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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(41): 17004-17014, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623792

RESUMO

Rapid screening of infected individuals from a large population is an effective means in epidemiology, especially to contain outbreaks such as COVID-19. The gold standard assays for COVID-19 diagnostics are mainly based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, which mismatches the requirements for wide-population screening due to time-consuming nucleic acid extraction and amplification procedures. Here, we report a direct nucleic acid assay by using a graphene field-effect transistor (g-FET) with Y-shaped DNA dual probes (Y-dual probes). The assay relies on Y-dual probes modified on g-FET simultaneously targeting ORF1ab and N genes of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, enabling high a recognition ratio and a limit of detection (0.03 copy µL-1) 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than existing nucleic acid assays. The assay realizes the fastest nucleic acid testing (∼1 min) and achieves direct 5-in-1 pooled testing for the first time. Owing to its rapid, ultrasensitive, easily operated features as well as capability in pooled testing, it holds great promise as a comprehensive tool for population-wide screening of COVID-19 and other epidemics.

2.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 164, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The receptor-binding domain (RBD) variants of SARS-CoV-2 could impair antibody-mediated neutralization of the virus by host immunity; thus, prospective surveillance of antibody escape mutants and understanding the evolution of RBD are urgently needed. METHODS: Using the single B cell cloning technology, we isolated and characterized 93 RBD-specific antibodies from the memory B cells of four COVID-19 convalescent individuals in the early stage of the pandemic. Then, global RBD alanine scanning with a panel of 19 selected neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), including several broadly reactive NAbs, was performed. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of single natural mutation or co-mutations of concern at key positions of RBD on the neutralization escape and ACE2 binding function by recombinant proteins and pseudoviruses. RESULTS: Thirty-three amino acid positions within four independent antigenic sites (1 to 4) of RBD were identified as valuable indicators of antigenic changes in the RBD. The comprehensive escape mutation map not only confirms the widely circulating strains carrying important immune escape RBD mutations such as K417N, E484K, and L452R, but also facilitates the discovery of new immune escape-enabling mutations such as F486L, N450K, F490S, and R346S. Of note, these escape mutations could not affect the ACE2 binding affinity of RBD, among which L452R even enhanced binding. Furthermore, we showed that RBD co-mutations K417N, E484K, and N501Y present in B.1.351 appear more resistant to NAbs and human convalescent plasma from the early stage of the pandemic, possibly due to an additive effect. Conversely, double mutations E484Q and L452R present in B.1.617.1 variant show partial antibody evasion with no evidence for an additive effect. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a global view of the determinants for neutralizing antibody recognition, antigenic conservation, and RBD conformation. The in-depth escape maps may have value for prospective surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 immune escape variants. Special attention should be paid to the accumulation of co-mutations at distinct major antigenic sites. Finally, the new broadly reactive NAbs described here represent new potential opportunities for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

3.
J Med Chem ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657423

RESUMO

YycFG, one of the two-component systems involved in the regulation of biofilm formation, has attracted increasing interest as a potential target of antibacterial and antibiofilm agents. YycG inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been developed, but Enterococcus faecalis remains underexplored. Herein, we selected and identified novel candidate molecules against E. faecalis targeting histidine kinase YycG using high-throughput virtual screening; six molecules (compound-16, -30, -42, -46, -59, and -62) with low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells were verified as potential YycG inhibitors through an autophosphorylation test and binding kinetics. Compound-16 inhibited planktonic cells of E. faecalis, including the vancomycin- or linezolid-resistant strains. In contrast, compound-62 did not affect planktonic growth but significantly inhibited biofilm formation in static and dynamic conditions. Compound-62 combined with ampicillin could synergistically eradicate the biofilm-embedded viable bacteria. The study demonstrates that YycG inhibitors may be valuable approaches for the development of novel antimicrobial agents for difficult-to-treat bacterial infections.

4.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497366

RESUMO

As one of the major approaches in combating the COVID-19 pandemics, the availability of specific and reliable assays for the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome and its proteins is essential to identify the infection in suspected populations, make diagnoses in symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals, and determine clearance of the virus after the infection. For these purposes, use of the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for detection of the viral nucleic acid remains the most valuable in terms of its specificity, fast turn-around, high-throughput capacity, and reliability. It is critical to update the sequences of primers and probes to ensure the detection of newly emerged variants. Various assays for increased levels of IgG or IgM antibodies are available for detecting ongoing or past infection, vaccination responses, and persistence and for identifying high titers of neutralizing antibodies in recovered individuals. Viral genome sequencing is increasingly used for tracing infectious sources, monitoring mutations, and subtype classification and is less valuable in diagnosis because of its capacity and high cost. Nanopore target sequencing with portable options is available for a quick process for sequencing data. Emerging CRISPR-Cas-based assays, such as SHERLOCK and AIOD-CRISPR, for viral genome detection may offer options for prompt and point-of-care detection. Moreover, aptamer-based probes may be multifaceted for developing portable and high-throughput assays with fluorescent or chemiluminescent probes for viral proteins. In conclusion, assays are available for viral genome and protein detection, and the selection of specific assays depends on the purposes of prevention, diagnosis and pandemic control, or monitoring of vaccination efficacy.

5.
Protein Cell ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554412

RESUMO

New threats posed by the emerging circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2 highlight the need to find conserved neutralizing epitopes for therapeutic antibodies and efficient vaccine design. Here, we identified a receptor-binding domain (RBD)-binding antibody, XG014, which potently neutralizes ß-coronavirus lineage B (ß-CoV-B), including SARS-CoV-2, its circulating variants, SARS-CoV and bat SARSr-CoV WIV1. Interestingly, antibody family members competing with XG014 binding show reduced levels of cross-reactivity and induce antibody-dependent SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein-mediated cell-cell fusion, suggesting a unique mode of recognition by XG014. Structural analyses reveal that XG014 recognizes a conserved epitope outside the ACE2 binding site and completely locks RBD in the non-functional "down" conformation, while its family member XG005 directly competes with ACE2 binding and position the RBD "up". Single administration of XG014 is effective in protection against and therapy of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. Our findings suggest the potential to develop XG014 as pan-ß-CoV-B therapeutics and the importance of the XG014 conserved antigenic epitope for designing broadly protective vaccines against ß-CoV-B and newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 626553, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531831

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus causing acute respiratory tract infection in humans. The virus has the characteristics of rapid transmission, long incubation period and strong pathogenicity, and has spread all over the world. Therefore, it is of great significance to select appropriate animal models for antiviral drug development and therapeutic effect evaluation. Here, we review and compare the current animal models of SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367893

RESUMO

The development of broad-spectrum antivirals against human coronaviruses (HCoVs) is critical to combat the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, as well as future outbreaks of emerging CoVs. We have previously identified a polyethylene glycol-conjugated (PEGylated) lipopeptide, EK1C4, with potent pan-CoV fusion inhibitory activity. However, PEG linkers in peptide or protein drugs may reduce stability or induce anti-PEG antibodies in vivo. Therefore, we herein report the design and synthesis of a series of dePEGylated lipopeptide-based pan-CoV fusion inhibitors featuring the replacement of the PEG linker with amino acids in the heptad repeat 2 C-terminal fragment (HR2-CF) of HCoV-OC43. Among these lipopeptides, EKL1C showed the most potent inhibitory activity against infection by SARS-CoV-2 and its spike (S) mutants, as well as other HCoVs and some bat SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) tested. The dePEGylated lipopeptide EKL1C exhibited significantly stronger resistance to proteolytic enzymes, better metabolic stability in mouse serum, higher thermostability than the PEGylated lipopeptide EK1C4, suggesting that EKL1C could be further developed as a candidate prophylactic and therapeutic for COVID-19 and other coronavirus diseases.

8.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 71, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408130

RESUMO

Massive production of efficacious SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is essential for controlling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We report here the preclinical development of yeast-produced receptor-binding domain (RBD)-based recombinant protein SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We found that monomeric RBD of SARS-CoV-2 could be efficiently produced as a secreted protein from transformed Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) yeast. Yeast-derived RBD-monomer possessed functional conformation and was able to elicit protective level of neutralizing antibodies in mice. We further designed and expressed a genetically linked dimeric RBD protein in yeast. The engineered dimeric RBD was more potent than the monomeric RBD in inducing long-lasting neutralizing antibodies. Mice immunized with either monomeric RBD or dimeric RBD were effectively protected from live SARS-CoV-2 virus challenge even at 18 weeks after the last vaccine dose. Importantly, we found that the antisera raised against the RBD of a single SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain could effectively neutralize the two predominant circulating variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, implying broad-spectrum protective potential of the RBD-based vaccines. Our data demonstrate that yeast-derived RBD-based recombinant SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are feasible and efficacious, opening up a new avenue for rapid and cost-effective production of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to achieve global immunization.

9.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1953683, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313527

RESUMO

The global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in widespread social and economic disruption. Effective interventions are urgently needed for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated their prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, and several have been granted authorization for emergency use. Here, we discover and characterize a fully human cross-reactive mAb, MW06, which binds to both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and disrupts their interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Potential neutralization activity of MW06 was observed against both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in different assays. The complex structure determination and epitope alignment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD/MW06 revealed that the epitope recognized by MW06 is highly conserved among SARS-related coronavirus strains, indicating the potential broad neutralization activity of MW06. In in vitro assays, no antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed for MW06. In addition, MW06 recognizes a different epitope from MW05, which shows high neutralization activity and has been in a Phase 2 clinical trial, supporting the development of the cocktail of MW05 and MW06 to prevent against future escaping variants. MW06 alone and the cocktail show good effects in preventing escape mutations, including a series of variants of concern, B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.351, and B.1.617.1. These findings suggest that MW06 recognizes a conserved epitope on SARS-CoV-2, which provides insights for the development of a universal antibody-based therapy against SARS-related coronavirus and emerging variant strains, and may be an effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Facilitadores , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/terapia , Sequência Conservada , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Testes de Neutralização , Pandemias , Domínios Proteicos , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Vírus da SARS/química , Vírus da SARS/genética , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1555-1573, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304724

RESUMO

To curb the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple platforms have been employed toward a safe and highly effective vaccine. Here, we develop a novel cell-based vaccine candidate, namely K562-S, by utilizing human cell K562 as a cellular carrier to display Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 on the membrane. Analogous to the traditional inactivated vaccine, K562-S cells can be propagated to a large scale by culturing and completely lose their viability after exposure to X-ray irradiation or formalin. We in turn demonstrated high immunogenicity of formalin-inactivated K562-S vaccine in both mouse and non-human primates and its protective efficacy in mice. In mice, immunization with inactivated K562-S vaccines can elicit potent neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses persisting longer than 5 months. We consequently showed in a hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that a two-shot vaccination with adjuvanted K562-S rendered greater than 3 log reduction in viral lung load and concomitant ameliorated lung pathology. Of importance, the administration of the same regimen in non-human primates was able to induce a neutralizing antibody titer averaging three-fold higher relative to human convalescent serum. These results together support the promise of K562-based, S-protein-expressing vaccines as a novel vaccination approach against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, with a powerful capacity to carry external genes for cell-based vectors, this platform could rapidly generate two- and multiple-valent vaccines by incorporating SARS-CoV-2 mutants, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células K562 , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Primatas , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 288, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326308

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a global threat to public health and economy. The continuously emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants present a major challenge to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines. In this study, we identified that EK1 and cholesterol-coupled derivative of EK1, EK1C4, as pan-CoV fusion inhibitors, exhibit potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in both lung- and intestine-derived cell lines (Calu-3 and Caco2, respectively). They are also effective against infection of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.1.248 (Gamma) as well as those with mutations in S protein, including N417T, E484K, N501Y, and D614G, which are common in South African and Brazilian variants. Crystal structure revealed that EK1 targets the HR1 domain in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to block virus-cell fusion and provide mechanistic insights into its broad and effective antiviral activity. Nasal administration of EK1 peptides to hACE2 transgenic mice significantly reduced viral titers in lung and intestinal tissues. EK1 showed good safety profiles in various animal models, supporting further clinical development of EK1-based pan-CoV fusion inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Assuntos
Antivirais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Cristalografia por Raios X , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828563

RESUMO

After the pandemic of COVID-19, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed for the prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. However, few methodologies are described in detail on how to rapidly and efficiently generate effective NAbs to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we integrated and optimized a strategically screening method for NAbs, which has enabled us to obtain SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) specific NAbs within 6 days, followed by additional 9 days for antibody production and function analysis. Using this method, we obtained 198 specific Abs against SARS-CoV-2 RBD from the blood samples of COVID-19 convalescent patients, and 96 of them showed neutralizing activity. At least 20% of these NAbs exhibited advanced neutralizing potency and high affinity, with the top two NAbs showing half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) to block authentic SARS-CoV-2 at 9.88 and 11.13 ng/ml, respectively. Altogether, our study provides an effective methodology with high applicable value for discovering potential preventative and therapeutic NAbs for the emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
13.
Antiviral Res ; 190: 105076, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865876

RESUMO

Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a high risk factor for hepatic diseases, such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-responders and hyporesponders to HBV vaccine are not protected from HBV infection. Patients that achieve autonomous or treatment-induced recovery are at risk of reactivation due to persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in hepatocytes. Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a key regulator of HBV clearance in mouse models of HBV persistence: IL-21-based therapies effectively induces HBV clearance and protects mice from subsequent re-challenge. In this study, we explore the possibility of using IL-21 as prophylaxis against HBV by using mouse models of HBV persistence. HBV-naïve mice were transiently exposed to exogenous IL-21 through injection with recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing mouse IL-21 (AAV-IL-21). After extraneous IL-21 protein and DNA had become undetectable, mice were challenged with persistence-inducing HBV replicon plasmid through hydrodynamic injection. Viral persistence was analyzed by measuring viral antigens and DNA markers in serum and intrahepatic HBV DNA. For mechanistic studies, CD8+ T cell functions were blocked by repeated intraperitoneal injections of CD8 monoclonal antibodies in HBV-challenged mice. AAV-IL-21-injected mice quickly cleared HBV after HBV replicon challenge. In contrast, untreated mice and mice injected with control virus (AAV-Ctrl) allowed establishment of HBV persistence. Mechanistically, mice with prior IL-21 exposure displayed marked intrahepatic CD8+ T cell infiltrations, and CD8 blocking experiments demonstrated that CD8+ T cell responses functionally contributed toward clearance.

14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 549: 207-213, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684697

RESUMO

DNA transfection is routinely used for delivering expression of gene of interest to target cells. Transfected DNA has been known to activate cellular DNA sensor(s) and innate immune responses, but the effects of such responses on transfected DNA are not fully understood. STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an important adaptor protein in cellular innate immune response to various DNA and RNA stimuli and upon activation induces significant type I interferon responses. In this work, we characterized the effects of STING on gene expression driven by transfected double-stranded DNA. We observed that gene expression from transfected DNA was repressed in the presence of overexpressed STING, but increased if endogenous STING was knocked down through RNA interference. Endogenous chromosomal genes and chromosome-integrated exogenous genes were not affected by such STING-mediated restriction, which did not depend on DNA circularity or linearity, promoter used, or bacterial sequences in transfected DNA. Mechanistically, STING-mediated repression of transfected DNA correlates with reduced mRNA levels, and partially involves the induction of interferon ß production by STING. Collectively, these data indicate that episomal double-stranded DNA is targeted by STING-mediated cell defense.


Assuntos
DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Transfecção
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658332

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a major global health threat. Epidemiological studies suggest that bats (Rhinolophus affinis) are the natural zoonotic reservoir for SARS-CoV-2. However, the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and intermediate hosts that facilitate its transmission to humans remain unknown. The interaction of coronavirus with its host receptor is a key genetic determinant of host range and cross-species transmission. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor to enter host cells in a species-dependent manner. In this study, we characterized the ability of ACE2 from diverse species to support viral entry. By analyzing the conservation of five residues in two virus-binding hotspots of ACE2 (hotspot 31Lys and hotspot 353Lys), we predicted 80 ACE2 proteins from mammals that could potentially mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. We chose 48 ACE2 orthologs among them for functional analysis, and showed that 44 of these orthologs-including domestic animals, pets, livestock, and animals commonly found in zoos and aquaria-could bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. In contrast, New World monkey ACE2 orthologs could not bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and support viral entry. We further identified the genetic determinant of New World monkey ACE2 that restricts viral entry using genetic and functional analyses. These findings highlight a potentially broad host tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be distributed much more widely than previously recognized, underscoring the necessity to monitor susceptible hosts to prevent future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/veterinária , Receptores Virais/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Tropismo Viral , Zoonoses Virais/genética , Zoonoses Virais/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses Virais/virologia , Ligação Viral , Internalização do Vírus
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009392, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760889

RESUMO

Coronavirus interaction with its viral receptor is a primary genetic determinant of host range and tissue tropism. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes ACE2 as the receptor to enter host cell in a species-specific manner. We and others have previously shown that ACE2 orthologs from New World monkey, koala and mouse cannot interact with SARS-CoV-2 to mediate viral entry, and this defect can be restored by humanization of the restrictive residues in New World monkey ACE2. To better understand the genetic determinants behind the ability of ACE2 orthologs to support viral entry, we compared koala and mouse ACE2 sequences with that of human and identified the key residues in koala and mouse ACE2 that restrict viral receptor activity. Humanization of these critical residues rendered both koala and mouse ACE2 capable of binding the spike protein and facilitating viral entry. Our study shed more lights into the genetic determinants of ACE2 as the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2, which facilitates our understanding of viral entry.


Assuntos
COVID-19/enzimologia , COVID-19/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Receptores Virais/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , COVID-19/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Camundongos/genética , Camundongos/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Phascolarctidae/genética , Phascolarctidae/virologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 961, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574281

RESUMO

The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 is posing major public health challenges. One feature of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is the insertion of multi-basic residues at the S1/S2 subunit cleavage site. Here, we find that the virus with intact spike (Sfull) preferentially enters cells via fusion at the plasma membrane, whereas a clone (Sdel) with deletion disrupting the multi-basic S1/S2 site utilizes an endosomal entry pathway. Using Sdel as model, we perform a genome-wide CRISPR screen and identify several endosomal entry-specific regulators. Experimental validation of hits from the CRISPR screen shows that host factors regulating the surface expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) affect entry of Sfull virus. Animal-to-animal transmission with the Sdel virus is reduced compared to Sfull in the hamster model. These findings highlight the critical role of the S1/S2 boundary of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in modulating virus entry and transmission and provide insights into entry of coronaviruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Células A549 , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endossomos/virologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mesocricetus , Serina Endopeptidases , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Células Vero
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 866, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558541

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly become a global public health threat. The efficacy of several repurposed drugs has been evaluated in clinical trials. Among these drugs, a second-generation antiandrogen agent, enzalutamide, was proposed because it reduces the expression of transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), a key component mediating SARS-CoV-2-driven entry, in prostate cancer cells. However, definitive evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of enzalutamide in COVID-19 is lacking. Here, we evaluated the antiviral efficacy of enzalutamide in prostate cancer cells, lung cancer cells, human lung organoids and Ad-ACE2-transduced mice. Tmprss2 knockout significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. Enzalutamide effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in human prostate cells, however, such antiviral efficacy was lacking in human lung cells and organoids. Accordingly, enzalutamide showed no antiviral activity due to the AR-independent TMPRSS2 expression in mouse and human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, we observed distinct AR binding patterns between prostate cells and lung cells and a lack of direct binding of AR to TMPRSS2 regulatory locus in human lung cells. Thus, our findings do not support the postulated protective role of enzalutamide in treating COVID-19 through reducing TMPRSS2 expression in lung cells.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Pandemias , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/virologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
20.
Cell Res ; 31(2): 126-140, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420426

RESUMO

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents a global public health challenge. The viral pathogen responsible, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), binds to the host receptor ACE2 through its spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. Although the role of ACE2 as a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is clear, studies have shown that ACE2 expression is extremely low in various human tissues, especially in the respiratory tract. Thus, other host receptors and/or co-receptors that promote the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells of the respiratory system may exist. In this study, we found that the tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL) specifically interacts with the N-terminal domain of SARS-CoV-2 S. Using both a SARS-CoV-2 virus pseudotype and authentic SARS-CoV-2, we found that overexpression of AXL in HEK293T cells promotes SARS-CoV-2 entry as efficiently as overexpression of ACE2, while knocking out AXL significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection in H1299 pulmonary cells and in human primary lung epithelial cells. Soluble human recombinant AXL blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells expressing high levels of AXL. The AXL expression level is well correlated with SARS-CoV-2 S level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells from COVID-19 patients. Taken together, our findings suggest that AXL is a novel candidate receptor for SARS-CoV-2 which may play an important role in promoting viral infection of the human respiratory system and indicate that it is a potential target for future clinical intervention strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/análise , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/análise , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/análise , Internalização do Vírus
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