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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121862, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357047

RESUMO

This study evaluated the feasibility of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for simultaneous electricity generation and degradation of phenolic compounds. The voltage generation was inhibited by 36.18-63.90%, but the degradation rate increased by 146.15-392.31% when the initial concentration of syringic acid (SA), vanillic acid (VA), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) increased from 0.3 to 3.0 g/L. The collaboration among the functional microbes significantly enhanced the degradation rate of parent compounds and their intermediates in MFCs systems, while the accumulated intermediates severely inhibited their complete mineralization in fermentative systems. High-throughput sequencing showed that the growth of fermentative bacteria prevailed, but electrogenic bacteria were inhibited in the anode microbial community (AMC) under high concentrations of phenolic compounds (3.0 g/L). These findings provide a better understanding of the dynamic shift and synergy effects of the AMC to evaluate its potential for the treatment of phenolic-containing wastewater.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Microbiota , Fenóis/metabolismo , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Fermentação
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15454, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045818

RESUMO

This study compared the corrective effects of storage of platelets at 4°C and at 22°C in an in vitro model of massive blood loss and thrombocytopenia to provide an experimental basis for the storage of platelets for clinical applications.In vitro model of massive blood loss and thrombocytopenia were constructed by the in vitro hemodilution method and cell washing method. Using storage of platelets at 4°C (1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 days) and at 22°C (1, 3, 5 days) to correct the coagulation condition of the different models, by thromboelastography and by routine blood indices.①Platelets stored at 4°C (1, 3, 5,7, 10, 14 days) and at 22°C (1, 3, 5 days) to correct the in vitro model of massive blood loss. Platelet count results improved from 17 to 27 × 10/L to greater than 120 × 10/L for 4°C storage, and 20 to 27 × 10/L to greater than 120 × 10/L for 22°C storage. Thromboelastography maximum amplitude (TEG-MA) results improved from 8.8 to 15.4 mm to greater than 43 mm for 4°C storage, and 12.2 to 14.4 mm to greater than 44.8 mm for 22°C storage. Thromboelastography reaction time values decreased from 9.9-24.9 minutes to 3.8-5.5 minutes for 4°C storage, and 9.9-22.7 minutes to 4.3-4.5 minutes for 22°C storage. ②Platelets stored at 4°C (1, 3, 5,7, 10, 14 days) and at 22°C (1, 3, 5 days) to correct the in vitro model of thrombocytopenia. Platelet count results improved from 12 to 34 × 10/L to greater than 99 × 10/L for 4°C storage, and 12 to 34 × 10/L to greater than 120 × 10/L for 22°C storage. TEG-MA results improved from 21.4 to 32.1 mm to greater than 49.1 mm for 4°C storage, and 21.4 to 31.6 mm to greater than 50.5 mm for 22°C storage.Platelets stored at 4°C and 22°C have the same correcting effect for 1, 3, and 5 days. Platelets stored at 4°C for 7 to 14 days have similarly hemostatic effect on the in vitro model of massive blood loss and thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Hemorragia/sangue , Temperatura Ambiente , Tromboelastografia/métodos , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Hemostasia/fisiologia , Humanos , Agregação Plaquetária , Contagem de Plaquetas
3.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 3256060, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993115

RESUMO

Exosome-like vesicles (ELVs), the smallest class of extracellular vesicles released from cells, function in cellular crosstalk and therefore profoundly affect physiologic responses and pathologic progression. A growing body of evidence supports a novel role for ELVs as important mediators and therapeutic targets due to their effects on regulation of both insulin signaling and ß-cell mass. Pathologic conditions associated with type 2 diabetes (such as high blood glucose, inflammation, hypoxia, and fatty acids) can alter the quantity and components of ELVs secreted from the pancreas or peripheral insulin-targeting tissues. These released ELVs can either enter the blood circulation or be taken up by neighboring cells or macrophages, which can lead to insulin resistance or ß-cell apoptosis. This review focuses on the roles of ELVs in insulin resistance and ß-cell failure and also highlights the potential use of ELVs and exosome-based delivery systems in therapeutic interventions aimed at treating type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as the challenges associated with exosome-targeting therapeutics.

4.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(2): 196, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415997

RESUMO

Protein glycosylation is an important post-translational modification. Aberrant glycosylation has been implicated in many diseases because of associated changes in protein distribution and biological function. We showed that the expression of ß1, 4-galactosyltransferase 5 (B4GalT5) was positively correlated with diabetes and obesity. In vivo, B4GalT5 knockdown in subcutaneous adipose tissue alleviated insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation, and increased adipogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and ob/ob mice. Downregulation of B4GalT5 in preadipocyte cells induced commitment to the adipocyte lineage in the absence of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2/4 treatment, which is typically essential for adipogenic commitment. RNAi silencing experiments showed B4GalT5 knockdown activated Smad and p38 MPAK signaling pathways through both type 1A and 2 BMP receptors. Remarkably, B4GalT5 knockdown decreased BMPRIA glycosylation but increased BMPRIA stability and cellular location, thus leading to redistribution of BMPRIA and activation of the BMP signaling pathway. Meanwhile, downregulation of B4GalT5 decreased the infiltration of macrophages and the markers of M1 macrophages in subcutaneous adipose tissue of HFD mice and ob/ob mice. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and RAW264.7cells, B4GalT5 knockdown also repressed the markers of M1 by reducing NFκB and JNK signaling. These results demonstrated B4GalT5 downregulation improved insulin resistance by promoting adipogenic commitment and decreasing M1 macrophage infiltration.

5.
Chin J Nat Med ; 15(8): 625-630, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28939025

RESUMO

The kaurenoic acid-type diterpenoids in Acanthopanacis Cortex have been reported to be the major active components. However, the diterpenoids are present as position isomers that exacerbate the challenges in obtaining standards compounds. Little work has been done on the quantitative analysis of the diterpenoids in the herb. In the present study, two diterpenoid isomers ent-16ßH,17-isovalerate-kauran-19-oic acid (1) and ent-16ßH,17-methyl butanoate-kauran-19-oic acid (2) with high purity were separated by analytical HPLC, followed by recrystallization in acetone. Furthermore, an HPLC-ELSD method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 1 and 2 in 9 batches of Acanthopanacis Cortex samples. The HPLC separation and quantification was achieved in 40 min using an Agela Promosil C18 column eluted with a gradient of water and acetonitrile. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.999 9) within the test ranges. The LOD ranged from 0.407 2 to 0.518 0 µg and LOQ ranged from 1.018 0 to 1.295 0 µg. The precisions (%RSD) were within 1.47% for the two isomers. The recovery of the assay was in the range of 98.78%-99.11% with RSD values less than 2.76%. It is the first time to establish a quantitative HPLC method for the analysis of the bioactive kaurenoic acid isomers in the herb.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Eleutherococcus/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Isomerismo , Raízes de Plantas/química
6.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 40(2): 186-91, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23327357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally restricted opioid antagonist with mu-opioid receptor selectivity, can reduce opioid activity in the gastrointestinal tract while sparing the pain relief afforded by opioids. Since the bioavailability of oral MNTX is low, it is necessary to explore the oral formulations of MNTX that increase its bioavailability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An MNTX-phosphatidylcholine complex (MNTX-PC) formulation was prepared. The physicochemical properties of MNTX-PC were analyzed, and its bioavailability was evaluated in rats. After 250 mg/kg of oral MNTX-PC, plasma samples were collected up to 9 h. The concentrations of the compound in rat plasma were quantified using LC/MS/MS. RESULTS: Two MNTX plasma concentration peaks were observed at 120 and 180 min for the MNTX-PC group and control (MNTX in a water solution). Tmax was 180 min, C(max) was 1083.7 ± 293.9 ng/mL, and T(½) was 496 min for the MNTX-PC group. For control, T(max) was 180 min, C(max) was 448.4 ± 126.0 ng/mL, and T(½) was 259 min. The AUC0₋540 min for the MNTX-PC group was 5758.2 ± 1474.2 ngh/mL; for control, 1405.9 ± 447.8 ngh/mL. Thus, the relative bioavailability after the oral administration of MNTX-PC was 410% compared to that of control. CONCLUSION: MNTX-PC formulation significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of MNTX.


Assuntos
Naltrexona/análogos & derivados , Fosfatidilcolinas/administração & dosagem , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Química Farmacêutica , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Naltrexona/química , Naltrexona/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/química , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Difração de Raios X
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