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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2705-2714, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854662

RESUMO

A comprehensive and scientific understanding of non-point source pollutant transport pathways and source apportionment in combined sewer systems is essential for managing and improving the urban water environment. This study analyzed build-up and wash-off processes of pollutants on road surfaces and in sewers within a catchment of combined sewer systems in a typical old district in Zhuhai. Besides, source apportionment of the entire urban non-point source pollution was investigated by using the mass conservation method. The outcomes revealed that the build-up load of road deposited sediments in the study area was (28.81±10.69) g·m-2. The average wash-off load of road deposited sediments during five different rainfall events was (19.27±10.90) g·m-2 and the wash-off percentage was (52.69±13.3)%. The event mean concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in road runoff were 52-109 mg·L-1, and the event mean concentrations of SS in sewer runoff were 68-158 mg·L-1. Source apportionment analysis showed that road runoff, domestic wastewater, and sewer sediments contributed 39%-72%, <20%, and 13%-56% to SS, respectively. The thickness of sewer sediments increased by 1-14 cm during light and moderate rains, and the thickness decreased by 7-17 cm during heavy rains. It was found that rainfall characteristics affected the contribution percentages of pollution sources. The contribution of pollution from road runoff, domestic sewage, and sewer sediments in combined sewer systems were 2%-52%, 9%-65%, and 8%-81%, respectively. The derived outcomes should be useful for developing recommendations to control non-point source pollution in combined sewer systems and improve urban receiving water quality in China.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956681

RESUMO

Background: This study was to investigate the role of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) in inhibiting the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on osteoclastogenesis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods: Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-control group, CIA-control group, CIA-EA group, and CIA-EA-SCH58261 (A2AR antagonist) group. We detected tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), protein kinase A (PKA), and extracellular regulatory protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in peripheral blood by ELISA. PKA, ERK1/2, and NF-κB in ankle joints were determined by western blotting. We evaluated the arthritis damage by histological examination and determined the number of osteoclasts by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results: EA treatment downregulated the expression of TNF-α, RANKL, PKA, ERK1/2, and NF-κB in peripheral blood but increased the levels of PKA and ERK1/2 in ankle joints. Importantly, EA treatment reduced bone erosion as evidenced by the histological findings and inhibited osteoclastogenesis as revealed by TRAP staining. All these effects of the EA treatment were reversed by combining EA treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261. Conclusion: Our data suggest that EA treatment activated A2AR. The effects of the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 suggest that the inhibition of osteoclast formation, the inhibition of TNF-α, RANKL, and NF-κB expression, and the increase of ERK1/2 are all dependent on this EA-induced A2AR activation. It is therefore likely that these pathways with clearly defined roles in inflammation and bone erosion are at least partially involved in the mediation of the inhibition of synovitis and osteoclast formation induced by EA.

3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 28(5): 1533-1540, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745189

RESUMO

In order to study the vertical distribution and the seasonal variation of N and P in Spartina alterniflora wetland of Jiaozhou Bay, soil samples in S. alterniflora wetland and bare flat in April, July, September, October, November and December 2015 were collected, and TN, NH4+-N, TP, AP, TOC, pH, salinity and water content were tested. The average values of soil TN, NH4+-N, TP and AP contents in S. alterniflora wetland were 0.396 g·kg-1, 12.14 mg·kg-1, 0.385 g·kg-1 and 16.52 mg·kg-1 respectively, while those in bare flat were 0.419 g·kg-1, 8.13 mg·kg-1, 0.423 g·kg-1 and 19.57 mg·kg-1 respectively. Generally, they decreased gradually with the increase of the soil depth (0-60 cm). The contents of N and P in S. alterniflora wetland had obvious variations with season. The maximum and minimum of soil TN contents in S. alterniflora wetland were in spring and autumn respectively, while the content of soil TN in bare flat decreased with the change of season. Compared with the bare flat, the content of TP in S. alterniflora wetland had the opposite trend with the change of season, while that of AP had the same trend. The contents of TN and TP were significantly positively related with TOC, while there was no significant correlation between them in the bare flat. N and P contents in S. alterniflora wetland and bare flat were obviously influenced by pH and salinity.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Áreas Alagadas , Baías , Carbono , China
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26941824

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of repeated electroacupuncture (EA) over 21 days on the adenosine concentration in peripheral blood of rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 6 animals each: sham-control, CIA-control, and CIA-EA. We determined the adenosine concentration in peripheral blood and assessed pathological changes of ankle joints. Quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine mRNA levels of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), adenosine deaminase (ADA), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect expression of ADA and CD73 in synovial tissue. Repeated EA treatment on CIA resulted in the persistence of high concentrations of adenosine in peripheral blood, significantly reduced pathological scores, TNF-α mRNA concentrations, and synovial hyperplasia. Importantly, EA treatment led to a significant increase in CD73 mRNA levels in peripheral blood but was associated with a decrease of CD73 immunostaining in synovial tissue. In addition, EA treatment resulted in a significant decrease of both ADA mRNA levels in peripheral blood and ADA immunostaining in synovial tissue. Thus, repeated EA treatment exerts an anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effect on CIA by increasing the concentration of adenosine. The mechanism of EA action may involve the modulation of CD73 and ADA expression levels.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25784951

RESUMO

To study the role of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on synovitis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), C57BL/6 mice were divided into five treatment groups: Sham-control, CIA-control, CIA-EA, CIA-SCH58261 (A2AR antagonist), and CIA-EA-SCH58261. All mice except those in the Sham-control group were immunized with collagen II for arthritis induction. EA treatment was administered using the stomach 36 and spleen 6 points, and stimulated with a continuous rectangular wave for 30 min daily. EA treatment and SCH58261 were administered daily from days 35 to 49 (n = 10). After treatment, X-ray radiography of joint bone morphology was established at day 60 and mouse blood was collected for ELISA determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. Mice were sacrificed and processed for histological examination of pathological changes of joint tissue, including hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry of A2AR expression. EA treatment resulted in significantly reduced pathological scores, TNF-α concentrations, and bone damage X-ray scores. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective effect of EA treatment was reversed by coadministration of SCH58261. Thus, EA treatment exerts an anti-inflammatory effect resulting in significant protection of cartilage by activation of A2AR in the synovial tissue of CIA.

6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 26(11): 3554-60, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915215

RESUMO

Methyl halides are the major carrier of halogens in the atmosphere, and they play an important role in tropospheric and stratospheric ozone depletion. Meanwhile, methyl halides can act as greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and they are also environmentally significant because of their toxicity. Coastal salt marshes, the important intertidal ecosystems at the land-ocean interface, have been considered to be a large potential natural source of methyl halides. In this paper, the research status of the natural source or sink of methyl halides, the mechanisms of their emission from coastal salt marshes and affecting factors were summarized. In view of this, the following research fields need to be strengthened in the future: 1) Long time-scale and large region-range researches about the emission of methyl halides and the evaluation of their source and sink function, 2) Accurate quantification of contribution rates of different plant species and various biological types to fluxes of methyl halides, 3) Further researches on effects of the tidal fluctuation process and flooding duration on methyl halides emission, 4) Effects of the global change and human activities on methyl halides emission.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Áreas Alagadas , Atmosfera , Atividades Humanas , Plantas , Salinidade
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(12): 3694-700, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25876424

RESUMO

Methyl bromide is an important atmospheric trace gas, which plays significant roles in the global warming and atmospheric chemistry. The ocean plays important and complex roles in the global biogeochemical cycles of methyl bromide, not only the source of atmospheric methyl bromide, but also the sink. Therefore, developing the chemical research of the soluble methyl bromide in the ocean, will not only have a certain guiding significance to the atmospheric ozone layer protection, but also provide a theoretical basis for estimating methyl bromide's contribution to the global environmental change on global scale. This paper reviewed the research advances on methyl bromide in the ocean, from the aspects of the biogeochemical cycle of methyl bromide in the ocean, the analysis and determination method, the concentration distribution, the sea-to-air flux and its sources and sinks in the atmosphere. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future studies were prospected.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Água do Mar/química , Atmosfera/química , Aquecimento Global , Oceanos e Mares
8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 30(7): 542-6, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20862934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of hemiplegic muscle spasticity treated with acupuncture on different acupoints in combination with rehabilitation. METHODS: Ninety cases of post-stroke muscle spasticity were randomized into a corresponding and central axis acupuncture group (group A), a conventional acupuncture group (group B) and a rehabilitation group (group C), 30 cases in each one. In group A, the acupoints on the Governor Vessel were mainly selected, as well as those on Hand-Shaoyang meridian and Foot-Taiyang meridian. In group B, the conventional needling and rehabilitation training were applied in combination, of which, the acupoints were mainly from Hand and Foot-Yangming meridians, associated with the acupoints of Shaoyang meridian. In group C, only rehabilitation training was applied. The assessments according to modified Ashworth scale and CSS score were performed before treatment, after 2 weeks and 4 weeks treatment respectively. RESULTS: The level of modified Ashworth scale of the flexor of elbow and wrist was reduced apparently after treatment in group A as compared with that before treatment (P < 0.01). The level of modified Ashworth scale of the flexor of elbow was reduced apparently after treatment in group C as compared with that before treatment (P < 0.05). There was significant difference on the level change in modified Ashworth scale for the flexor of elbow between group A and group C after 4 weeks treatment (P < 0.05). CSS score decreased significantly in group A as compared with that before treatment (P < 0.01), the improvement after treatment in group A was apparent as compared with the other two groups (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The corresponding and central axis acupuncture can improve muscle tone of hemiplegic limb, which is superior to the effect achieved by the conventional acupuncture in combination with rehabilitation training and the simple rehabilitation training.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura , Hemiplegia/terapia , Espasticidade Muscular/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hemiplegia/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espasticidade Muscular/reabilitação , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 33(1): 26-30, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18386641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TAES) on plasma ET, CGRP and serum IL-6, S100beta during craniotomy. METHODS: Fifty patients scheduled for neurosurgery were randomly divided into TAES group (n=25) and control group (n=25). TAES (2/100 Hz, 8-12 mA) of bilateral Hegu (LI 4)-Quchi (LI 11), Zusanli (ST 36)-Sanyinjiao (SP 6) was administrated for patients of TAES group starting 30 min before anesthesia till the end of the operation. Anesthesia of the patients was maintained with sevoflurane inhalation and intermittent intravenous injection of boluses of sulfenany and vecurnium bromide. Jugular venous blood samples were taken at preanesthesia (T0), 1 hour after craniotomy (T1), closure complete (T2), 24 hours (T3) and 48 hours (T4) after operation respectively for detecting contents of plasma endothelin (ET), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and serum interleukin (IL)-6, S100beta with radioimmunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay separately. RESULTS: Compared with control group, plasma ET at T2, serum IL-6 at T1 S100beta at T1 and T4 in TAES group all decreased significantly (P < 0.01, 0.05), while serum IL-6 at T3 increased remarkably (P < 0.05). It suggests that after TAES, CGRP/ET was improved, favoring cerebral microcirculation to reduce surgery-induced cerebral injury. There were no significant differences between two groups at different time courses in plasma CGRP concentrations (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: TAES can regulate plasma CGRP/ET and serum IL-6, lower serum S100beta level, which may contribute to its effect in relieving craniotomy-induced brain injury.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas/prevenção & controle , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/sangue , Endotelinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100 , Proteínas S100/sangue
10.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 8(7): 486-92, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17610328

RESUMO

Potential growth of two widely-grown hybrid rice varieties in the Jinhua district of Zhejiang Province, Shanyou63 for mid-rice and Xieyou46 for late rice, was simulated using a crop growth model of WOFOST. Parameters of the rice growth in WOFOST were calibrated through field experiments from 1999 to 2002 in Jinhua. The potential yield simulated with WOFOST was about 12 t/ha for Shanyou63 and 10 t/ha for Xieyou46, which are in good agreement with the highest recorded yield obtained in this area. Under farmers practice, current yield is about 7.5 t/ha for Shanyou63 and 6.5 t/ha for Xieyou46. There is a gap between the actual rice yield and the potential yield for these two hybrid rice varieties grown in this area. The attainable target yields were set to 70% to 75% of their potential yields for the two varieties. A recently developed software "Nutrient Decision Support System (NuDSS)" for irrigated rice was used to optimize nutrient management for these two rice varieties. According to NuDSS, the optimal fertilizer N requirement for the target yields was about 150 kg/ha for Shanyou63 and about 120 kg/ha for Xieyou46, which were only about 70% of the fertilizer N application under current farmers' practice. Comparing with farmers' practice, there is great potential to increase actual rice yields and to reduce fertilizer N use rates by improving rice crop management practice in Jinhua.


Assuntos
Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes , Solo/análise
11.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 8(3): 208-16, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17323433

RESUMO

Field experiments were conducted in farmers' rice fields in 2001 and 2002 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) management strategies on N use efficiency in recovery (RE), agronomy (AE) and physiology (PE) and redistribution of dry matter accumulation (DMA) and nitrogen accumulation (NA) in two typical rice cultivars in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province. This study aimed mainly at identifying the possible causes of poor fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) of rice in Zhejiang by comparing farmers' fertilizer practice (FFP) with advanced site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and real-time N management (RTNM). The results showed that compared to FFP, SSNM and RTNM reduced DMA and NA before panicle initiation and increased DMA and NA at post-flowering. There is no significant difference between SSNM and FFP in post-flowering dry matter redistribution (post-DMR) and post-flowering nitrogen redistribution (post-NR). These results suggest that high input rate of fertilizer N and improper fertilizer N timing are the main factors causing low NUE of irrigated rice in the farmer's routine practice of Zhejiang. With SSNM, about 15% of the current total N input in direct-seeding early rice and 45% in single rice could be reduced without yield loss in Zhejiang, China.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fertilizantes
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