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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2214: 241-252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944914

RESUMO

ChIP-seq is a powerful technique that allows the detection of chromatin localization for proteins and epigenetic modifications. However, conventional ChIP-seq usually requires millions of cells. This becomes a daunting task for applications in which only limited experimental materials are available. For example, during mammalian embryo development, the epigenomes undergo drastic reprogramming which endows a fertilized egg with the potential to develop into the whole body. Low-input ChIP-seq methods would be instrumental to help decipher molecular mechanisms underlying such epigenetic reprogramming. Here we describe an optimized ChIP-seq method-STAR (Small-scale TELP-Assisted Rapid) ChIP-seq-that allows the detection of histone modifications using only a few hundred cells. This method is proven to be robust in epigenomic profiling in both embryos and cultured cells.

2.
Stem Cell Reports ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035464

RESUMO

Upon fertilization, terminally differentiated gametes are transformed to a totipotent zygote, which gives rise to an embryo. How parental epigenetic memories are inherited and reprogrammed to accommodate parental-to-zygotic transition remains a fundamental question in developmental biology, epigenetics, and stem cell biology. With the rapid advancement of ultra-sensitive or single-cell epigenome analysis methods, unusual principles of epigenetic reprogramming begin to be unveiled. Emerging data reveal that in many species, the parental epigenome undergoes dramatic reprogramming followed by subsequent re-establishment of the embryo epigenome, leading to epigenetic "rebooting." Here, we discuss recent progress in understanding epigenetic reprogramming and their functions during mammalian early development. We also highlight the conserved and species-specific principles underlying diverse regulation of the epigenome in early embryos during evolution.

3.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 114284, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068553

RESUMO

Lung cancer has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in females in developed countries and the leading cause of cancer death in males. Despite extensive research on lung cancer, the pathogenesis of lung cancer is not fully understood. ALKBH1 is a 2-oxoglutarate and Fe (II)-dependent dioxygenase responsible for the demethylation of 6-methyladenine (m6A) in RNA and is essential to multiple cellular processes in human. Numerous recent studies suggested that ALKBH1 played a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, but the role of ALKBH1 in lung cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression levels of ALKBH1 in lung cancer tissues and cells were up regulated. The invasion and migration abilities of lung cancer cells were significantly suppressed in vitro upon the silencing of ALKBH1 while they were significantly promoted upon its overexpression. We next characterized the enzyme biochemically by analyzing the contribution of essential residues Y184, H231, D233, H287, R338, and R344 to its m6A demethylation activity. Lastly, our 3.1-Å crystal structure of mouse ALKBH1 revealed that the N-terminal domain of the protein forms close contacts with the core catalytic domain and might be responsible for the recognition of nucleic acid substrates. In summary, our combined cellular, biochemical, and structural results provide insight into the potential ALKBH1-based drug design for cancer therapies.

4.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030111

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important problem threatening human health. After HBV virus invades human body, it may assemble a complete virus particle in the cytoplasm to trigger the immune reaction, especially the interaction between the HBV virus and the host that mediated by CD8+ T cell. We collected the sequences of HBV from the HBVdb database, then screened candidate mutation sites in Chinese, European and American populations based on conservation and physicochemical properties. After that we constructed the three-dimensional structure of Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) -peptide complexes, performed molecular docking, run molecular dynamics to compare the binding free energy, stability, and affinity of MHC I-peptide complexes with the aim to estimate the effect of peptide mutation. The specific HBV virus subtypes of the Chinese, European and American population were studied and the candidate mutation sites were used to predict the mutant peptide antigen. Finally, based on physical and chemical properties and peptide antigen prediction scores, 21 HBV mutation sites were selected. Then combined with specific Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) subtypes, 11 mutations were found to have a significant negative impact on affinity, stability and binding free energy. Overall, our work found important potential mutations, which provide an evaluation of HBV mutations and a clue of it in immunotherapy. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

6.
Ann Hepatol ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of liver injury (LI) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients ranged from 14% to 53% based on sole or multiple elevated indexes for LI. The aims of our study were to investigate the changes of parameters (ALT, AST) in LI and determine the risk factors for LI in a cohort of 830 COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Demographic information, clinical features, and laboratory testing outcomes on admission were compared between patients with and without liver biochemistry abnormality (LBA). The same comparisons were performed between the LBA and LI groups. The updated RUCAM was used to determine the causality between drugs application and LI. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to explore the potential risk factors associated with LBA and LI. RESULTS: A total of 227 (27.3%) patients exhibited LBA and 32 (3.9%) patients were categorized as having LI based on the diagnostic criteria. 32.6% (74/227) of the LBA patients had RUCAM score >3, whereas the non-LBA patients had a slight lower at rate of 24.2% (146/603) (P = 0.047). Multivariable regression showed that a higher incidence of LBA was associated with hepatic hypoattenuation on computed tomography (CT) (odds ratio: 2.243, 95% confidence interval: 1.410-3.592, p = 0.001), lymphocyte proportion < 20% (2.088, 1.476-2.954, p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) > 1 mg/dL (2.650, 1.845-3.806, p < 0.001) and aspartate transaminase to alanine transaminase (AST/ALT) ratio > 1 (2.558, 1.820-3.596, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CRP levels > 1.0 mg/dL, lymphocyte proportion < 20%, AST/ALT ratio < 1, and triglyceride levels > 1.7 mol/L are potential risk factors for LI.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1317, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a condition of metabolic disorders, is now causing large disease burden around the world. This study aimed to update the prevalence of MetS in Jiangsu Province of China and evaluate the predicting value of five anthropometric measures including waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), a body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) in MetS. METHODS: 8040 participants from 12 survey sites were enrolled into this cross-sectional study by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from 2014 nutrition and diet investigation project in Jiangsu Province. The transformation of sex-specific z-score made the comparison meaningful when conducting the logistic analysis between anthropometric indices and MetS. The abilities of anthropometric indices to predict MetS were evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Delong test was applied to compare area under different ROC curves. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS in Jiangsu Province was 35.2% and the standardized prevalence was 34.8%. WC, BMI, WHtR, ABSI and BRI z-scores were positively related to MetS and its components. WC, WHtR and BRI z-score had stronger associations with MetS than BMI and ABSI in both male and female population. WC, WHtR and BRI had larger area under ROC curve than BMI and ABSI in male and female. WC in men had the largest area under the ROC curve, significantly higher than the other four measures of BMI, WHtR, ABSI and BRI (Z value = 9.08, 2.88, 16.73, 2.75 respectively). Among women, WC, WHtR and BRI had larger area under the ROC curve than BMI and ABSI, but the area under the WC, WHtR and BRI curve were not significantly different after the pairwise comparison by the Delong test. The optimal cut-off values of WC, WHtR and BRI for predicting MetS was 85.25 cm, 0.52 and 3.61 in male, 80.05 cm, 0.51 and 3.83 in female. CONCLUSION: MetS has become one of the major chronic diseases in Jiangsu Province. WC was better than other four indices in predicting MetS among male population in Jiangsu. WC, WHtR and BRI had superior abilities than BMI/ABSI in predicting MetS among female population.

8.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(9): 837-41, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the early clinical efficacy and safety of vesselplasty for the treatment of spinal metastases complicated by posterior wall destruction of vertebral body. METHODS: The clinical data of 19 patients(21 segments) with spinal metastases complicated by posterior wall destruction of vertebral body treated from January 2016 to January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 15 males and 4 females, aged 40 to 85 years old with a mean of (66.00±10.25) years . All patients had severe low back pain before the operation, which were diagnosed by CT as damage-type metastatic tumor of the vertebral posterior wall. All patients were treated by vesselplasty technique. Nineteen vertebrae received percutaneous unilateral pedicle puncture and two vertebrae received percutaneous bilateral pedicle puncture. VAS, ODI were recorded before operation, 1 d and 3 d after operation respectively. X-ray and CT scan were used to observe bone cement leakage and complications. RESULTS: All the operations were successful and postoperative pain was significantly relieved. Postoperative VAS score and ODI of the two groups were significantly improved (P<0.05). A small amount of bone cement leakage occurred in one vertebral body, which was a vertebral venous plexus leakage, but no clinical symptoms after operation. CONCLUSION: Vesselplasty for the treatment of spinal metastases complicated by posterior wall destruction of vertebral body can significantly reduce the symptoms of thoracolumbar back pain, improve the quality of life, reduce the incidence of bone cement leakage, and has high clinical efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão , Cifoplastia , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral , Vertebroplastia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cimentos para Ossos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1481572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908868

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of HuR protein on the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods: LCL lymphoblast cells and B lymphocytes were subjected to HuR overexpression (OV) or interference (IV). Western blot was used to observe the protein expression of human tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), human inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α (IKK-α), NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), and p52. Flow cytometry was performed to evaluate apoptosis, and the mRNA expression of TRAF1 was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunofluorescence was carried out to visualize the expression of HuR, and the relationship between HuR and TRAF1 was observed by pull-down test. Cell sensitivity to chlorambucil (CLB) and fludarabine (Flu) was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8. Results: The expression of HuR and TRAF1 in LCLs was significantly increased compared to that in B lymphocytes. Compared with the control, HuR OV significantly increased the expression of TRAF1 (P < 0.05), whereas it was significantly decreased in the IV group (P < 0.05). HuR can bind to TRAF1 directly, and the binding rate is positively correlated with HuR expression. After inhibiting HuR, the expression of TRAF1, IKK-α, NIK, p52, pro-Caspase 3, and PARP was significantly upregulated in LCLs and B lymphocytes (P < 0.05), while Caspase 3 was downregulated (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, the proliferation of LCLs and B lymphocytes treated by CLB and Flu decreased significantly after HuR blockade (P < 0.05). Conclusion: HuR may be a key protein regulating CLL resistance. After inhibiting HuR, inflammatory response and apoptosis were significantly increased, and the cell sensitivity to CLB and Flu increased, suggesting that inhibiting HuR activity may be a potential strategy to solve the problem of drug resistance in CLL cells.

10.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is associated with lower risk of preterm delivery. METHODS: Searching the RCTs which were compared preterm birth between women with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and without before December 2019 on Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane's Library, then performing a meta-analysis. RESULTS: 26 trials were identified, included 20124 women. There was almost no association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and lower risk of preterm delivery (risk ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.01, I 2 = 9%), gestational duration (0.30, -0.05 to 0.64, I 2 = 48%). In subgroup analyses, preterm delivery lower rate occurred in groups with mixed DHA and EPA supplementation not only DHA supplementation groups (P for interaction = 0.02); The dose of equivalent greater than 1 g made a higher reduction in preterm birth significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was not associated with reduced risk of preterm delivery compared with placebo or no treatment during pregnancy. Relationship between Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and other pregnant outcomes need more evidence and clinical studies.

11.
Anal Methods ; 12(24): 3156-3163, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930177

RESUMO

A poly(St-co-EGDMA)@poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-EGDMA) composite polymer was synthesised by precipitation reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The polymer was investigated as a sorbent for extraction of synthetic food dyes: ponceau 4R, tartrazine, sunset yellow, brilliant blue and erythrosine from soft drinks. The morphology and composition of the polymer were characterized and confirmed respectively by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The pH dependence experiment revealed that the adsorption of food dyes by the polymer was pH dependent and the maximum adsorption was achieved at pH 3. Adsorption between the polymer and the dyes was mainly due to electrostatic interaction. Under the optimized pH conditions, the polymer was saturated with the dye solutions at a concentration of about 200 µg mL-1 and exhibited a maximum adsorption capacity of 9 µg mg-1. The values were higher than those for polyamide, a sorbent used in the standard method. The recovery from the real samples of the three spiked concentrations 10, 50 and 100 µg mL-1 was respectively within the ranges of 83.2-107.2%, 94.5-110.7% and 79.2-111.5%, with a SD within ±4%. The sorbent could be reused more than 10 times with a recovery higher than 80%. The small volume requirement of the sample and sorbent during the sample pre-treatment, indicated that poly(St-co-EGDMA)@poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-EGDMA) was a potential material for food dye extraction in an environment-friendly and economical manner.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988590

RESUMO

Histone lysine N-methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D), an important methyltransferase that is involved in the methylation of lysine 4 in histone H3 (H3K4) and related to the development of prostate cancer. Hypermethylation of H3K4 is shown in prostate cancer (PCa). However, KMT2D inhibitors have not yet been developed. This article aims to design small molecule inhibitors targeting KMT2D_SET to prevent PCa cell proliferation and migration. Twenty-four inhibitors were firstly designed according to a virtual screening of computers,and shown different degrees of binding to KMT2D_SET. Compounds 1 and 16 showed high binding affinities to KMT2D, with KD values of 147 ± 32.9 µM and 176 ± 37.9 µM, respectively. In addition, they exerted strong inhibitory activity against the PCa cell lines PC-3 and DU145, with IC50 values of 1.1 ± 0.06 µM, 1.5 ± 0.06 µM and 1.8 ± 0.1 µM, 2.3 ± 0.2 µM, respectively. Furthermore, these two compounds significantly suppressed the migration of PCa cells.

13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 12530-12538, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866384

RESUMO

While present international CO2 mitigation agreements account for the impact of population composition and structure on emissions, the impact of international migration is overlooked. This study quantifies the CO2 footprint of international immigrants and reveals their non-negligible impacts on global CO2 emissions. Results show that the CO2 footprint of international immigrants has increased from 1.8 gigatonnes (Gt) in 1995 to 2.9 Gt in 2015. In 2015, the U.S. had the largest total and per capita CO2 emissions caused by international immigrants. Oceania and the Middle East are highlighted for their large portions of immigrant-caused CO2 emissions in total CO2 emissions (around 20%). Changes in the population and structure of global migration have kept increasing global CO2 emissions during 1995-2015, while the reduction of CO2 emission intensity helped offset global CO2 emissions. The global CO2 mitigation targets must consider the effects of global migration. Moreover, demand-side measures need to focus on major immigrant influx nations.

15.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 736-740, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840093

RESUMO

Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the most effective measure to prevent sudden cardiac death. However, ICD patients frequently have problems such as decline of exercise tolerance and quality of life, anxiety and depression after operation, which require cardiac rehabilitation (CR). A considerable amount of studies have proved that CR is an effective secondary prevention measure for patients with cardiovascular disease. Its safety and effectiveness have been supported by evidence-based medicine research, which can prevent the recurrence of cardiovascular events, reduce the readmisson rate, and promote healthy behavior and active lifestyle formation of patients, so as to improve the quality of life of patients. This review mainly summarized the necessity, safety, exercise program and economic benefits of CR in ICD patients.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Ansiedade , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
16.
J Reprod Dev ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801258

RESUMO

Circular RNA (circRNA) plays a key role in the development and progression of several diseases; however, its role in intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) is not well understood. This study aims to investigate the expression profiles and potential role of circRNA in IUA. RNA-sequencing was performed to screen for abnormally expressed circRNAs in TGF-ß1-induced IUA endometrial stromal cell (ESC) model (IUA group) and SIS3-treated IUA ESC model (SIS3 group). Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed to uncover the key functions and pathways. Interaction networks were constructed and analyzed based on the competing endogenous RNA hypothesis of circRNA. CircRNAs were validated by Sanger sequencing and qPCR. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using MTS and flow cytometry, respectively. The protein and mRNA expression levels of fibrosis-related proteins were measured using western blotting and RT-qPCR, respectively. A total of 66 circRNAs were differentially expressed between the IUA and SIS3 groups. CircPlekha7 was identified as one of the significantly upregulated circRNAs in the SIS3 group. Overexpression of circPlekha7 enhanced apoptosis, decreased the viability of ESCs, and suppressed the expression of α-SMA, collagen I, and SMAD3 in ESCs; whereas knockdown of circPlekha7 exhibited opposite results. Altogether, the results indicate that circPlekha7 plays an anti-fibrotic role in IUA and may serve as a promising prognostic biomarker for patients with IUA. Therefore, overexpression of circPlekha7 could be a potential treatment strategy for IUA.

18.
Exp Ther Med ; 20(3): 2765-2773, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765771

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation may serve as an important treatment modality in chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) have been demonstrated to induce renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) injury via autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the role of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs) in RTEC autophagy. AOPP-treated HK-2 cells were co-cultured with hUC-MSCs or treated with recombinant humanized hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Western blotting was used to detect the levels of autophagy-and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins, and immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the levels of autophagy-related proteins. The HGF protein levels in HK-2 cells and the hUC-MSC co-culture system were measured. The cells were subsequently treated with tivantinib, an HGF competitive inhibitor, and the levels of autophagy-related proteins were detected. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) II/LC3B I (LC3II/LC3I) and beclin 1 protein levels were increased, while p62, PI3K, phosphorylated (p)-AKT and the p-mTOR protein levels were decreased in AOPP-treated HK-2 cells co-cultured with hUC-MSC, compared with the group treated with AOPP only. Furthermore, HGF expression was increased in AOPP-treated HK-2 cells co-cultured with hUC-MSC, compared with the group treated with AOPP alone. When HGF activity was inhibited using tivantinib, these effects on LC3II/LC3I, beclin 1, p62, PI3K, p-AKT, and p-mTOR expression were partially reversed. Furthermore, the effects of tivantinib were reversed by Ly294002. In conclusion, the present study revealed that hUC-MSCs partially reversed AOPP-mediated inhibition of autophagy in HK-2 cells via secretion of HGF, indicating that hUC-MSCs may serve as a potential therapy for preventing the progression of CKD.

19.
Mar Drugs ; 18(8)2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824227

RESUMO

The high toxicity of actinomycin D (Act D) severely limits its use as a first-line chemotherapeutic agent in the clinic. Actinomycin V (Act V), an analog of Act D, exhibited strong anticancer activity in our previous studies. Here, we provide evidence that Act V has less hepatorenal toxicity than Act D in vitro and in vivo, associated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. Compared to Act D, Act V exhibited considerably stronger sensitivity for cancer cells and less toxicity to human normal liver LO-2 and human embryonic kidney 293T cells using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Notably, Act V caused less damage to both the liver and kidney than Act D in vivo, indicated by organ to body weight ratios, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and serum creatinine (Scr) levels. Further experiments showed that the ROS pathway is involved in Act V-induced hepatorenal toxicity. Act V generates ROS and accumulates malondialdehyde (MDA), reducing levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in LO-2 and 293T cells. These findings indicate that Act V induces less hepatorenal toxicity than Act D in vitro and in vivo and merits further development as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer.

20.
Biophys J ; 119(4): 852-861, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738216

RESUMO

DNA:RNA hybrid duplex plays important roles in various biological processes. Both its structural stability and interactions with proteins are highly sequence dependent. In this study, we utilize homebuilt optical tweezers to investigate how GC contents in the sequence influence the structural and mechanical properties of DNA:RNA hybrid by measuring its contour length, elasticities, and overstretching dynamics. Our results support that the DNA:RNA hybrid adopts a conformation between the A- and B-form helix, and the GC content does not affect its structural and elastic parameters obviously when varying from 40 to 60% before the overstretching transition of DNA:RNA hybrid occurs. In the overstretching transition, however, our study unravels significant heterogeneity and strong sequence dependence, suggesting the presence of a highly dynamic competition between the two processes, namely the S-form duplex formation (nonhysteretic) and the unpeeling (hysteretic). Analyzing the components left in DNA:RNA hybrid after the overstretching transition suggests that the RNA strand is more easily unpeeled than the DNA strand, whereas an increase in the GC content from 40 to 60% can significantly reduce unpeeling. Large hysteresis is observed between the stretching and relaxation processes, which is also quantitatively correlated with the percentage of unpeeling in the DNA:RNA duplex. Increasing in both the salt concentration and GC content can effectively reduce the hysteresis with the latter being more significant. Together, our study reveals that the mechanical properties of DNA:RNA hybrid duplexes are significantly different from double-stranded DNA and double-stranded RNA, and its overstretching behavior is highly sequence dependent. These results should be taken into account in the future studies on DNA:RNA-hybrid-related functional structures and motor proteins.

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