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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114645, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530094

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Essential oil (EO) is the main extract of patchouli and tangerine peel with antiinflammatory, antiulcer, and other functions. However, the efficacy and mechanism of the combination of EO from patchouli and tangerine peel against gastric ulcer (GU) are unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to reveal the protective effect of the combination of EO from patchouli and tangerine peel against GU in rats, as well as explore the optimal ratio and possible mechanism of EO in GU treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The GU model is executed via water immersion and restraint stress. The repair effect of EO in different proportions on gastric mucosa injury and the effects on serum gastrin (GAS), pepsinogen C (PGC), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and 5-hydroxytryptamine in GU rats were observed. The optimal ratio obtained was used in the second part to set different dose groups for further experiment. The effects of the different EO doses on gastric mucosal ulcer formation and gastric acid secretion were evaluated. The morphology of chief and parietal cells were observed via transmission electron microscopy. The contents of GAS, PGC, substance P (SP), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), cholecystokinin (CCK), PGE2, and motilin (MTL) in serum in different groups were detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expressions of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) protein in gastric tissues were detected via immunohistochemistry, and expressions of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), P53, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and Caspase-3 protein in gastric tissues were detected via western blotting. RESULTS: The EO from patchouli and tangerine peel at 1:2 ratio of compatibility significantly improved gastric mucosal injury, decreased serum GAS and PGC contents, and increased the PGE2 level in serum (p < 0.05). The mixture of EO from patchouli and tangerine peel (Mix-EO) can reduce the formation of gastric mucosal ulcers, reduce gastric mucosal injury, improve the expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum of the chief cells, repair mitochondrial damage, and inhibit the secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells. Mix-EO at 300 mg/kg can reduce the expression of serum GAS, PGC, SP, CCK, and cAMP/cGMP (p < 0.05 or 0.01); increase the expression of EGF and TFF2 protein in gastric tissues (p < 0.01); and inhibit the expression of JNK, p53, Bax, and Caspase-3 proteins (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The combination of EO from patchouli and tangerine peel can repair the gastric mucosal damage in GU rats and prevent the occurrence of ulcers by inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid, enhancing the defensive ability of gastric mucosa, and suppressing the apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells. Moreover, the optimal compatible ratio of patchouli and tangerine peel is 1:2.

2.
Small ; : e2107137, 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927361

RESUMO

Diabetic ulcers (DUs) appearing as chronic wounds are difficult to heal due to the oxidative stress in the wound microenvironment and their high susceptibility to bacterial infection. A routine treatment combining surgical debridement with anti-infection therapy is widely used for treating DUs in the clinic, but hardly offers a satisfying wound healing outcome. It is known that a long-term antibiotic treatment may also lead to the drug resistance of pathogens. To address these challenges, new strategies combining both reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and bacterial sterilization have been proposed for fighting against DUs. Following this idea, oxygen deficient molybdenum-based nanodots (MoO3- X ) for healing the DUs are reported. The ROS scavenging ability of MoO3- X nanodots is investigated and the antibacterial property of the nanodots is also demonstrated. The systematic cell and animal experimental results indicate that the MoO3- X nanodots can effectively reduce inflammation, promote epithelial cell regeneration, accelerate angiogenesis, and facilitate DUs recovery. Most importantly, they present excellent capacity to diminish infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, manifesting the potent application prospect of MoO3- X nanodots for diabetic wound therapy.

3.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0077621, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643418

RESUMO

Since the discovery of NDM-1 and the worldwide reporting of different variants have raised alarms concerning global health, the problem of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) has become increasingly serious. Therefore, research on the hydrolytic activity and molecular structure of NDM variants is beneficial to the development of antibacterial drugs. NDM has been evolving into variants that possess different hydrolysis activities toward ß-lactam antibiotics. Here, we characterized a novel blaNDM variant, named blaNDM-33, identified from a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain from hospital sewage. NDM-33 differed from NDM-5 with a single-amino-acid substitution (A72T). blaNDM-5 was located in the Tn125-related blaNDM-33 region from an IncX3-type plasmid, pHD6415-NDM, that can be transferred horizontally. The genetic construct of blaNDM-33 showed higher MICs of carbapenems than a blaNDM-5 construct. Enzyme kinetics showed that NDM-33 had higher enzymatic activity for meropenem and cefazolin than NDM-5. The emergence of this novel NDM variant could pose a threat to public health because of its transferability and enhanced carbapenem activity. IMPORTANCE Our study described a novel NDM-33 variant from an E. coli strain isolated from hospital sewage, where it was associated with human disease and antibiotic exposure. Importantly, hospital sewage was increasingly considered to be related to CRE hosts. Pathogens were transmitted from reservoirs through direct and indirect contact, ingestion, and inhalation of contaminated water or aerosols. In addition, under the selective pressure of antibiotics, NDM variants will become the main strain in the hospital water system and evolve into high virulence and high resistance. The monitoring of NDM mutants is of great significance for preventing and controlling the evolution of superbugs.

4.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685848

RESUMO

Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) is a devastating rice disease caused by the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which can result in severe damage to rice production worldwide. Based on a total of 510 rice accessions, trialed in two seasons and using six different multi-locus GWAS methods (mrMLM, ISIS EM-BLASSO, pLARmEB, FASTmrMLM, FASTmrEMMA and pKWmEB), 79 quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) reflecting 69 QTLs for BLS resistance were identified (LOD > 3). The QTNs were distributed on all chromosomes, with the most distributed on chromosome 11, followed by chromosomes 1 and 5. Each QTN had an additive effect of 0.20 (cm) and explained, on average, 2.44% of the phenotypic variance, varying from 0.00-0.92 (cm) and from 0.00-9.86%, respectively. Twenty-five QTNs were detected by at least two methods. Among them, qnBLS11.17 was detected by as many as five methods. Most of the QTNs showed a significant interaction with their environment, but no QTNs were detected in both seasons. By defining the QTL range for each QTN according to the LD half-decay distance, a total of 848 candidate genes were found for nine top QTNs. Among them, more than 10% were annotated to be related to biotic stress resistance, and five showed a significant response to Xoc infection. Our results could facilitate the in-depth study and marker-assisted improvement of rice resistance to BLS.

5.
iScience ; 24(9): 102997, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505009

RESUMO

Magnolia officinalis, a representative tall aromatic tree of the Magnoliaceae family, is a medicinal plant that is widely used in diverse industries from medicine to cosmetics. We report a chromosome-scale draft genome of M. officinalis, in which ∼99.66% of the sequences were anchored onto 19 chromosomes with the scaffold N50 of 76.62 Mb. We found that a high proportion of repetitive sequences was a common feature of three Magnoliaceae with known genomic data. Magnoliids were a sister clade to eudicots-monocots, which provided more support for understanding the phylogenetic position among angiosperms. An ancient duplication event occurred in the genome of M. officinalis and was shared with Lauraceae. Based on RNA-seq analysis, we identified several key enzyme-coding gene families associated with the biosynthesis of lignans in the genome. The construction of the M. officinalis genome sequence will serve as a reference for further studies of Magnolia, as well as other Magnoliaceae.

6.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546535

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common refractory disease. Chinese medicine (CM) has remarkable efficacy and advantages on the treatment of IBS. This review summarized the articles focusing on the treatment of IBS with CM to sum up the latest treatment methods for IBS and the underlying mechanisms. Literature analysis showed that prescriptions, acupuncture, and moxibustion are the primary methods of CM treatment for IBS. The potential mechanism centers on the regulation of the enteric nervous system, the alleviation of visceral hypersensitivity, the stability of intestinal flora, and the regulation of the immune system.

7.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3863-3879, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526766

RESUMO

Cancer is still an insurmountable problem for humans and critically attacking human health. In recent years, natural products have gained increasing attention in the field of anti-tumor due to their extensive sources and minimal side effects. Maslinic acid (MA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid mainly derived from the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) has been confirmed to possess great anti-cancer effects. This paper reviewed the inhibitory effect of MA and its derivatives on lung cancer, colon cancer, ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, lymphatic, leukemia, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and bladder cancer, among others. MA inhibited the proliferation of various tumor cells and showed lower IC50 values in melanoma 518A2 cells and gastric cancer MKN28 cells compared with other cell lines. A series of semi-synthetic derivatives obtained by modifying MA chemical structure have been shown to have high cytotoxicity to human tumor cell lines, but low cytotoxicity to non-malignant cells, which is conducive to developing its potential as a chemotherapeutic agent. These studies suggest that MA derivatives have broad prospects in the development of antitumor therapeutics in the future and warrant further study.

8.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 171, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-inflammatory approaches are emerging as a new strategy for the treatment of depressive disorders. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of Panax ginseng, can inhibit inflammatory cascade and alleviate depressive-like behaviors. Microglia can promote or inhibit adult hippocampal neurogenesis according to their functional phenotypes. Here, we examine whether GRb1 may exert antidepressant effects by promoting a pro-neurogenic phenotype of microglia and thereby increasing neurogenesis. METHODS: The antidepressant effects of GRb1 or the licensed antidepressant imipramine (IMI) were assessed in chronic mild stress (CMS)-exposed male mice. The depressive-like behaviors of mice were evaluated by sucrose preference test, forced swimming test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). The microglial phenotypes were identified by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and morphological properties, analyzed by RT-qPCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. The effect of GRb1-treated microglia on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro was detected using immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: Behavioral assessment indicated that GRb1 or IMI treatment alleviated depressive-like behaviors in CMS-exposed mice. Immunofluorescence examination demonstrated that GRb1 induced a pro-neurogenic phenotype of microglia via activating PPARγ in vivo and in vitro, which were effectively reversed by the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662. In addition, GRb1-treated microglia increased the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that GRb1 alleviated depressive-like behaviors of CMS-exposed male mice mainly through PPARγ-mediated microglial activation and improvement of adult hippocampus neurogenesis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457021

RESUMO

Rhein, belonging to anthraquinone compounds, is one of the main active components of rhubarb and Polygonum multiflorum. Rhein has a variety of pharmacological effects, such as cardiocerebral protective effect, hepatoprotective effect, nephroprotective effect, anti-inflammation effect, antitumor effect, antidiabetic effect, and others. The mechanism is interrelated and complex, referring to NF-κB, PI3K/Akt/MAPK, p53, mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway, oxidative stress signaling pathway, and so on. However, to some extent, its clinical application is limited by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability. Even more, rhein has potential liver and kidney toxicity. Therefore, in this paper, the pharmacological effects of rhein and its mechanism, pharmacokinetics, and safety studies were reviewed, in order to provide reference for the development and application of rhein.

10.
J Food Biochem ; 45(10): e13910, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426979

RESUMO

Tea is a worldwide popular drink with high nutritional and medicinal values as it is rich in nutrients, such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, glycosides, and so on. Among them, tea polyphenols (TPs) are the current research hotspot. TPs are known to have multiple biological activities such as anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, lowering lipid, and liver protection. By reviewing a large number of literatures, we explained the mechanism of TPs exerting biological activity and a wide range of applications. We also discussed the deficiencies and development potential of TPs, in order to provide theoretical reference and scientific basis for the subsequent development and utilization of TPs. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: We summarized the bioactivity mechanisms of TPs in anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, lipid-lowering, and liver protection, focused on its application fields in food and medicine, and discussed the deficiency and development potential of current research on TPs, so as to provide a certain convenient way for scholars studying TPs. It is expected to contribute to the subsequent discovery of biological activity and the broadening of the field of TPs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Polifenóis , Anti-Inflamatórios , Humanos , Fígado , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Chá
11.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(10): e2100403, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370372

RESUMO

Three previously undescribed chlorophenyl glycosides, (2,4,6-trichloro-3-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)methyl ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), (2,4-dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl 6-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2) and 4-chloro-3-methoxy-5-methylphenyl 6-O-(6-deoxy-ß-L-mannopyranosyl)-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3) were obtained from Lilium regale. The absolute configurations of these new finds were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of spectroscopic data combined with acid hydrolysis derivatization. (2,4-dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl 6-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2) can inhibit the proliferation of lung carcinoma A549 cells with an IC50 value of 29 µΜ.

12.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4511-4525, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236105

RESUMO

Erianin is a small-molecule compound that is isolated from Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. In recent years, it has been found to have evident antitumor activity in various cancers, such as bladder cancer, cervical cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this study, we assessed the effect of erianin on lung cancer in terms of cell growth inhibition and the related mechanism. First, erianin at a concentration of less than 1 nmol/L exhibited cytotoxicity in H1975, A549, LLC lung cancer cells, did not cause marked growth inhibition in normal lung and kidney cells, induced obvious apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest of cells, and inhibited the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells in vitro. Second, in a mouse xenograft model of lewis lung cancer (LLC), oral administration of erianin (50, 35, and 10 mg kg-1  day-1 for 12 days) substantially inhibited nodule growth, reduced the fluorescence counts of lewis cells and the percentage vascularity of tumor tissues, increased the number of apoptotic tumor cells, the thymus indices, up-regulated the levels of interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), decreased IL-10 levels and the spleen index, and enhanced immune function. Lastly, the possible targets of erianin were determined by molecular docking and verified via western blot assay. The results indicated that erianin may achieve the above effects via inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in vitro and vivo. Taken together, the results showed that erianin had obvious antitumor effects via inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in vitro and vivo and may have potential clinical value for the treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Bibenzilas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fenol/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Dendrobium , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
13.
Front Genet ; 12: 626352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135936

RESUMO

The Golden2-like (GLK) transcription factors play important roles in regulating chloroplast growth, development, and senescence in plants. In this study, a total of 89 NtGLK genes (NtGLK1-NtGLK89) were identified in the tobacco genome and were classified into 10 subfamilies with variable numbers of exons and similar structural organizations based on the gene structure and protein motif analyses. Twelve segmental duplication pairs of NtGLK genes were identified in the genome. These NtGLK genes contain two conserved helix regions related to the HLH structure, and the sequences of the first helix region are less conserved than that of the second helix motif. Cis-regulatory elements of the NtGLK promoters were widely involved in light responsiveness, hormone treatment, and physiological stress. Moreover, a total of 206 GLK genes from tomato, tobacco, maize, rice, and Arabidopsis were retrieved and clustered into eight subgroups. Our gene expression analysis indicated that NtGLK genes showed differential expression patterns in tobacco leaves at five senescence stages. The expression levels of six NtGLK genes in group C were reduced, coinciding precisely with the increment of the degree of senescence, which might be associated with the function of leaf senescence of tobacco. Our results have revealed valuable information for further functional characterization of the GLK gene family in tobacco.

14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5755-5763, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988022

RESUMO

The 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE, EC 2.4.1.18) catalyzes the formation of α-1,6 branching points in starch and plays a key role in synthesis. To obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic action of the enzyme, we first determined the crystal structure of GBE from Rhodothermus obamensis STB05 (RoGBE) to a resolution of 2.39 Å (PDB ID: 6JOY). The structure consists of three domains: domain A, domain C, and the carbohydrate-binding module 48 (CBM48). An engineered truncated mutant lacking the CBM48 domain (ΔCBM48) showed significantly reduced ligand binding affinity and enzyme activity. Comparison of the structures of RoGBE with other GBEs showed that CBM48 of RoGBE had a longer flexible loop. Truncation of the flexible loops resulted in reduced binding affinity and activity, thereby substantiating the importance of the optimum loop structure for catalysis. In essence, our study shows that CBM48, especially the flexible loop, plays an important role in substrate binding and enzymatic activity of RoGBE. Further, based on the structural analysis, kinetics, and activity assays on wild type and mutants, as well as homology modeling, we proposed a mechanistic model (called the "lid model") to illustrate how the flexible loop triggers substrate binding, ultimately leading to catalysis.


Assuntos
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana , Rhodothermus , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Glucanos , Rhodothermus/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 578796, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867974

RESUMO

Chinese materia medica (CMM) has been applied for the prevention and treatment of diseases for thousands of years. However, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and other cardiac adverse reactions during CMM application were gradually reported. CMM-induced cardiotoxicity has aroused widespread attention. Our review aimed to summarize the risk compounds, preclinical toxicity evaluation, and potential mechanisms of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity. All relevant articles published on the PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases for the latest twenty years were searched and manually extracted. The risk substances of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity are relatively complex. A single CMM usually contains various risk compounds, and the same risk substance may exist in various CMM. The active and risk substances in CMM may be transformed into each other under different conditions, such as drug dosage, medication methods, and body status. Generally, the risk compounds of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity can be classified into alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, heavy metals, organic acids, toxic proteins, and peptides. Traditional evaluation methods of chemical drug-induced cardiotoxicity primarily include cardiac function monitoring, endomyocardial biopsy, myocardial zymogram, and biomarker determination. In the preclinical stage, CMM-induced cardiotoxicity should be systematically evaluated at the overall, tissue, cellular, and molecular levels, including cardiac function, histopathology, cytology, myocardial zymogram, and biomarkers. Thanks to the development of systematic biology, the higher specificity and sensitivity of biomarkers, such as genes, proteins, and metabolic small molecules, are gradually applied for evaluating CMM-induced cardiotoxicity. Previous studies on the mechanisms of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity focused on a single drug, monomer or components of CMM. The interaction among ion homeostasis (sodium, potassium, and calcium ions), oxidative damage, mitochondrial injury, apoptosis and autophagy, and metabolic disturbance is involved in CMM-induced cardiotoxicity. Clarification on the risk compounds, preclinical toxicity evaluation, and potential mechanisms of CMM-induced cardiotoxicity must be beneficial to guide new CMM development and post-marketed CMM reevaluation.

16.
Food Chem ; 354: 129475, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744660

RESUMO

The α-amylases are the most widely used industrial enzymes, and are particularly useful as liquifying enzymes in industrial processes based upon starch. Since starch liquefication is carried out at evaluated temperatures, typically above 60 °C, there is substantial demand for thermostable α -amylases. Most naturally occurring α -amylases exhibit moderate thermostability, so substantial effort has been invested in attempts to increase their thermostability. One structural feature that has the potential to increase protein thermostability is the introduction of salt bridges. However, not every salt bridge contributes to protein thermostability. The salt bridges in amylases have their characteristics in terms of distribution, configuration and location. The summary of these features helps to introduce new salt bridges based on the characteristics. This review focuses on salt bridges of α-amylases, both naturally present and introduced using mutagenesis. Its aim is to provide a bird's eye view of distribution, configuration, location of desirable salt bridges.


Assuntos
Sais/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Bacillus licheniformis/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Estabilidade Enzimática , Metais/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Temperatura , alfa-Amilases/química
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 175: 254-261, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561459

RESUMO

The efficiency of enzymatic cyclodextrin production using cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases (CGTases) is limited by product inhibition. In this study, maltose binding site 2 (MBS2) of the ß-CGTase from Bacillus circulans STB01 was modified to decrease product inhibition. First, two point mutants were prepared at position 599 (A599V and A599N). Then, two double mutants incorporating alanine at position 633 (A599N/Y633A and A599V/Y633A) were prepared. Finally, the entire MBS2 region was replaced by that of the α-CGTase from Paenibacillus macerans JFB05-01 to form multipoint mutant MBS2 ߠ→ α. All five mutants exhibited mixed-type product inhibition, although both the competitive and uncompetitive components of this inhibition were decreased. The total cyclization activities of A599N, A599V and A599V/Y633A were 15.6%, 76.8% and 70.9% lower than that of the wild-type, respectively, while that of A599N/Y633A was 22.4% higher. Among the mutants, only MBS2 ߠ→ α showed catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) comparable with that of the wild-type. Moreover, A599N, A599N/Y633A and MBS2 ߠ→ α produced cyclodextrin yields 13.1%, 15.8% and 19.7% greater than that of the wild-type, respectively. These results suggest that A599N, A599N/Y633A and MBS2 ߠ→ α may be more suitable than the wild-type for cyclodextrin production.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Maltose/metabolismo , Bacillus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Ciclização/genética , Ciclodextrinas/metabolismo , Cinética , Proteínas Ligantes de Maltose/genética , Proteínas Ligantes de Maltose/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida/métodos , Mutação/genética , Paenibacillus/genética , Especificidade por Substrato/genética , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
18.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 12, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panax notoginseng triol saponins (PTS) has been used clinically for ischemic stroke therapy (IST) in China for more than 17 years due to its anti-platelet aggregation and neuro-protective effects, but its mechanism of action is not fully understand. In this study, anti-platelet aggregation-related protein analysis and computer simulations of drug-protein binding interactions were performed to explore the mechanism of the effects of PTS against ischemic stroke in an ischemia reperfusion model. METHODS: Three oral doses of PTS were administered in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Panax notoginseng total saponins (PNS) and a combination of PTS and aspirin were chosen for comparison. To evaluate therapeutic effects and explore possible mechanisms of anti-platelet aggregation, we measured cerebral infarct size and water content in brain tissue, histomorphological changes, expression of related factors (such as arachidonic acid metabolites) and platelet receptors in serum, as well as the binding affinity of PTS for platelet adhesion receptors. RESULTS: Compared with PNS, PTS showed a stronger and more potent anti-platelet aggregation effect in MCAO model rats. The combination of PTS and aspirin could reduce adverse gastrointestinal effects by regulating the TXA2/PGI2 ratio. We demonstrated for the first time that PTS was able to regulate Glycoprotein Ib-α (GP1BA) in a model animal. The binding of ginsenoside Rg1 and GP1BA could form a stable structure. Moreover, PTS could reduce von Willebrand factor (VWF)-mediated platelet adhesion to damaged vascular endothelium, and thus enhance the probability of anti-platelet aggregation and anti-thrombosis under pathological conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that GP1BA was closely related to the anti-platelet aggregation action of PTS, which provided new scientific and molecular evidence for its clinical application.

19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 135: 111184, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418305

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Many studies have shown the beneficial effects of aconite water-soluble alkaloid extract (AWA) in experimental models of heart disease, which have been ascribed to the presence of aconine, hypaconine, talatisamine, fuziline, neoline, and songorine. This study evaluated the effects of a chemically characterized AWA by chemical content, evaluated its effects in suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation surgery (AAC)-induced chronic heart failure (CHF) in rats, and revealed the underlying mechanisms of action by proteomics. METHODS: Rats were distributed into different groups: sham, model, and AWA-treated groups (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day). Sham rats received surgery without AAC, whereas model rats an AWA-treated groups underwent AAC surgery. after 8 weeks, the treatment group was fed AWA for 4 weeks, and body weight was assessed weekly. At the end of the treatment, heart function was tested by echocardiography. AAC-induced chronic heart failure, including myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and apoptosis, was evaluated in heart tissue and plasma by RT-qPCR, ELISA, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Masson's trichrome staining, TUNEL staining, and immunofluorescence staining of α-SMA, Col Ⅰ, and Col Ⅲ. Then, a proteomics approach was used to explore the underlying mechanisms of action of AWA in chronic heart failure. RESULTS: AWA administration reduced body weight gain, myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and apoptosis, and rats showed improvement in cardiac function compared to model group. The extract significantly ameliorated the AAC-induced altered expression of heart failure markers such as ANP, NT-proBNP, and ß-MHC, as well as fibrosis, hypertrophy markers MMP-2 and MMP-9, and other heart failure-related factors including plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, the extract reduced the protein expression of α-SMA, Col Ⅰ, and Col Ⅲ in the left ventricular (LV), thus inhibiting the LV remodeling associated with CHF. In addition, proteomics characterization of differentially expressed proteins showed that AWA administration inhibited left ventricular remodeling in CHF rats via a calcium signaling pathway, and reversed the expression of RyR2 and SERCA2a. CONCLUSIONS: AWA extract exerts beneficial effects in an AAC-induced CHF model in rats, which was associated with an improvement in LV function, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptotic status. These effects may be related to the regulation of calcium signaling by the altered expression of RyR2 and SERCA2a.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aconitum/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/isolamento & purificação , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Solventes/química , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química
20.
Front Genet ; 12: 790167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35003224

RESUMO

Leaf senescence is an important process of growth and development in plant, and it is a programmed decline controlled by a series of genes. In this study, the biochemical properties and transcriptome at five maturity stages (M1∼M5) of tobacco leaves were analyzed to reveal the dynamic changes in leaf senescence of tobacco. A total of 722, 1,534, 3,723, and 6,933 genes were differentially expressed (DEG) between M1 and M2, M1 and M3, M1 and M4, and M1 and M5, respectively. Significant changes of nitrogen, sugars, and the DEGs related to metabolite accumulation were identified, suggesting the importance of energy metabolism during leaf senescence. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis found that DEGs were enriched in biosynthetic, metabolic, photosynthesis, and redox processes, and especially, the nitrogen metabolic pathways were closely related to the whole leaf senescence process (M1∼M5). All the DEGs were grouped into 12 expression profiles according to their distinct expression patterns based on Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) software analysis. Furthermore, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis found that these DEGs were enriched in pathways of carbon metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and photosynthesis among these expression profiles. A total of 30 core genes were examined by Weight Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA), and they appeared to play a crucial role in the regulatory of tobacco senescence. Our results provided valuable information for further functional investigation of leaf senescence in plants.

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