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1.
J Exp Bot ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990035

RESUMO

Geminiviruses are DNA viruses that cause severe diseases in diverse species of plants, resulting in considerable agricultural losses worldwide. C4 proteins are a major symptom determinant in several geminiviruses, including Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV). Here, we uncovered a novel mechanism by which danger peptide signaling enhances the internalization of BSCTV C4 in plant cells. Previous studies showed this signaling is important for activation of bacterium- and fungus-triggered immune responses, but its function in plant-virus interactions was previously unknown. Pep1 RECEPTOR1 (PEPR1) and PEPR2 are receptor kinases recognized by Peps (plant elicitor peptides) in the danger peptide pathway. We found that BSCTV C4 upregulated and interacted with PEPR2 but not PEPR1. The Pep1-PEPR2 complex stimulated the internalization of C4 in both Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana cells. Furthermore, C4 induced callus formation in Arabidopsis, which was suppressed by PEPR2 overexpression but enhanced in the pepr2 mutants. In the presence of Pep1, overexpression of PEPR2 suppressed BSCTV infection in N. benthamiana. Exogenous Pep1 also reduced BSCTV infection in Arabidopsis in a PEPR2-dependent manner. Thus, PEPR2 recognizes the symptom determinant C4 and enhances its internalization mediated by danger peptides, suppressing BSCTV infection.

2.
Life Sci ; 242: 117221, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881224

RESUMO

AIMS: Endothelial cell (EC) tube formation is crucial for tumor angiogenesis, which becomes a target for chemotherapy. The anti-malaria agent dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHA on EC tube formation and the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with different concentrations of DHA, and the tube formation was measured by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The protein levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3), phosphorylated STAT3 and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were detected by Western blotting. The gene expression of FASN was determined by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The FASN siRNA and STAT3 (Y705D) vector were introduced into HUVECs by lipofectin transfection. KEY FINDINGS: DHA treatment inhibited tube formation, and the phosphorylation of STAT3 on Y705 of HUVECs. The expression of FASN was down-regulated by DHA and STAT3 inhibitor. The inhibitory effect of DHA on FASN expression in HUVECs was eliminated by co-treatment with the STAT3 inhibitor. Over-expression of STAT3 (Y705D) relieved the inhibitory effect of DHA on tube-formation and FASN expression. Under hypoxia condition, expression of FASN was up-regulated but inhibited by DHA treatment in HUVECs through suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that DHA inhibits the protein level of FASN via attenuation of the Y705 phosphorylation of STAT3, and subsequently inhibits tube formation of HUVECs. Our results support the therapeutic potential of DHA on angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hylobatidae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 406-414, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860277

RESUMO

Inspired by chasing-escaping behaviors of predator and swarming prey in nature, here we demonstrate a concept to create active micromotor systems from two species of passive microparticles with biomimetic predator-prey interactions. In this concept, the biomimetic predator-prey interactions are established in a binary particle system comprising the diffusiophoretic attractive microparticles (prey particles) and the diffusiophoretic repulsive ones (predator particles). In the absence of additional chemical fuels and external fields, the predator particles are attracted by and constantly chase the swarming prey particles, which, in response, escape from the former and show dynamic group reconfigurations because of the local repulsion. Based on this concept, various synthetic active micromotor systems have been demonstrated, including active ZnO-TiO2, Ag3PO4-TiO2, and ZnO-AgBr micromotor systems. As the predator and prey particles are powered by each other through the biomimetic predator-prey interactions, the concept proposed here provides an advanced method to develop not only a class of single micromotors powered by passive particles or "solid fuels" but also micromotor swarms capable of manipulating "moving cargo". In addition, it also illustrates a proof-of-concept implementation of intelligent micro/nanomotor systems composed of heterogeneous individuals with complementary or cooperative functions.

4.
New Phytol ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838748

RESUMO

Secretory and transmembrane protein synthesis and initial modification are essential processes in protein maturation, and these processes are important for maintaining protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER homeostasis can be disrupted by the accumulation of misfolded proteins, resulting in ER stress, due to specific intra- or extracellular stresses. Processes including the unfolded protein response (UPR), ER-associated degradation (ERAD) and autophagy are thought to play important roles in restoring ER homeostasis. Here, we focus on summarizing and analysing recent advances in our understanding of the role of ERAD in plant physiological processes, especially in plant adaption to biotic and abiotic stresses, and also identify several issues that still need to be resolved in this field.

5.
Stem Cells Int ; 2019: 6961052, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827531

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed to be involved in some autoimmune diseases and have been successfully tested in patients and mice. But their contribution to psoriasis and the underlying mechanisms involved remains elusive. Here, we explored the feasibility of using human umbilical cord-derived MSC (hUC-MSC) infusion as a therapeutic approach in an imiquimod- (IMQ-) induced psoriasis mouse model. MSC infusion were found to significantly reduce the severity and development of psoriasis, inhibit the infiltration of immune cells to the skin, and downregulate the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Our results provide an explanation for the therapeutic effects of MSC infusion by first suppressing neutrophil function and then downregulating the production of type I interferon (IFN-I) by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Therefore, we discovered a novel mechanism of stem cell therapy for psoriasis. In summary, our results showed that MSC infusion could be an effective and safe treatment for psoriasis.

7.
Stem Cells Int ; 2019: 9782373, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611920

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age. Chronic inflammation is considered to be the cause of ovarian dysfunction. Increasing evidence in animal studies and in preliminary clinical trials has demonstrated that MSCs possess immunomodulatory effects via their interaction with immune cells. However, their contribution to PCOS remains unclear. In this study, we showed that the administration of hUC-MSCs could efficiently improve the pathological changes of PCOS mice induced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), including ovarian histopathology and function. Moreover, we found that the administration of MSCs significantly downregulated the expression of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IFN-γ) and fibrosis-related genes (CTGF) in ovarian and uterus tissues and affected the systemic inflammatory response. The percentage of peripheral neutrophils, M1 macrophages, and B cells was significantly reduced, while M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in hUC-MSC-treated mice. In the spleen, the percentage of neutrophils, M1 macrophages, IFN-γ +CD19+B cell, IFN-γ +CD4+T cells (Th1), and IL-17+CD4+T cells (Th17) was significantly decreased in hUC-MSC-treated mice. These results suggested that hUC-MSC treatment could alleviate ovarian dysfunction by inhibiting ovarian local and systemic inflammatory responses.

8.
J Comput Biol ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638423

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) whose mortality is comparable to morbidity is a highly fatal disease. Early approaches of diagnosis and treatment for PC are quite limited, so it is of great urgency to figure out the exact tumorigenesis and development mechanism of PC. To identify the related molecular markers of pancreatic oncogenesis, we downloaded three microarray datasets (GSE63111, GSE101448, and GSE107610) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among them were identified, and the corresponding function enrichment analyses were accomplished. The protein-protein interaction network was conducted by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and the corresponding module analysis was accomplished by Cytoscape. There were 55 DEGs found in total. The molecular function and biological processes (BP) of these DEGs mainly include cytokinesis, mitotic nuclear division, cell division, cell proliferation, microtubule-based movement, and mineral absorption. Among the 55 DEGs, 14 hub genes were further confirmed and it was concluded that they mainly function in mitotic cytokinesis, microtubule-based movement, mitotic chromosome condensation, and mitotic spindle assembly from the BP analysis. The survival analysis showed that all the 14 hub genes, especially nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1 and abnormal spindle microtubule assembly, may involve in the tumorigenesis and development of PC. And they might be used as new biomarkers for auxiliary diagnosis and potential targets for immunotherapy of PC.

9.
Curr Gene Ther ; 19(5): 330-341, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant tumor that is difficult to eliminate, and new therapies are thus strongly desired. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to locate to injured tissues, inflammation sites and tumors and are thus good candidates for carrying antitumor genes for the treatment of tumors. Treating GBM with MSCs that have been transduced with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene has brought significant advances because MSCs can exert a bystander effect on tumor cells upon treatment with the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to determine whether HSV-TK-expressing umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCTKs) together with prodrug GCV treatment could exert a bystander killing effect on GBM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Compared with MSCTK: U87 ratio at 1:10,1:100 and 1:100, GCV concentration at 2.5µM or 250µM, when MSCTKs were cocultured with U87 cells at a ratio of 1:1, 25 µM GCV exerted a more stable killing effect. Higher amounts of MSCTKs cocultured with U87 cells were correlated with a better bystander effect exerted by the MSCTK/GCV system. We built U87-driven subcutaneous tumor models and brain intracranial tumor models to evaluate the efficiency of the MSCTK/GCV system on subcutaneous and intracranial tumors and found that MSCTK/GCV was effective in both models. The ratio of MSCTKs and tumor cells played a critical role in this therapeutic effect, with a higher MSCTK/U87 ratio exerting a better effect. CONCLUSION: This research suggested that the MSCTK/GCV system exerts a strong bystander effect on GBM tumor cells, and this system may be a promising assistant method for GBM postoperative therapy.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 39603-39612, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580053

RESUMO

The sealed anatomical features of the eye and its physiological activity that rapidly removes drugs are called anatomical and physiological barriers, which are the cause of more than 90% of drug loss. This aspect remains a critical issue in eye surface medication. Thus, promoting tissue permeability of drugs as well as prolonging their retention on the eye surface can improve their bioavailability and enhance their therapeutic effects. Thanks to the existence of a negatively charged mucin layer on the eye surface, several peptide-decorated polymeric micelles were prepared to enhance the interaction between the micelle and eye surface, thus prolonging the drug retention on the eye surface and promoting its tissue permeability. Tacrolimus (also known as FK506) is a hydrophobic macrolide immunosuppressant used to treat dry eye syndrome and other eye diseases. However, its hydrophobic nature makes its delivery as a topical eye surface medication difficult, with the risk of side effects due to overdoses. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the ability of FK506 micelles in promoting their permeability on the eye surface. Our results showed that the positively charged nanomicelles could significantly prolong FK506 retention on the eye surface and enhance its corneal permeability in ex vivo and in vivo conditions. FK506 nanomicelles exhibited superior curing effects against dry eye diseases than the FK506 suspension and a commercial FK506 formula. It exerted better inhibitory effects on eye surface inflammation and corneal epithelium apoptosis when examined by a slip lamp and a transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, respectively. Further assays revealed the higher suppressive effects on the expression of several inflammation-related factors at an mRNA and protein level. Hence, our results suggested that these positively charged nanomicelles might be a good drug delivery system for ocular surface medication.

11.
Mol Plant ; 12(10): 1315-1324, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557534

RESUMO

Bird predation during seed maturation causes great loss to agricultural production. In this study, through GWAS analysis of a large-scale sorghum germplasm diversity panel, we identified that Tannin1, which encodes a WD40 protein functioning in the WD40/MYB/bHLH complex, controls bird feeding behavior in sorghum. Metabolic profiling analysis showed that a group of sorghum accessions preferred by birds contain mutated tan1-a/b alleles and accumulate significantly lower levels of anthocyanins and condensed tannin compounds. In contrast, a variety of aromatic and fatty acid-derived volatiles accumulate at significantly higher levels in these bird-preference accessions. We subsequently conducted both sparrow feeding and sparrow volatile attractant assays, which confirmed, respectively, the antifeedant and attractant functions of these differentially accumulated metabolites. In addition, the connection between the biosynthesis pathway of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin and the pathway of fatty acid-derived volatile biosynthesis was demonstrated by discovering that Tannin1 complex modulates fatty acid biosynthesis by regulating the expression of SbGL2 in sorghum, thus affecting the accumulation of fatty acid-derived volatiles. Taken together, our study identified Tannin1 as the gene underlying the major locus controlling bird feeding behavior in sorghum, illustrating an example of the identification of an ecologically impactful molecular mechanism from field observation and providing significant insights into the chemistry of bird-plant ecological interactions.

14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2026: 85-93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317404

RESUMO

Identification of protein ubiquitination sites is very important for the functional analysis of a targeted protein. Sample preparation before LC-MS/MS assay is essential for this experimental process. Here, we describe two efficient methods for preparing samples for identifying ubiquitination sites in plant proteins by LC-MS/MS.

16.
Cancer Discov ; 9(9): 1248-1267, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201181

RESUMO

Glioblastoma ranks among the most aggressive and lethal of all human cancers. Functionally defined glioma stem cells (GSC) contribute to this poor prognosis by driving therapeutic resistance and maintaining cellular heterogeneity. To understand the molecular processes essential for GSC maintenance and tumorigenicity, we interrogated the superenhancer landscapes of primary glioblastoma specimens and in vitro GSCs. GSCs epigenetically upregulated ELOVL2, a key polyunsaturated fatty-acid synthesis enzyme. Targeting ELOVL2 inhibited glioblastoma cell growth and tumor initiation. ELOVL2 depletion altered cellular membrane phospholipid composition, disrupted membrane structural properties, and diminished EGFR signaling through control of fatty-acid elongation. In support of the translational potential of these findings, dual targeting of polyunsaturated fatty-acid synthesis and EGFR signaling had a combinatorial cytotoxic effect on GSCs. SIGNIFICANCE: Glioblastoma remains a devastating disease despite extensive characterization. We profiled epigenomic landscapes of glioblastoma to pinpoint cell state-specific dependencies and therapeutic vulnerabilities. GSCs utilize polyunsaturated fatty-acid synthesis to support membrane architecture, inhibition of which impairs EGFR signaling and GSC proliferation. Combinatorial targeting of these networks represents a promising therapeutic strategy.See related commentary by Affronti and Wellen, p. 1161.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1143.

17.
Trends Plant Sci ; 24(8): 755-769, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176527

RESUMO

As sessile organisms, plants have developed numerous strategies to overcome the limiting availability of the essential nutrient phosphate in nature. Recent studies reveal that post-translational modification (PTM) by ubiquitination is an important and central regulation mechanism in the plant phosphate starvation response (PSR). Ubiquitination precisely modulates the stability and trafficking of proteins in response to the heterogeneous phosphate supplement. Induction of autophagy provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms under phosphate starvation. In this review, we present and discuss novel findings on the regulation of diverse PSRs through ubiquitination. Resolving these regulation mechanisms will pave the way to improve phosphate acquisition and utilization efficiency in crops.

18.
Anticancer Drugs ; 30(10): 991-997, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205067

RESUMO

To investigate the synergistic antitumour effect of Clostridium butyricum combined with apatinib on colorectal cancer in mice. Murine colorectal carcinoma cell line CT26.WT cells were xenografted into the skin of BALB/c mice. Tumour-bearing mice were randomly divided into four groups, and given different treatment options (PBS control; C. butyricum; apatinib; C. butyricum + apatinib). Real-time PCR was used to detect C. butyricum content in the intestine of mice given C. butyricum. The effects of various regimens on tumour growth were monitored, and CD31, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expressions in tumour were analysed by immunohistochemistry. C. butyricum combined with apatinib significantly inhibits tumour growth with decreased CD31, PCNA and Bcl-2 expressions, and increased cleaved caspase-3 expressions. Our study confirms that C. butyricum combined with apatinib in the treatment of xenografted colon tumour in mice can significantly inhibit tumour growth and promote cell apoptosis than apatinib alone treatments, providing the reference for clinical treatments.

19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4923767, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223618

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate growth factors release kinetics for the combination of fresh platelet-rich fibrin (F-PRF) and lyophilized PRF (L-PRF) with different ratios to promote bone tissue regeneration. First, we quantified the level of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) in vitro and analyzed their release kinetics from F-PRF, L-PRF, and the fresh/lyophilized PRF in different weight ratios (F:L=1:1, 1:3, 1:5). The second experimental phase was to investigate the proliferation and differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) as a functional response to the factors released. To further test the osteogenic potential in vivo, different scaffolds (F-PRF, or L-PRF, or F:L=1:1) were implanted in rabbit cranial bone defects. There was a statistically significant increase in proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs when the culture medium contained different PRF exudates collected at day 14 compared with the negative control group. The results showed that the new bone formation in the fresh/lyophilized PRF (1:1) was much more than that of other groups in defects at both 6 and 12 weeks. Our data suggested growth factor concentration and release kinetics as a consequence of fresh and lyophilized PRF combination, which is an effective way for promoting bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas/química , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Coelhos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/química , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacocinética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
20.
Ren Fail ; 41(1): 354-362, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that leads to nephrotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of Cd-induced glomerular injury have not been fully clarified. Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and occludin are important endothelial cell markers in renal vasculature. In this study, the effects of Cd on the vWF and occludin expression in mouse glomeruli was investigated. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to analyze the expression of von Willebrand factor and occludin in glomerular endothelial cells of tumor necrosis factor-α-/- (TNF-α-/-) mice after treatment with Cd. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TNF-α-/- mice (n = 6) were treated with Cd, and the kidney tissues were collected. The expression of von Willebrand factor and occludin was detected by using quantitative real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to examine the regulatory role of TNF-α on expression of von Willebrand factor and occludin. RESULTS: We found that Cd significantly increases mRNA and protein expressions of von Willebrand factor and occludin in TNF-α-/- mice, but not in WT mice. In vitro, Cd significantly increased mRNA and protein expression of von Willebrand factor and occludin in HUVECs with TNF-α small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TNF-α acts to balance homeostasis of glomerular endothelium after Cd treatments.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Nefropatias/patologia , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Glomérulos Renais/irrigação sanguínea , Glomérulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Ocludina/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
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