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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126848, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403943

RESUMO

Face masks are necessary for fighting against the coronavirus disease 2019 around the world. As the face mask is usually made from polymers and phthalates are widely-used additives into the polymers, the face mask could be a potential source of phthalate exposure to humans. However, limited knowledge is available on the occurrence and risks of the phthalates from the face mask. In this study, twelve phthalates were determined in 56 mask samples collected from different countries. The phthalates were detected in all the samples with total levels ranging from 115 ng/g to 37,700 ng/g. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of the phthalates from the masks ranged from 3.71 to 639 ng/kg-bw/day, and the EDIs of the phthalates from masks for toddlers were approximately 4-5 times higher than those for adults. Non-carcinogenic risks in relation to the phthalates in masks were found to be within safe levels, yet 89.3% of the mask samples exhibited potential carcinogenic effects to humans. The extent of the risks for wearing masks located at a moderate level comparing with other skin-contacted products. This study unveiled a potential source of phthalate exposure to human, and indicated necessity of managing types and levels of additives in the face masks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Humanos , Máscaras , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 7187-7196, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737614

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effects and value of establishing a multi-target nursing group (MTNG) for facilitating goal-oriented enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) using the LEER ("less pain", "early movement", "early return to a normal diet" and "reassurance") model. Methods: The clinical data of 198 patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic malignancies were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: 91 cases were collected in a traditional group, which adopted traditional perioperative care, and 107 cases were collected in an MTNG group, which adopted MTNG measures. The differences in the clinical data including postoperative recovery, unplanned readmission rate, the implementation rate of nursing measures, the degree of a patient's understanding of the disease, and patient compliance and satisfaction with nursing care during hospitalization were compared and analyzed between the two groups. Results: The MTNG group reflected a lower pain degree and hospitalization expenses (P < 0.05), earlier postoperative flatulence, earlier recommencing of a normal diet, and earlier postoperative ambulation (P < 0.05), together with a shorter postoperative indwelling catheter duration and length of hospital stay (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidence of postoperative complications and unplanned postoperative readmission rates between the two groups (P > 0.05). The implementation rate of nursing measures and the degree of patients understanding the disease, and patient compliance and satisfaction with nursing care were higher in the MTNG group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The MTNG approach, based on ERAS with the LEER model, was conducive to the safe and rapid postoperative recovery of patients, the precise and efficient implementation of ERAS measures, the improvement of medical treatment satisfaction among patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find and explore the relationship among the length of the embryo's main anchoring villus and the week of gestation, embryonic crown-rump length (CRL) and maternal blood human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) during early pregnancy using ultrasound. METHODS: 108 singleton pregnant women underwent ultrasound examination of the fetus during early months of the pregnancy (5 weeks+ 5 days to 13 weeks + 6 days of gestation). Main anchoring villus was detected using HD-Flow and SlowflowHD. The detection rate and length of the main anchoring villus was recorded. The correlation among main anchoring villus with gestational weeks, CRL and blood HCG was obtained. RESULTS: The main anchoring villus was detected in all cases (108/108). It could be found throughout early gestational weeks from as early as 4 weeks + 6 days. The length of the main anchoring villus increased with gestational age, positively correlated with CRL and logarithm of HCG (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the detection rate of main anchoring villus was 100% and the length of main anchoring villus correlates with gestational week, CRL and blood HCG. Main anchoring villus could be the symbol where the embryo implanted.

4.
Bioorg Chem ; 117: 105448, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736135

RESUMO

Macrofungi Ganoderma is a valuable medicinal fungus resource for human health and longevity in China. In this study, ten undescribed compounds including seven lostane-type triterpenoids, ganodaustralic acids A âˆ¼ G (1-7), one pair of meroterpenoid enantiomers, (-)-6'-O-ethyllingzhiol (8) and (+)-6'-O-ethyllingzhiol (9), and one polyhydroxylated sterol, 3-O-acetyl-fomentarol C (10), together with eight known compounds (11-18), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma australe. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis as well as NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 4, 8, 9, and 12 showed significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values in the range of 4.1-11.7 µM, which were superior to that of positive control acarbose (213 µM). Only compound 7 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 cells.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 228: 112997, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808509

RESUMO

Hydrological management of the Three Gorges Dam has resulted in the interception of heavy metals in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). However, the exposure to heavy metals and health risks among local residents remained poorly understood. Here we collected 208 biomarker samples (hair) and 20 food species from typical regions in the TGR to assess the exposure levels of three toxic metals (Cr, Pb and As) in residents of the TGR, and subsequently investigated their health risk via dietary intake. Results indicated that hair Cr and As levels were below the reference value for normal people and threshold of skin lesions, respectively, whereas about 22% hair Pb exceeded the reference for clinical medicine, indicating a potential Pb exposure of local residents. Smoking habit and fish consumption were found to be predictors for hair Pb. In addition, the concentrations of heavy metals in all investigated food samples were below the limits of contaminants in food in China, except for Pb in the sweet potato and fish. The estimated daily intake of metals (DIMs) revealed that the intakes of Cr and As from studied food were under the recommended thresholds of Cr and As. However, the intake of Pb via diet exceeded the limit of the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and closed to the threshold for cardiovascular, which was probably associated with the high Pb concentrations of fish and sweet potato. Overall, residents around the TGR were at low exposure to Cr and As, but Pb exposure may need more attention.

6.
Hepatol Int ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to compare the longitudinal changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with entecavir (ETV) vs. tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 6189 adult treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated therapy with TDF (n = 2482) or ETV (n = 3707) at 25 international centers using multivariable generalized linear modeling (GLM) to determine mean eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) and Kaplan-Meier method to estimate incidence of renal impairment (≥ 1 chronic kidney disease [CKD] stage worsening). We also examined above renal changes in matched ETV and TDF patients (via propensity score matching [PSM] on age, sex, diabetes mellitus [DM], hypertension [HTN], cirrhosis, baseline eGFR, and follow-up duration). RESULTS: In the overall cohort (mean age 49.7 years, 66.2% male), the baseline eGFR was higher for TDF vs. ETV group (75.9 vs. 74.0, p = 0.009). PSM yielded 1871 pairs of ETV or TDF patients with baseline eGFR ≥ 60 and 520 pairs for the eGFR < 60 group. GLM analysis of the overall (unmatched) cohort and PSM cohorts revealed lower adjusted mean eGFRs in TDF (vs. ETV) patients (all p < 0.01) during 10 years of follow-up. Among PSM eGFR ≥ 60 patients, the 5-year cumulative incidences of renal impairment were 42.64% for ETV and 48.03% for TDF (p = 0.0023). In multivariable Cox regression, TDF vs. ETV (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11-1.43) was associated with higher risk of worsening renal function. CONCLUSION: Over the 10-year study follow-up, compared to ETV, TDF was associated with a lower mean eGFR and higher incidence of renal impairment.

7.
Mar Drugs ; 19(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822484

RESUMO

Four new indole-diterpenoids, named penerpenes K-N (1-4), along with twelve known ones (5-16), were isolated from the fermentation broth produced by adding L-tryptophan to the culture medium of the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KFD28. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated extensively by 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS data spectroscopic analyses and ECD calculations. Compound 4 represents the second example of paxilline-type indole diterpene bearing a 1,3-dioxepane ring. Three compounds (4, 9, and 15) were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines, of which compound 9 was the most active and showed cytotoxic activity against the human liver cancer cell line BeL-7402 with an IC50 value of 5.3 µM. Moreover, six compounds (5, 7, 10, 12, 14, and 15) showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if respiratory muscle training is capable of reducing the occurrence of respiratory complications and improving dysphagia (swallowing or cough function) after stroke? DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized control trials based on the Cochrane guidelines. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (> 18 years old) were diagnosed with stroke. INTERVENTION: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing respiratory muscles' strength by using the threshold resistance trainer or flow-oriented resistance trainer. OUTCOME MEASURES: Respiratory complications, swallowing and cough function. RESULTS: Eleven trials (n=523 participants) were included . Respiratory muscle training reduced the risk of respiratory complications (RR0.51, 95%CI 0.28 to 0.93, I2 = 0%,P=0.03, ARD =0.068, NNT=14.71) compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. It also decreased the liquid type PAS scores by 0.81 (95% CI -1.19 to -0.43, I2 = 39%, P<0.0001). There was no significant association between respiratory muscle training and FOIS scores, cough function:increased FOIS scores by 0.47 (95%CI -0.45 to 1.39, I2 = 55%, P=0.32), decreased PECF-VC by 18.70 L/min (95%CI -59.74 to 22.33, I2 = 19%, P=0.37) and increased PECF-RC by 0.05 L/min (95% CI -40.78 to 40.87 I2 = 0%, P=1.00) . CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective in reducing the risk of respiratory complications, and improving dysphagia by reducing penetration or aspiration during swallowing liquid bolus after stroke. However, there was no sufficient evidence to determine that respiratory muscle training improves cough function. Additional multi-center studies using larger patient cohorts are required to validate and support these findings. Furthermore, long-term follow-up studies should be performed to measure outcomes, at the same time avoiding bias due to confounding factors such as heterogeneity of the etiologies of dysphagia.

9.
Front Oncol ; 11: 747592, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778063

RESUMO

Background: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is one of the most commonly used treatments for de novo high-grade meningiomas (HGMs) after surgery, but genetic determinants of clinical benefit are poorly characterized. Objective: We describe efforts to integrate clinical genomics to discover predictive biomarkers that would inform adjuvant treatment decisions in de novo HGMs. Methods: We undertook a retrospective analysis of 37 patients with de novo HGMs following RT. Clinical hybrid capture-based sequencing assay covering 184 genes was performed in all cases. Associations between tumor clinical/genomic characteristics and RT response were assessed. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Among the 172 HGMs from a single institution, 42 cases (37 WHO grade 2 meningiomas and five WHO grade 3 meningiomas) were identified as de novo HGMs following RT. Only TERT mutations [62.5% C228T; 25% C250T; 12.5% copy number amplification (CN amp.)] were significantly associated with tumor progression after postoperative RT (adjusted p = 0.003). Potential different somatic interactions between TERT and other tested genes were not identified. Furthermore, TERT alterations (TERT-alt) were the predictor of tumor progression (Fisher's exact tests, p = 0.003) and were associated with decreased PFS (log-rank test, p = 0.0114) in de novo HGMs after RT. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that TERT-alt is associated with tumor progression and poor outcome of newly diagnosed HGM patients after postoperative RT.

10.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671925

RESUMO

Essential trace metals (ETMs) may play important roles in the pathophysiology of benign and malignant breast cancers. Our study aimed to find associations between ETMs and benign and malignant breast cancers. We recruited 146 patients with benign (n = 73) and malignant (n = 73) breast tumors and 95 healthy controls (HCs) from Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China. The serum concentrations of seven ETMs (Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) were evaluated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The serum concentrations of Zn were significantly lower in the malignant group than in the HC group, whereas the concentrations of Cu (p < 0.001) were significantly higher in the malignant group. The concentrations of Fe were significantly lower in both malignant and benign groups than in the HC group (p < 0.05). We observed that the Fe/Cu ratio was lower and the Cu/Ni ratio was higher in the malignant group than in the HCs, as well as in the benign group than in the HCs. The serum concentration of Fe (OR = 0.454; 95% CI, 0.263, 0.784; p = 0.005) was negatively associated with breast tumors after adjusting for potential confounders, including age, BMI, and smoking, drinking and menopause statuses; that of Cu (OR = 2.274; 95% CI, 1.282, 4.031; p = 0.005) was positively associated. Changes in the concentrations of ETMs (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni) may be involved in the development of malignant breast cancer. The findings provide foundations for further exploration of ETMs in the prevention and treatment of breast tumors.

11.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(5): nwaa169, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691633

RESUMO

We classify gapped topological superconducting (TSC) phases of one-dimensional quantum wires with local magnetic symmetries, in which the time-reversal symmetry [Formula: see text] is broken, but its combinations with certain crystalline symmetries, such as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], are preserved. Our results demonstrate that an equivalent BDI class TSC can be realized in the [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] superconducting wire, which is characterized by a chiral Z c invariant. More interestingly, we also find two types of totally new TSC phases in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] superinducting wires, which are beyond the known AZ class, and are characterized by a helical Z h invariant and Z h ⊕Z c invariants, respectively. In the Z h TSC phase, Z pairs of Majorana zero modes (MZMs) are protected at each end. In the [Formula: see text] case, the MZMs can be either chiral or helical, and even helical-chiral coexisting. The minimal models preserving [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] symmetry are presented to illustrate their novel TSC properties and MZMs.

12.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(5): 806-816, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the curative effect of integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine on gout, and to investigate the therapy timing and exact treatment options of integrated medicine. METHODS: Totally 860 patients were enrolled, including 460 patients with intermittent gout, 200 patients with active Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome (TCM syndrome score ≥ 6) and 200 patients with stable TCM syndrome (score < 6). They were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The control group was treated according to Western Medicine guidelines. The intervention group was treated with integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine. The efficacy of TCM syndrome, joint pain score, joint swelling score, ESR, C-reactive protein, serum uric acid, liver and kidney function, and the duration of remission of TCM syndrome were compared between the two groups before and after treatments. RESULTS: For the patients with stable TCM syndrome, there was no significant difference in the effective rate and inefficiency between the intervention group and the control group. For the active type, the effective rate of the intervention group is better than the control group significantly. For the stable type, there was no significant difference between the intervention group and the control group in improving the scores of joint pain and swelling, reducing the level of ESR, C-reactive protein, serum uric acid and improving liver and kidney function. For the active type, the differences between the two groups were significant. The stable stage of gout in the intervention group was longer than the control group. CONCLUSION: For the gout patients with stable TCM syndrome in the acute stage of gout, we can use TCM treatment or Western Medicine alternatively; for the patients with active TCM syndrome, the scheme of combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine can be applied, with the better curative effect than any medicine alone.

13.
PeerJ ; 9: e12126, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603851

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is characterized by a gradually progressive alteration in the retinal microvasculature that leads to middle-aged adult acquired persistent blindness. Limited research has been conducted on DR pathogenesis at the gene level. Thus, we aimed to reveal novel key genes that might be associated with DR formation via a bioinformatics analysis. Methods: The GSE53257 dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus was downloaded for gene co-expression analysis. We identified significant gene modules via the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis, which was conducted by the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) Network via Cytoscape and from this we screened for key genes and gene sets for particular functional and pathway-specific enrichments. The hub gene expression was verified by real-time PCR in DR rats modeling and an external database. Results: Two significant gene modules were identified. Significant key genes were predominantly associated with mitochondrial function, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative stress. Among all key genes analyzed, six up-regulated genes (i.e., SLC25A33, NDUFS1, MRPS23, CYB5R1, MECR, and MRPL15) were highly and significantly relevant in the context of DR formation. The PCR results showed that SLC25A33 and NDUFS1 expression were increased in DR rats modeling group. Conclusion: Gene co-expression network analysis highlights the importance of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of DR. DR co-expressing gene module was constructed and key genes were identified, and both SLC25A33 and NDUFS1 may serve as potential biomarker and therapeutic target for DR.

14.
Small ; : e2103338, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655160

RESUMO

Analytical characterization of small biological particles, such as extracellular vesicles (EVs), is complicated by their extreme heterogeneity in size, lipid, membrane protein, and cargo composition. Analysis of individual particles is essential for illuminating particle property distributions that are obscured by ensemble measurements. To enable high-throughput analysis of individual particles, liftoff nanocontact printing (LNCP) is used to define hexagonal antibody and toxin arrays that have a 425 nm dot size, on average, and 700 nm periodicity. The LNCP process is rapid, simple, and does not require access to specialized nanofabrication tools. These densely packed, highly ordered arrays are used to capture liposomes and bacterial outer membrane vesicles on the basis of their surface biomarkers, with a maximum of one particle per array dot, resulting in densely packed arrays of particles. Despite the high particle density, the underlying antibody or toxin array ensured that neighboring individual particles are optically resolvable. Provided target particle biomarkers and suitable capture molecules are identified, this approach can be used to generate high density arrays of a wide variety of small biological particles, including other types of EVs like exosomes.

15.
Neuroendocrinology ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649240

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) bone metastasis (BM) and Gallium-68 (68Ga)-DOTA-TATE performance and to explore their correlation with the immunohistochemical proliferation index (Ki-67). PROCEDURES: A total of 112 patients with BMs were screened from 1082 NEN patients who underwent [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-TATE imaging. All patients had pathological results, and BMs were affirmed by clinical/imaging follow-up of and/or histopathology. The maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) ratio of BM to normal bone determined for each patient was used in the final analysis. RESULTS: The incidence rate of BMs in NENs was 10.35%. BMs occurred in the spine (75%), pelvis (72.3%), ribs (58%), clavicles and scapulae (41.1%), limbs (37.5%) and skull (28.6%). Most cases were associated with liver metastases (70.5%) and lymph node metastases (65.2%) simultaneously. The SUVmax ratio of G3b (median ratio=3.77, Ki-67>55%) was significantly lower than that of G1 (11.43, Ki-67≤2%) and G2a (11.15, 3%≤Ki-67≤10%) separately P<0.05), while no differences were found for the G2b (8.5, 11%≤Ki-67≤55%) and G3a (6.64, Ki-67>55%) groups. In the total patients there was a significant negative correlation between the SUVmax ratio of BMs to normal bone and Ki-67 (r=-0.267, P<0.01). According to the changes in bone density on computed tomography (CT) scans, the cases were divided into four groups: osteogenesis, osteolysis, no change and a mixed group (median Ki-67: 6.5%, 15%, 12%, and 22.5%). The Ki-67 values were significantly different between the osteogenesis group and the other groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: BM is present in 10.35 % of NEN patients, and most have simultaneous liver and/or lymph node metastases. The occurrence of osteogenesis indicates relativity good differentiation and there is a negative correlation between SUVmax ratio of BMs and NEN proliferation.

16.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare ulnar nerve decompression and anterior subfascial transposition with versus without supercharged end-to-side anterior interosseous nerve-to-ulnar motor nerve transfer for advanced cubital tunnel syndrome, to describe performing the nerve transfer through a small incision, and to investigate predictive factors for poor recovery following the procedure. METHODS: Between January 2013 and October 2016, 93 patients were randomly allocated to a study group (n = 45) and a control group (n = 48). Patients in the study group were treated with supercharged motor nerve transfer via a 5-cm incision following decompression and anterior subfascial transposition. Patients in the control group were treated with decompression and anterior subfascial transposition alone. Postoperative pinch strength and compound muscle action potential amplitude (CMAPa) were assessed. Function of the limb was assessed based on the Gabel/Amadio scale. Between-group data were compared, and significance was set at p < 0.05. Potential risk factors were collected from demographic data and disease severity indicators. RESULTS: At the final follow-up at 2 years, the results of the study group were superior to those of the control group with regard to postoperative pinch strength (75.13% ± 7.65% vs 62.11% ± 6.97%, p < 0.05); CMAPa of the first dorsal interossei (17.17 ± 5.84 mV vs 12.20 ± 4.09 mV, p < 0.01); CMAPa of abductor digiti minimi (11.57 ± 4.04 mV vs 8.43 ± 6.11 mV, p < 0.01); and excellent to good results (0.67 for the study group vs 0.35 for the control group, p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the advanced age (OR 2.98, 95% CI 2.25-4.10; p = 0.003) in the study group was related to unsatisfactory outcome in the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the treatment of advanced cubital tunnel syndrome, additional supercharged end-to-side anterior interosseous nerve-to-ulnar motor nerve transfer may produce a better function of the hand. The authors also found that cases in the elderly were related to unsatisfactory postoperative results for these patients and that they could be informed of the possibility of worsening surgery results.

17.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 687024, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504840

RESUMO

Objective: Fexofenadine (FFD) is an antihistamine drug with an anti-inflammatory effect. The intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration process is involved in inflammation in which tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role. This study aims to investigate the role of FFD in the pathological process of IVD degeneration. Methods: Safranin O staining was used for the measurement of cartilageous tissue in the disc. Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) staining was used to determine the disc construction. A rat needle puncture model was taken advantage of to examine the role of FFD in disc degeneration in vivo. Western Blotting assay, immunochemistry, and immunoflurence staining were used for the determination of inflammatory molecules. ELISA assay was performed to detect the release of inflammatory cytokines. A real-time PCR assay was analyzed to determine the transcriptional expressions of molecules. Results: Elevated TNF-α resulted in inflammatory disc degeneration, while FFD protected against TNF-α-induced IVD degeneration. Mechanism study found FFD exhibited a disc protective effect through at least two pathways. (a) FFD inhibited TNF-α-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and (b) FFD rescued TNF-α induced inflammation in disc degeneration. Furthermore, the present study found that FFD suppressed TNF-α mediated disc degeneration via the cPLA2/NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusions: FFD provided another alternative for treating disc degeneration through a novel mechanism. Additionally, FFD may also be a potential target for the treatment of other inflammatory-related diseases, including IVD degeneration.

18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112032, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the anti-cataract effects of coconut water (CW) in vivo and in vitro, and to explore the potential pathogenic mechanism. METHODS: In this study, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control (CO), diabetic (DM), diabetic treated with CW (DM + CW), and diabetic treated with Glibenclamide (DM + Gli). Except for the CO group, in the other three groups, intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) was conducted to establish diabetic models. The experiment was conducted for 20 weeks. The slit-lamp examination was undertaken during the period of experiment (20 weeks), and then, all rats were sacrificed. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the left lens were measured by using biochemical assays. The right lens was used for pathological analysis. The rat lens epithelial cells (LECs) were cultured in vitro and the subcultured cell were divided into four groups, namely the normal glucose group (5 mmol /L glucose, Group I), the high glucose group (40 mmol/L glucose, Group II), high glucose +5% CW group (Group III), and high glucose +10% CW group (Group IV). LECs were cultured under the conditions as described above for 48 h. Cell proliferation and the morphological changes were observed with interted phase contrast microscope.The level of cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. the level of SOD, MDA and GSH-Px were also detected. RESULTS: The lens opacity index decreased in diabetic rats, and LECs apoptosis ratio also decreased in high glucose environments that received CW. Under treatment with CW, reduced MDA level and elevated activities of SOD and GSH-Px were detected, both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The increased severity of cataract and LECs apoptosis were noted in diabetic rats that received normal water, while CW markedly mitigated the enhanced cataract severity and the reduction of LECs induced by diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: CW is a functional food that can protect the lens from diabetic cataract. The possible underlying mechanism may be partly explained via the decreased oxidative stress in lens. However, further research needs to be conducted to indicate the pathogenic mechanism of anti-diabetic effects of CW.

19.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498975

RESUMO

Five new glycosides including mimenghuasu A and B (1-2), isolinarin (3), cyclocitralosides A and B (4-5), along with forty-seven known compounds were isolated from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis. These structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, 1 D, 2 D NMR, and MS spectra). The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the expression of TNF-α (LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells) and MTT experiment on LPS-induced HUVECs proliferation effects. Good suppressive effects on the expression of TNF-α were shown by 4 and 5 with IC50 values of 19.35 and 22.10 µM, respectively, compared to positive control indomethacin (IC50 16.40 µM). In addition to this, some isolated compounds exhibited excellent antioxidant activities including compounds 16, 18, 29, 39, and 47 (IC50 µM: 82.59, 72.94, 33.65, 46.67, and 20.81, respectively) with almost the same or stronger potency with reference to vitamin C as positive control (IC50 81.83 µM).

20.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578516

RESUMO

In the direct current electric field, the surface of epoxy resin (EP) insulating material is prone to charge accumulation, which leads to electric field distortion and damages the overall insulation of the equipment. Nano-doping is an effective method to improve the surface insulation strength and DC flashover voltage of epoxy resin composites. In this study, pure bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BFO), as well as BFO nanofillers, which were doped by La element, Cr element as well as co-doped by La + Cr element, were prepared by the sol-gel method. Epoxy composites with various filler concentrations were prepared by blending nano-fillers with epoxy resin. The morphology and crystal structure of the filler were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests. The effects of different filler types and filler mass fraction on the surface flashover voltage, charge dissipation rate, and trap characteristics of epoxy resin composites were studied. The results showed that element doping with bismuth ferrite nanofillers could further increase the flash voltage of the composites. The flashover voltage of La + Cr elements co-doped composites with the filler mass fraction of 4 wt% was 45.2% higher than that of pure epoxy resin. Through data comparison, it is found that the surface charge dissipation rate is not the only determinant of the flashover voltage. Appropriately reducing the surface charge dissipation rate of epoxy resin composites can increase the flashover voltage. Finally, combining with the distribution characteristics of the traps on the surface of the materials to explain the mechanism, it is found that the doping of La element and Cr element can increase the energy level depth and density of the deep traps of the composite materials, which can effectively improve the flashover voltage along the surface of the epoxy resin.

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