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1.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(5): 258, 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248309

RESUMO

Flower-like graphene/CuO@Cu-BTC (GR/CuO@Cu-BTC) composite was employed as electrode material for the voltammetric determination of caffeic acid (CA) in the wine. The composite material was prepared via the self-template method. In this synthetic process, budlike CuO not only acts as the template, but also provides Cu2+ ions for in situ growth of the Cu-BTC shell. The utilization of GR as petal greatly boosts the stability and electronic conductivity of CuO@Cu-BTC. The GR/CuO@Cu-BTC composite possesses unique structural features with high specific surface area and good conductivity, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of CA. Under optimized conditions, the sensor shows a good linear response to CA concentration over the range 0.020-10.0 µM, together with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 7.0 nM. Selectivity, reproducibility, and stability were investigated, and the method has been applied for the determination of CA in wine samples. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of electrochemical sensor for the detection of caffeic acid was designed based on flower-like graphene/copper oxide@copper(II) metal-organic framework (GR/CuO@Cu-BTC) composite electrode material.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1188-1193, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237464

RESUMO

Cervi Colla, deer's gelatin, had two kinds of original sources historically, including the skin and antler of deer, known as Cervi Corii Colla(Lupijiao, LPJ) and Cervi Cornus Colla(Lujiaojiao, LJJ) respectively.LJJ is the mainstream of the market, while LPJ is only used by common people in Guizhou and Jilin etc. This article sorted out the ancient and modern literature(since Rites of the Zhou in Zhou Dynasty) on Cervi Colla and conducted the herbalogical study. The results of the study include:① In ancient China, there were six types of commonly-used Colla derived from six animals, including deer, horse, cow, rat, fish and rhinoceros. Cervi Colla was ranked the most top among them, and it was often used as adhesive to make bow and Chinese inksticks and more commonly used as a medicine.Cervi Cornus Colla was first described as a medicinal by the name "Bai Jiao"(white gelatin)in The Divine Husbandman's Classic of Material Medica(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing).② Initially, both the skin and antler were used as raw materials to make Cervi Colla, but antler became the only raw material, and deer skin disappeared from the mainstream of raw materials for Cervi Colla. This can be attributed to other diverse and luxurious uses of the skin, such as making dress and hats, etc., and the easy accessibility of deer antlers. ③ The sources of Cervi Colla were not limited to Cervus elaphus(red deer) or C. nippon(sika deer), and it also included animal from the family Cervidae, such as Elaphurus davidianus(elk) and C. unicolor(sambar). ④ The processing method was passed down from ancient times to the present, and no significant changes had occurred. ⑤ LPJ and LJJ had many similar effects, and their nature was both warm. The effect of LJJ was to warm the liver and kidney, replenish vital essence and blood, and to reinforce Yang. While the effect of LPJ was to reinforce both Yin and Yang, replenish blood, and stop bleeding. It has a unique advantage for both reinforcing Yin and Yang. The findings of this paper can provide support for the promotion of LPJ and the development of its medicinal value.

3.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251002

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious respiratory disease that leads to respiratory, physical, and psychological dysfunction in patients. Respiratory rehabilitation is an important intervention as well as cure for clinical patients. With increased understanding of COVID-19 and the accumulation of clinical experience, we proposed recommendations for respiratory rehabilitation in adults with COVID-19 based on the opinions of frontline clinical experts involved in the management of this epidemic and a review of the relevant literature and evidence. Our recommendations are as follows: 1. for inpatients with COVID-19, respiratory rehabilitation would relieve the symptoms of dyspnea, anxiety, and depression and eventually improve physical functions and the quality of life; 2. for severe/critical inpatients, early respiratory rehabilitation is not suggested; 3. for patients in isolation, respiratory rehabilitation guidance should be conducted through educational videos, instruction manuals, or remote consultation; 4. assessment and monitoring should be performed throughout the respiratory rehabilitation process; 5. proper grade protection should be used following the present guidelines. These recommendations can guide clinical practice and form the basis for respiratory rehabilitation in COVID-19 patients.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 255: 112719, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114164

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aucklandiae Radix (AR) and Vladimiriae Radix (VR), as traditional Chinese medicine, have been included in many editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia with similar efficacy such as promoting qi and relieving pain, which are used to treat chest, hypochondriac, abdominal fullness and pain, diarrhea and tenesmus. In most conditions, VR is used to be a substitute of AR or a local habit. However, whether VR could substitute for AR to play a same role in the formulation and clinical applications needs further study. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, similarities and differences between AR and VR would be assessed, and possible reasons that may influence the efficacy of the AR and VR would be explained from the perspective of chemical composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPLC-PDA was used to obtain the data of 10 batches of AR and VR, and to establish chemical fingerprint and chemometric analysis. UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS was used to identify the structure of chemical compounds which contributed to the differences between AR and VR. RESULTS: The chemical fingerprint analysis results showed that 20 peaks in common for AR and 26 peaks in common for VR both presented a good similarity (>0.9), and 15 peaks in common for AR and VR also showed a good similarity (>0.9). Nevertheless, chemometric showed AR was distinct from VR and three chemical compounds, which leading to their differences, were identified by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The three chemical compounds were 3ß-acetoxy-11ß-guaia-4 (15),10 (14)-diene-12,6α-olide, 10α,14-epoxy-11ß-guaia-4 (15)-ene-12,6α-olide and costunolide, respectively. CONCLUSION: In general, AR and VR were highly similar, but their differences were deserved to be paid attention to. This research could provide reference for quality control and set a foundation for clinical applications of AR and VR.

6.
Aging Cell ; : e13134, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187825

RESUMO

Caveolae position CaV 3.2 (T-type Ca2+ channel encoded by the α-3.2 subunit) sufficiently close to RyR (ryanodine receptors) for extracellular Ca2+ influx to trigger Ca2+ sparks and large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channel feedback in vascular smooth muscle. We hypothesize that this mechanism of Ca2+ spark generation is affected by age. Using smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from mouse mesenteric arteries, we found that both Cav 3.2 channel inhibition by Ni2+ (50 µM) and caveolae disruption by methyl-ß-cyclodextrin or genetic abolition of Eps15 homology domain-containing protein (EHD2) inhibited Ca2+ sparks in cells from young (4 months) but not old (12 months) mice. In accordance, expression of Cav 3.2 channel was higher in mesenteric arteries from young than old mice. Similar effects were observed for caveolae density. Using SMAKO Cav 1.2-/- mice, caffeine (RyR activator) and thapsigargin (Ca2+ transport ATPase inhibitor), we found that sufficient SR Ca2+ load is a prerequisite for the CaV 3.2-RyR axis to generate Ca2+ sparks. We identified a fraction of Ca2+ sparks in aged VSMCs, which is sensitive to the TRP channel blocker Gd3+ (100 µM), but insensitive to CaV 1.2 and CaV 3.2 channel blockade. Our data demonstrate that the VSMC CaV 3.2-RyR axis is down-regulated by aging. This defective CaV 3.2-RyR coupling is counterbalanced by a Gd3+ sensitive Ca2+ pathway providing compensatory Ca2+ influx for triggering Ca2+ sparks in aged VSMCs.

7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187856

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets. PRRSV infection leads to substantial pig mortality and causing huge economic losses so that disease outbreaks caused by the new PRRSV strain from other regions have caused great concern in China. In this study, we analyzed the pathogenicity of the novel ORF5 RFLP 1-7-4-like PRRSV strain, named PRRSV-ZDXYL-China-2018-1 in pigs. The viral challenge test showed that PRRSV-ZDXYL-China-2018-1 infection can cause persistent fever, moderate dyspnea, serum viremia, and interstitial pneumonia in Piglets. The levels of viral loads in serum and PRRSV-specific antigen were also detected in lung tissues were used one-step Taq-Man RT-qPCR and Immunohistochemisitry, respectively. At 28dpi, the level of specific antibodies was increased among infected piglets. Importantly, the new virus appeared be a moderately virulent isolate with pathogenicity compared to HP-PRRSV strain LQ (JXA1-like strain). Histological examination revealed severe monocyte hemorrhage and interstitial pneumonia associated with monocyte infiltration in the lung tissue of pigs infected with PRRSV-ZDXYL-China-2018-1 and LQ-JXA1 strains. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results showed positive brown-red epithelial cells and macrophages in pig lungs. Therefore, it is critical to establish an effective strategy to control the spread of PRRSV in China.

8.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e920795, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), postoperative patient rehabilitation is important to achieve the optimal level of knee function and mobility. Clinical research in this field is growing, and bibliometric analysis of publication may provide direction for research clinicians and raise awareness of research trends, journal selection, and key topics. Therefore, this bibliometric study aimed to analyze the current status and trends during the past two decades, between 1999 and 2018, of publications on rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and used CiteSpace. MATERIAL AND METHODS The global literature was searched between 2018 to 2019 for publications related to rehabilitation after TKA. Publication data were identified using relevant search terms and the Web of Science Core Collection database. CiteSpace (5.3.R11) software was used to analyze the journals, authors, institutions, countries, cited references, and keywords using standard bibliometric indicators. RESULTS A total of 1,292 publications were retrieved between 1999 to 2018, and the most active journals, countries, authors, and institutions in the field of TKA rehabilitation were identified. Key areas of research included postoperative analgesia, muscle inhibition, range of motion, inhibitors, knee flexion, pain control, self-reporting, spectral analysis, in vivo forces, and rotator cuff repair. The emerging research topics included epidural analgesia, physiotherapy, postoperative analgesia, recovery, and the use of ropivacaine local analgesia. CONCLUSIONS The findings from this bibliometric study provided insight into trends in clinical research publications in the field of rehabilitation following TKA for the past 20 years, including global trends in emerging areas of research.

9.
Bioorg Chem ; 97: 103699, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146173

RESUMO

The phytochemical study on the stems of Clausena lenis resulted in the isolation of three new prenylated coumarins, clauselenins A-C (1-3), together with nine known prenylated coumarins (4-12). The chemical structures of new prenylated coumarins (1-3) were elucidated by means of comprehensive spectral analyses and the known compounds (4-12) were determined by means of comparing their experimental spectral data with those described data in the literatures. All isolated prenylated coumarins were assessed for their anti-inflammatory effects together with anti-HIV activities in vitro. Prenylated coumarins 1-12 displayed remarkable inhibitory effects against nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells in vitro with the IC50 values which are comparable to hydrocortisone. Meanwhile, prenylated coumarins 1-12 exhibited considerable anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activities possessing EC50 values in the range of 0.17-9.08 µM. These findings indicate that the isolation and identification of these prenylated coumarins with pronounced anti-inflammatory effects as well as anti-HIV activities separated from the stems of C. lenis could be of great significance to the development of new anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV agents and their potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

10.
Neural Netw ; 125: 131-141, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088567

RESUMO

In recent years, deep learning achieves remarkable results in the field of artificial intelligence. However, the training process of deep neural networks may cause the leakage of individual privacy. Given the model and some background information of the target individual, the adversary can maliciously infer the sensitive feature of the target individual. Therefore, it is imperative to preserve the sensitive information in the training data. Differential privacy is a state-of-the-art paradigm for providing the privacy guarantee of datasets, which protects the private and sensitive information from the attack of adversaries significantly. However, the existing privacy-preserving models based on differential privacy are less than satisfactory since traditional approaches always inject the same amount of noise into parameters to preserve the sensitive information, which may impact the trade-off between the model utility and the privacy guarantee of training data. In this paper, we present a general differentially private deep neural networks learning framework based on relevance analysis, which aims to bridge the gap between private and non-private models while providing an effective privacy guarantee of sensitive information. The proposed model perturbs gradients according to the relevance between neurons in different layers and the model output. Specifically, during the process of backward propagation, more noise is added to gradients of neurons that have less relevance to the model output, and vice-versa. Experiments on five real datasets demonstrate that our mechanism not only bridges the gap between private and non-private models, but also prevents the disclosure of sensitive information effectively.

11.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 40, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver tumour, and is closely related to liver cirrhosis. Previous studies have focussed on the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis developing into HCC, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aims of the present study were to identify key genes related to the transformation of cirrhosis into HCC, and explore the associated molecular mechanisms. METHODS: GSE89377, GSE17548, GSE63898 and GSE54236 mRNA microarray datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were analysed to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and liver cirrhosis tissues, and network analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) was carried out. String and Cytoscape were used to analyse modules and identify hub genes, Kaplan-Meier Plotter and Oncomine databases were used to explore relationships between hub genes and disease occurrence, development and prognosis of HCC, and the molecular mechanism of the main hub gene was probed using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway analysis. RESULTS: In total, 58 DEGs were obtained, of which 12 and 46 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Three hub genes (CDKN3, CYP2C9 and LCAT) were identified and associated prognostic information was obtained. CDKN3 may be correlated with the occurrence, invasion, and recurrence of HCC. Genes closely related to changes in the CDKN3 hub gene were screened, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGGs) pathway analysis identified numerous cell cycle-related genes. CONCLUSION: CDKN3 may affect the transformation of liver cirrhosis into HCC, and represents a new candidate molecular marker of the occurrence and progression of HCC.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(7): 4015-4022, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022038

RESUMO

Open-circuit voltage (VOC) is a key factor for improving the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). At present, increasing attention has been devoted towards modifying π bridges in single-porphyrin small molecule donors with an A-π-D-π-A configuration to reduce the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels and improve the VOC of devices. However, how to screen the π bridges is a key issue. In this work, nine π bridges were screened by the HOMO level gradient-distribution strategy of fragments (electron-donating donor (D), π bridges, and electron-withdrawing acceptor (A)), where fragments meeting the requirements were combined into five novel small molecule donors. Meanwhile, in order to test whether the strategy is beneficial to increasing VOC, [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) was selected as the acceptor material. The energy levels of all molecules were compared and the photoelectric properties (i.e., energy gap, energy driving force, reorganization energy, intermolecular charge transfer rate, charge recombination rate, and VOC) of the five small molecules were studied. The results showed that the HOMO levels of porphyrin donors could be significantly lowered via this strategy, and VOC was raised without losing the short-circuit current (JSC) and fill factor (FF) of the devices. Meanwhile, the designed five small molecules could be used as donor candidates to improve the performance of OSCs.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2024-2030, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037814

RESUMO

Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack tree) is an evergreen fruit tree belonging to the genus Artocarpus (Moraceae), which is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of Asia. Its fruits (jackfruit), well-known as the world's largest tree-borne fruit, are being consumed in our daily diets as a very popular tropical fruit throughout the world and have been confirmed to hold various health benefits. In this study, five new prenylated chromones, artocarheterones A-E (1-5), as well as seven known prenylated chromones (6-12) were purified and isolated from the ripe fruits of A. heterophyllus (jackfruit). Their chemical structures were determined through comprehensive spectroscopic methods. This is the first report on prenylated chromones isolated from A. heterophyllus. The anti-HIV-1 effects of all isolated chromones were assessed in vitro. As a result, prenylated chromones (1-12) showed remarkable anti-HIV-1 effects with EC50 values ranging from 0.09 to 9.72 µM. These research results indicate that the isolation and characterization of these prenylated chromones with remarkable anti-HIV-1 activities from the ripe fruits of A. heterophyllus could be significant to the discovery and development of new anti-HIV-1 drugs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Artocarpus/química , Cromonas/química , Cromonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Frutas/química , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Estrutura Molecular , Prenilação
14.
J Endourol ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although artery-only clamping has been proposed to minimize ischemic renal damage compared with artery-vein clamping, the benefit of artery-only clamping during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is still controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to test the difference between AO clamping and AV clamping in partial nephrectomy. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature on PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Embase was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses Statement to search related studies. Data were extracted using a reporting checklist proposed by the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group. RevMan 5.3 software and Stata 12.0 were used to do meta-analysis. RESULTS: The present meta-analysis included 2 retrospective and 3 prospective studies, including 242 patients who underwent AO clamping and 369 patients who underwent AV clamping, that compared AO and AV clamping in LPN for RCC. At baseline, no statistically significant differences were detected between AO and AV clamping groups in terms of BMI (P=.23), tumour size TS (P=.95), but AO clamping group had significantly lower RENAL Score, (FE: WMD: 0.36, P=.007). For surgical outcomes analysis, no significant difference was detected regarding to WI (P=.58), OT (P=.40),TR (P=.58) and EBL (P=.35) between two groups. The assessment of renal function by creatinine value both at the early postoperative (P=.36) and at last follow-up (P=.38) revealed no difference. There was no significant difference in eGFR (P=.62), and at the early postoperative percentage decrease of eGFR (P=.79). However, a higher percentage decrease of eGFR decrease at last follow-up was demonstrated for the AV clamping group (FE: WMD: 2.42, P<.00001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that AO clamping might be a better choice for PN in long term. RCT studies with larger sample numbers, and long term follow-up and split renal function assessment should be conducted in the future to confirm our conclusion.

15.
Soc Sci Res ; 86: 102389, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056571

RESUMO

The 1962-67 High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, a well-known experimental early childhood intervention study that provided quality preschool education to disadvantaged children, has been shown to have had positive impacts on early child development and on a variety of adulthood outcomes. However, most previous analyses have only examined average treatment effects across all program participants without exploring possible effect heterogeneity by children's background characteristics. We investigated this question by first using the 1964-65 Current Population Survey data in combination with the Perry data to construct a scale of child socioeconomic status based on the estimated propensity for inclusion in the Perry program, then analyzing effect heterogeneity within the Perry sample by strata of our socioeconomic scale. We found that the treatment effects of enrollment in the Perry preschool on cognitive and non-cognitive skills were much larger and more persistent among the most disadvantaged children than among others in the Perry program. Furthermore, among the most disadvantaged children, the treatment (i.e., preschool enrollment) affects later outcomes through a reinforcement mechanism of skill development (i.e., early cognitive gain leads to a non-cognitive gain, which in turn leads to later cognitive gain) and a sequential improvement of cognitive skills over time. These findings have important implications for the evaluation of policy interventions in early child development using experimental data.

16.
Food Chem ; 316: 126269, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044701

RESUMO

This study investigated the comparative effects of boiling, roasting, deep-frying methods on the content of nutritional and potentially harmful components in peanuts. After cooking, the contents of total reducing sugar, sucrose, unsaturated fatty acids and almost all individual amino acids were reduced. Free methionine disappeared after heating processing, whereas fructose, starch, cis-palmitoleic acid and saturated fatty acids were increased in processed samples. Micronutrients including flavonoids and phenolic reduced significantly after boiling process but increased after roasting process. Both of frying and roasting promoted the formation of potentially harmful components including HMF, acrylamide and furan. The overall compositional difference between samples were further displayed and identified by a combination application of HCA and PCA, which showed that the roasting and frying process had a significant impact on the nutritional composition of peanuts.

17.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(3): 1133-1144, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016468

RESUMO

A high­fat diet (HFD) or obesity­promoting diet is closely associated with metabolic diseases and intestinal tumors, particularly in middle­aged individuals (typically 45­64 years old). The intestinal epithelium constitutes a barrier that separates the host from the food and microbiota in the gut, and thus, a dysfunctional epithelium is associated with a number of diseases. However, the changes caused to the function of intestinal epithelium in response to an HFD have not been well­studied to date. In the present study, middle­aged female mice (12 months old) fed an HFD for a period of 14 weeks were used to determine the effects of HFD on the intestine. Characteristics including the body weight, fat deposition, glucose metabolism, inflammatory state and intestinal morphology were assessed, while the intestinal stem cell (ISC) counts and the ability of isolated intestinal crypts to form organoid bodies in 3D culture were examined. Intestinal epithelial barrier function, including secretory defense, tight junctions and cell apoptosis, were also studied. Morphologically, the HFD resulted in a mild reduction in the length of villi of the small intestine, the colon length and the depth of colon crypts. In addition, the ISC counts were increased in the small intestine and colon in HFD­fed mice. The ability of crypts to grow into organoids (mini­guts) was also increased in crypts obtained from mice fed an HFD, while HFD compromised the epithelial barrier function of the colon. These results demonstrated how an HFD affects the intestinal epithelium and highlighted the need to carefully consider dietary patterns.

18.
iScience ; 23(3): 100893, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088395

RESUMO

By investigating the long-term observations at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP), we find that the routinely used Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law and the models that empirically separate direct normal irradiance (DNI) from measurements of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) have dramatic and unexpected bias in computing cloudy-sky DNI. This bias has led to tremendous uncertainty in estimating the electricity generation by solar energy conversion systems. To effectively reduce the bias, this study proposes a physical solution of all-sky DNI that computes solar radiation in the infinite-narrow beam along the sun direction and the scattered radiation falls within the circumsolar region. In sharp contrast with the other DNI models, this method uses a finite-surface integration algorithm that computes solar radiation in differential solid angles and efficiently infers its contribution to a surface perpendicular to the sun direction. The new model substantially reduces the uncertainty in DNI by a factor of 2-7.

19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109955, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014691

RESUMO

Costunolide (COS) and dehydrocostus lactone (DEH) are two natural sesquiterpene lactones with potential antitcancer activity against a range of cancer cell types both in vitro and in vivo, particularly for breast cancer and leukemia. There are many researches that have been taken to characterize these pathways and to reveal their anticancer mechanisms of action of COS and DEH. However, while there is a great deal of evidence detailing the effects of COS and DEH on considerable signaling pathways and cellular functions, a global view of their mechanism of action remains elusive. This review systematically summarizes the antitumor activity and mechanism of COS and DEH in the recent reports, and discusses the effect of the key active part (α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone) of COS and DEH against cancer. Moreover, we also discuss the antineoplastic activity of COS and DEH derivatives to improve the cytotoxicity and safety index. We believe this review can provide a systemic reference to develop COS and DEH as anticancer agents.

20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 74(1): 227-235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hippocampal atrophy is associated with cognitive decline. Determining the clinical features associated with hippocampal volume (HV)/atrophy may help in tailoring preventive strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to investigate the association between HV (at visit 2) and vascular status (both at visit 1 and visit 2) in a cohort of individuals aged 60+ with hypertension and without overt cognitive impairment at visit 1 (visit 1 and visit 2 were separated by approximately 8 years). METHODS: Hippocampal volume was estimated in brain MRIs as HV both clinically with the Scheltens' Medial Temporal Atrophy score, and automatically with the Free Surfer Software application. A detailed medical history, somatometric measurements, cognitive tests, leukoaraiosis severity (Fazekas score), vascular parameters including pulse wave velocity, central blood pressure, and carotid artery plaques, as well as several biochemical parameters were also measured. RESULTS: 113 hypertensive patients, 47% male, aged 75.1±5.6 years, participated in both visit 1 and visit 2 of the ADELAHYDE study. Age (ß= -0.30) and hypertension duration (ß= -0.20) at visit 1 were independently associated with smaller HV at visit 2 (p < 0.05 for all). In addition to these variables, low body mass index (ß= 0.18), high MRI Fazekas score (ß= -0.20), and low Gröber-Buschke total recall (ß= 0.27) were associated with smaller HV at visit 2 (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: In a cohort of older individuals without cognitive impairment at baseline, we described several factors associated with lower HV, of which hypertension duration can potentially be modified.

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