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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2266-2273, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359652

RESUMO

A high-content GABA was found in Sojae Semen Praeparatum(SSP), which is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and officially listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. To screen out and identify GABA-producing microbes from samples at different time points during the fermenting process of SSP, traditional microbiological methods combined with molecular biological methods were used to study the predominant GABA-producing microorganisms existing in the fermenting process of SSP. This study would lay a foundation for further studying the processing mechanism of SSP. The fermenting process of SSP was based on Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2010 edition), and samples were taken at different time points during the fermenting process of SSP. The bacteria and fungi from samples at different time points in the fermenting process of SSP were cultured, isolated and purified by selective medium, and dominant strains were selected. The dominant bacteria were cultured in the designated liquid medium to prepare the fermentation broths, and GABA in the fermentation broth was qualitatively screened out by thin-layer chromatography. The microbial fermentation broth with GABA spots in the primary screening was quantitatively detected by online pre-column derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography established in our laboratory. GABA-producing microorganisms were screened out from predominant strains, and their GABA contents in fermentation broth were determined. The DNA sequences of GABA-producing bacteria and fungi were amplified using 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA sequences by PCR respectively. The amplified products were sequenced, and the sequencing results were identified through NCBI homology comparison. Molecular biological identification was made by phylogenetic tree constructed by MEGA 7.0 software. Through the homology comparison of NCBI and the construction of phylogenetic tree by MEGA 7.0 software, nine GABA-producing microorganisms were screened out and identified in this study. They were Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, E. avium, Aspergillus tamarii, A. flavus, A. niger, Cladosporium tenuissimum, Penicillium citrinum and Phanerochaete sordida respectively. For the first time, nine GABA-producing microorganisms were screened out and identified in the samples at different time points during the fermenting process of SSP in this study. The results indicated that multiple predominant GABA-producing microorganisms exist in the fermenting process of SSP and may play an important role in the formation of GABA.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Fermentação , Fungos/classificação , Sementes/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/biossíntese , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fungos/metabolismo , Filogenia
2.
FASEB J ; 32(2): 654-668, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970251

RESUMO

Administration of exosomes derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) could improve some neurologic conditions by transferring functional biomolecules to recipient cells. Furthermore, exosomes from hypoxic progenitor cells exerted better therapeutic effects in organ injury through specific cargoes. However, there are no related reports about whether exosomes derived from MSCs or hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs (PC-MSCs) could prevent memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this study, the exosomes derived from MSCs or PC-MSCs were systemically administered to transgenic APP/PS1 mice. The expression of miR-21 in MSCs was significantly increased after hypoxic treatment. Injection of exosomes from normoxic MSCs could rescue cognition and memory impairment according to results of the Morris water maze test, reduced plaque deposition, and Aß levels in the brain; could decrease the activation of astrocytes and microglia; could down-regulate proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1ß); and could up-regulate anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and -10) in AD mice, as well as reduce the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and NF-κB. Compared to the group administered exosomes from normoxic MSCs, in the group administered exosomes from PC-MSCs, learning and memory capabilities were significantly improved; the plaque deposition and Aß levels were lower, and expression of growth-associated protein 43, synapsin 1, and IL-10 was increased; and the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and activation of STAT3 and NF-κB were sharply decreased. More importantly, exosomes from PC-MSCs effectively increased the level of miR-21 in the brain of AD mice. Additionally, replenishment of miR-21 restored the cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice and prevented pathologic features. Taken together, these findings suggest that exosomes from PC-MSCs could improve the learning and memory capabilities of APP/PS1 mice, and that the underlying mechanism may lie in the restoration of synaptic dysfunction and regulation of inflammatory responses through regulation of miR-21.-Cui, G.-H., Wu, J., Mou, F.-F., Xie, W.-H., Wang, F.-B., Wang, Q.-L., Fang, J., Xu, Y.-W., Dong, Y.-R., Liu, J.-R., Guo, H.-D. Exosomes derived from hypoxia-preconditioned mesenchymal stromal cells ameliorate cognitive decline by rescuing synaptic dysfunction and regulating inflammatory responses in APP/PS1 mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Precondicionamento Isquêmico , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Exossomos/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Sinapses/patologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25679624

RESUMO

Three-dimensional surface wrinkling of soft cylindrical tissues induced by differential growth is explored. Differential volumetric growth can cause their morphological stability, leading to the formation of hexagonal and labyrinth wrinkles. During postbuckling, multiple bifurcations and morphological transitions may occur as a consequence of continuous growth in the surface layer. The physical mechanisms underpinning the morphological evolution are examined from the viewpoint of energy. Surface curvature is found to play a regulatory role in the pattern evolution. This study may not only help understand the morphogenesis of soft biological tissues, but also inspire novel routes for creating desired surface patterns of soft materials.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 29: 594-601, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23768627

RESUMO

Surface wrinkling of mucosae is crucial for the biological functions of many living tissues. In this paper, we investigate the instability of a cylindrical tube consisting of a mucosal layer and a submucosal layer. Our attention is focused on the effects of internal pressure and surface tension on the critical condition and mode number of surface wrinkling induced by tissue growth. It is found that the internal pressure plays a stabilizing role but basically has no effect on the critical mode number. Surface tension also stabilizes the system and reduces the critical mode number of surface patterns. Besides, the thinner the mucosal layer, the more significant the effect of surface tension. This work may help gain insights into the surface wrinkling and morphological evolution of such tubular organs as airways and esophagi.


Assuntos
Esôfago/citologia , Esôfago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Pressão , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Modelos Biológicos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Tensão Superficial
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(4): 2483-90, 2010 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20092252

RESUMO

Simulations of gastrointestinal digestion were used to try to identify the nature of the complexes between antinutritional factors and iron and zinc in faba bean and legume fractions. In digestible residue of raw faba bean flour, simultaneous action of cellulase and phytases made it possible to release about 28% units more iron than that released with the treatment without enzymes. About 49.8% of iron in raw faba bean flour was solubilized after in vitro digestion and simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase. In the hull fraction, the action of phytases and the simultaneous action of cellulase and phytase allowed about 7 and 35% units of additional zinc to be solubilized, respectively. Single enzymatic degradation of phytates from dehulled faba bean allowed solubilization from 65 to 93% of zinc, depending upon the treatment. In dehulled faba bean, iron was chelated by phytates and by fibers, whereas zinc was almost exclusively chelated by phytates. In the hull of faba bean, a high proportion of iron was chelated by iron-tannins, while the rest of iron as well as the majority of zinc were chelated in complexes between phytates and fibers.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Celulase/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Vicia faba/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fabaceae/enzimologia , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Taninos/metabolismo , Vicia faba/enzimologia
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