned to the training and testing cohorts. A total of 6,351 patients from another three hospitals in Wuhan, 2,169 patients from outside of Wuhan, and 553 patients from Milan, Italy were assigned to three independent validation cohorts. A total of 64 candidate clinical variables at hospital admission were analyzed by random forest and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses. RESULTS: Eight factors, namely, Oxygen saturation, blood Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate, admission before the date the national Maximum number of daily new cases was reached, Age, Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and absolute Neutrophil counts, were identified as having significant associations with mortality in COVID-19 patients. A composite score based on these eight risk factors, termed the OURMAPCN-score, predicted the risk of mortality among the COVID-19 patients, with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.93). The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality between patients with OURMAPCN-score >11 compared with those with scores ≤11 was 18.18 (95% CI 13.93-23.71; P < 0.0001). The predictive performance, specificity, and sensitivity of the score were validated in three independent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The OURMAPCN score is a risk assessment tool to determine the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients based on a limited number of baseline parameters. This tool can assist physicians in optimizing the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with limited hospital resources.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Before anti-EGFR therapy is given to patients with colorectal cancer, it is required to determine KRAS mutation status in tumor. When tumor tissue is not available, cell-free DNA (liquid biopsy) is commonly used as an alternative. Due to the low abundance of tumor-derived DNA in cell-free DNA samples, methods with high sensitivity were preferred, including digital polymerase chain reaction, amplification refractory mutation system and next-generation sequencing. The aim of this systemic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the accuracy of those methods in detecting KRAS mutation in cell-free DNA sample from patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Literature search was performed in Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates from the 170 publications found by literature search, eligible studies were identified using pre-defined criteria. Quality of the publications and relevant data were assessed and extracted thereafter. Meta-DiSc and STATA softwares were used to pool the accuracy parameters from the extracted data. RESULTS: A total of 33 eligible studies were identified for this systemic review and meta-analysis. After pooling, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio were 0.77 (95%CI: 0.74-0.79), 0.87 (95%CI: 0.85-0.89), and 23.96 (95%CI: 13.72-41.84), respectively. The overall positive and negative likelihood ratios were 5.55 (95%CI: 3.76-8.19) and 0.29 (95%CI: 0.21-0.38), respectively. Area under curve of the summarized ROC curve was 0.8992. CONCLUSION: Digital polymerase chain reaction, amplification refractory mutation system, and next-generation sequencing had overall high accuracy in detecting KRAS mutation in cell-free DNA sample. Large prospective randomized clinical trials are needed to further convince the accuracy and usefulness of KRAS mutation detection using cfDNA/liquid biopsy samples in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020176682; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=176682.

8.
J Sep Sci ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646632

RESUMO

In this work, a new quantitative analysis method of multi-components analysis via a single marker strategy coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, was proposed to analyze nine nucleosides (cytidine, uridine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine, thymidine, adenosine, and 2'-deoxyadenosine) as quality control markers in Rhizoma Paridis. Guanosine was set as the internal reference substance, whose content in Rhizoma Paridis was determined using conventional external standard method. Then, relative correction factors between guanosine and the other eight nucleosides were measured respectively. The amounts of the other eight components were calculated according to the relative correction factors by the quantitative analysis of multi-components via a single marker method. Finally, the result of vector angle cosine analysis showed that there was no significant difference of the contents between the external standard method and the quantitative analysis of multi-components via a single marker method, indicating that the quantitative analysis of multi-components via a single marker method can be applied for the quality control of Rhizoma Paridis. As far as we know, this is also the first report to analyze nucleosides by the quantitative analysis of multi-components via a single marker method, providing an efficient and promising quality assessment method for other traditional Chinese medicine containing nucleosides.

9.
Chembiochem ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687132

RESUMO

Enzyme-catalysed site-specific protein modifications enable the precision manufacture of conjugates for the study of protein function and/or for therapeutic or diagnostic applications. Asparaginyl ligases are a class of highly efficient transpeptidases with the capacity to modify proteins bearing only a tripeptide recognition motif. Here we review the types of protein modifications that are accessible using these enzymes, including N- and C-terminal protein labelling, head-to-tail cyclisation, and protein-protein conjugation. We describe the progress that has been made to engineer highly efficient ligases as well as efforts to chemically manipulate the enzyme reaction to favour product formation. These enzymes are powerful additions to the protein engineer's toolbox.

10.
Endocr Pract ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The KCNJ5 mutation is the most frequent mutation in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). We aimed to illustrate the relationship between KCNJ5 and prognosis after adrenalectomy as a guide for further treatment. METHODS: Our study included 458 patients with APA. Tumor tissues were screened for somatic mutations in KCNJ5 hot-spot regions. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify correlations between KCNJ5 and clinical outcomes in 334 patients with adrenal venous sampling lateralization. RESULTS: Somatic KCNJ5 mutations were identified in 324 of 458 patients with APA (70.7%). Compared with the KCNJ5-wild type patients, patients with KCNJ5 mutations were younger, had a higher proportion of women, and had shorter durations of hypertension, lower body mass indexes (BMIs), and lower systolic blood pressure values (P < .05). During follow-up, among the 334 patients with APA with adrenal venous sampling lateralization, 320 (95.8%) presented complete biochemical success and 187 (56.0%) presented complete clinical success. One hundred eighty-seven patients with primary aldosteronism who achieved complete clinical success presented the following characteristics: age <40 years (78.7%), BMI <24 kg/m2 (71.0%), hypertension duration <5 years (78.4%), females (66.9%), and KCNJ5 mutation (65.5%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified BMI, hypertension duration, and KCNJ5 mutation as independent predictors of complete clinical success. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of KCNJ5 mutations was 70.7%. KCNJ5 mutation is a protective factor of complete clinical success, while BMI and hypertension duration were risk factors of incomplete clinical success.

11.
Clin Nucl Med ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661203

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A 36-year-old asymptomatic woman was incidentally found to have a huge mass in the pancreas by ultrasound during routine health screening. The mass was suspected of neuroendocrine tumor or solid pseudopapillary tumor by subsequent abdominal CT. 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/MR were acquired for presurgical assessment of the tumor invasion and malignant potential, which revealed intense FDG uptake and mild DOTATATE uptake. The tumor was completely resected, and postsurgical pathology demonstrated pancreatoblastoma with neuroendocrine manifestations. This case showed the metabolic and biological features of pancreatoblastoma on the 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/MR.

12.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110076, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648296

RESUMO

The linear and nonlinear rheological behaviors of heterogeneous emulsions gels made from natural glycyrrhizic acid (GA) nanofibrils and sitosterol-oryzanol mixtures (sterols) were investigated using small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS). The nonlinear rheological response was qualitatively analyzed using normalized Lissajous-Bowditch curves. The microstructure of the emulsion gels strongly depended on the concentration of sterols in the oil phase, and showed a percolated segregated network at 10-20 wt% sterols due to the partial coalescence of droplets, and a jamming transition without coalescence at higher sterols concentration of 30 wt%. The microstructure differences led to different linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behaviors of these emulsion gels. SAOS tests showed that the oil phase structuring by the sterols significantly enhance the viscoelasticity of GA nanofibril emulsion gels, and the percolating emulsion gels exhibited higher elasticity than the jammed emulsion gel, as evidenced by a lower damping factor and frequency power-law exponent. The data of crossover strain, phase angle, and the normalized Lissajous-Bowditch curves from LAOS tests further revealed that compared to the samples in a jammed state or without oil phase structuring, the emulsion gels with a percolating segregated network showed higher structural elasticity and thus were more resistant to large deformations, probably due to the slow relaxation of rigid, hydrodynamically interacting clusters of partially coalesced droplets. These findings could potentially aid in the design of novel emulsion gels, based on all-natural and sustainable building blocks, with specific textural and functional properties for foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications.

13.
Mol Cell Biol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782039

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of endogenous non-coding RNAs, have been identified as critical regulators in human carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the precise actions of hsa_circ_0009035 in the progression and radioresistance of cervical cancer (CC). The levels of hsa_circ_0009035, microRNA (miR)-889-3p and homeobox B7 (HOXB7) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot. Ribonuclease R (RNase R) and Actinomycin D assays were used to assess the stability of hsa_circ_0009035. Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, migration and invasion were gauged by the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry and transwell assays, respectively. Cell colony formation and survival were determined by the colony formation assay. Targeted correlations among hsa_circ_0009035, miR-889-3p and HOXB7 were examined by the dual-luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) or RNA pull-down assay. Animal studies were performed to evaluate the impact of hsa_circ_0009035 on tumor growth. We found that hsa_circ_0009035 was highly expressed in CC tissues and cells, and it was associated with the radioresistance of CC patients. Moreover, the silencing of hsa_circ_0009035 inhibited CC cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and enhanced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in vitro and weakened tumor growth in vivo Mechanistically, hsa_circ_0009035 directly targeted miR-889-3p by binding to miR-889-3p, and hsa_circ_0009035 modulated HOXB7 expression through miR-889-3p. HOXB7 was a functional target of miR-889-3p in regulating CC progression and radioresistance in vitro, and hsa_circ_0009035 modulated CC progression and radioresistance in vitro by miR-889-3p. Our current study first identified hsa_circ_0009035 as an important regulation of CC progression and radioresistance at least in part through targeting the miR-889-3p/HOXB7 axis, highlighting its significance as a potential therapeutic target for CC treatment.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(11): 6349-6360, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587073

RESUMO

The dynamics of bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions in the gas phase are of great interest and several new mechanisms have been observed recently by theoretical studies. Here we investigate a recent-discovered SN2 reaction mechanism, called front-side complex (FSC) or halogen-bonded complex (XC) mechanism that couples the traditional front-side attack (FSA) and back-side attack (BSA) Walden-inversion mechanism. This XC-pathway begins with a front-side attack on the leaving group, then goes through a bending transition state (XTS) that is followed by Walden-inversion, and results in a configuration inverted product. We characterized the potential energy surface of the microsolvated Y-(H2O)n=0,1,2 + CH3I SN2 reaction using the B97-1/ECP/d method, where Y = HO, F, Cl, Br, and I, and n is the number of water molecules. It is found that the XCs have a deeper well depth than the back-side attack (BSA) pre-reaction complexes for HO-/F- nucleophiles, indicating that the system can easily become trapped in the halogen-bonded complex well. The barriers of both FSA- and BSA-paths increase with incremental solvation, whereas the change of XTS depends on the type of nucleophile. When Y = HO/F, the order of the barriers is BSA < XC < FSA for n = 0-2, and the order inverts to XC < BSA < FSA for n = 1 (Y = Br/I) and n = 2 (Y = Cl/Br/I), where the latter suggests an increasing participation of the halogen-bonded complex in the SN2 reactions. Comprehensive analyses on the structure, charge distribution, and energetics of XC and XTS are provided. This work indicates that the halogen-bonded complex mechanism may be common for alkyl iodides and the information on the potential energy surface is useful in understanding the dynamics behavior of the title and analogous reactions.

15.
Mol Immunol ; 133: 86-94, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636433

RESUMO

Regulatory B cells (Bregs), a subset of B lymphocytes discovered in the past few decades, have the capacity to suppress the immune response and dampen inflammation by secreting cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-ß). Whether Bregs are involved in Trichinella spiralis infection and the phenotypic characteristics of these cells after infection are still unknown. We investigated the phenotype of and dynamic changes in IL-10-producing Bregs in Trichinella spiralis infection in BALB/c mice. We used multicolour fluorescence immunostaining of microwave-treated paraffin sections to investigate the number of Bregs in T. spiralis infection. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to determine the frequency of Bregs and related subgroups and cytokines in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). High levels of IL-10 were detected in the spleen and MLNs of mice after infection with T. spiralis. Furthermore, the frequencies of IL-10-producing CD19+CD1dhighCD5+ regulatory B cells and CD19+ cells were increased during T. spiralis infection. We also showed that the induced phenotype was similar to that of transitional type 2 marginal zone precursor B cells (T-MZP) cells after T. spiralis infection in mice. This study is the first demonstration of the expansion of Bregs following T. spiralis infection.

16.
Cell Prolif ; 54(3): e13001, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522639

RESUMO

PURPOSES: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is essential for articular cartilage to respond appropriately to physical or biological stimuli and maintain homeostasis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), identified as an endochondral ossification genetic factor, plays a vital role in cell proliferation, migration and adhesion. However, how CTGF regulates GJIC in chondrocytes is still unknown. This study aims to explore the effects of CTGF on GJIC in chondrocytes and its potential biomechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qPCR was performed to determine the expression of gene profile in the CCN family in chondrocytes. After CTGF treatment, CCK-8 assay and scratch assay were performed to explore cell proliferation and migration. A scrape loading/dye transfer assay was adopted to visualize GJIC in living chondrocytes. Western blot analysis was done to detect the expression of Cx43 and PI3K/Akt signalling. Immunofluorescence staining was used to show protein distribution. siRNA targeting CTGF was used to detect the influence on cell-cell communication. RESULTS: The CTGF (CCN2) was shown to be the highest expressed member of the CCN family in chondrocytes. CTGF facilitated functional gap junction intercellular communication in chondrocytes through up-regulation of Cx43 expressions. CTGF activated PI3K/Akt signalling to promote Akt phosphorylation and translocation. Suppressing CTGF also reduced the expression of Cx43. The inhibition of PI3K/Akt signalling decreased the expressions of Cx43 and thus impaired gap junction intercellular communication enhanced by CTGF. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we provide evidence to show CTGF facilitates cell communication in chondrocytes via PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e923660, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that miR-21 upregulation is related to the aggressive development of cervical cancer. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a method that increases the absorption of targeted genes or drugs by cells. We focus on the role of UTMD-mediated miR-21 transfection in HeLa cells, a cervical cancer cell line. MATERIAL AND METHODS The effects of different ultrasound intensities on the transfection efficiency of miR-21-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and miR-21 inhibitor-EGFP plasmids were determined by flow cytometry. The effects of UTMD-mediated miR-21 transfection on HeLa cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were measured by CCK-8, flow cytometry, wound healing experiments, and transwell migration assay, respectively. Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR were used to detect the expression of tumor-related genes. RESULTS When the ultrasound intensity was 1.5 W/cm², the miR-21 plasmid had the highest transfection efficiency. Exogenous miR-21 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and inhibited cell apoptosis in HeLa cells. Treatment of cells with UTMD further enhanced the effects of miR-21-EGFP and miR-21 inhibitor-EGFP. In addition, miR-21 overexpression significantly increased the expression of p-Akt, Akt, Bcl-2, Wnt, ß-catenin, matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9), and epidermal growth factor (EGFR) levels, and decreased Bax expression. The regulatory role of miR-21 inhibitor-EGFP was opposite to that of miR-21-EGFP. After UTMD, miR-21-EGFP and miR-21 inhibitor-EGFP had more significant regulatory effects on these genes. CONCLUSIONS Our research revealed that an ultrasound intensity of 1.5 W/cm² is the best parameter for miR-21 transfection. UTMD can enhance the biological function of miR-21 in HeLa cells, and alter the effect of miR-21 on apoptosis, metastasis, and phosphorylation genes.

18.
Sci Adv ; 7(3)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523901

RESUMO

Long-distance transport of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been studied for ~50 years, yet its mechanistic basis and biological significance remain very poorly understood. Here, we show that leaf-derived ABA controls rice seed development in a temperature-dependent manner and is regulated by defective grain-filling 1 (DG1), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporter that effluxes ABA at nodes and rachilla. Specifically, ABA is biosynthesized in both WT and dg1 leaves, but only WT caryopses accumulate leaf-derived ABA. Our demonstration that leaf-derived ABA activates starch synthesis genes explains the incompletely filled and floury seed phenotypes in dg1 Both the DG1-mediated long-distance ABA transport efficiency and grain-filling phenotypes are temperature sensitive. Moreover, we extended these mechanistic insights to other cereals by observing similar grain-filling defects in a maize DG1 ortholog mutant. Our study demonstrates that rice uses a leaf-to-caryopsis ABA transport-based mechanism to ensure normal seed development in response to variable temperatures.

19.
Med (N Y) ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521746

RESUMO

Background: To develop a sensitive risk score predicting the risk of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using complete blood count (CBC). Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study from a total of 13,138 inpatients with COVID-19 in Hubei, China, and Milan, Italy. Among them, 9,810 patients with ≥2 CBC records from Hubei were assigned to the training cohort. CBC parameters were analyzed as potential predictors for all-cause mortality and were selected by the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Findings: Five risk factors were derived to construct a composite score (PAWNN score) using the Cox regression model, including platelet counts, age, white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. The PAWNN score showed good accuracy for predicting mortality in 10-fold cross-validation (AUROCs 0.92-0.93) and subsets with different quartile intervals of follow-up and preexisting diseases. The performance of the score was further validated in 2,949 patients with only 1 CBC record from the Hubei cohort (AUROC 0.97) and 227 patients from the Italian cohort (AUROC 0.80). The latent Markov model (LMM) demonstrated that the PAWNN score has good prediction power for transition probabilities between different latent conditions. Conclusions: The PAWNN score is a simple and accurate risk assessment tool that can predict the mortality for COVID-19 patients during their entire hospitalization. This tool can assist clinicians in prioritizing medical treatment of COVID-19 patients. Funding: This work was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFF0101504, 2016YFF0101505, 2020YFC2004702, 2020YFC0845500), the Key R&D Program of Guangdong Province (2020B1111330003), and the medical flight plan of Wuhan University (TFJH2018006).

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