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1.
Small ; 13(33)2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675780

RESUMO

Functional nanoparticles encapsulated within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as an emerging class of composite materials attract increasing attention owing to their enhanced or even novel properties caused by the synergistic effect between the two functional materials. However, there is still no ideal composite structure as platform to systematically analyze and evaluate the relation between the enhanced catalytic performance of composites and the structure of MOF shells. In this work, taking RhCoNi ternary alloy nanoflowers, for example, first the RhCoNi@MOF composite catalysts sheathed with different structured MOFs via a facile self-sacrificing template process are successfully fabricated. The structure type of MOF shells is easily adjustable by using different organic molecules as etchant and coordination reagent (e.g., 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid or 2-methylimidazole), which can dissolve out the Co or Ni element in the alloy template in a targeted manner, thereby producing ZIF-67(Co) or MOF-74(Ni) shells accordingly. With the difference between the two MOF shells in the aperture sizes, the as-prepared two RhCoNi@MOF composites preform distinct size selectivity during the alkene hydrogenation. This work would help us to get more comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic role of MOFs behind the enhanced catalytic performance of nanoparticle@MOF composites.

2.
ACS Nano ; 10(2): 2607-16, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26812215

RESUMO

We report a facile synthesis of Ag@Au concave cuboctahedra by titrating aqueous HAuCl4 into a suspension of Ag cuboctahedra in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), NaOH, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) at room temperature. Initially, the Au atoms derived from the reduction of Au(3+) by AA are conformally deposited on the entire surface of a Ag cuboctahedron. Upon the formation of a complete Au shell, however, the subsequently formed Au atoms are preferentially deposited onto the Au{100} facets, resulting in the formation of a Ag@Au cuboctahedron with concave structures at the sites of {111} facets. The concave cuboctahedra embrace excellent SERS activity that is more than 70-fold stronger than that of the original Ag cuboctahedra at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The concave cuboctahedra also exhibit remarkable stability in the presence of an oxidant such as H2O2 because of the protection by a complete Au shell. These two unique attributes enable in situ SERS monitoring of the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) to 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) by NaBH4 through a 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (trans-DMAB) intermediate and the subsequent oxidation of 4-ATP back to trans-DMAB upon the introduction of H2O2.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(3): 884-92, 2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26713752

RESUMO

Pyridine and derivatives have been reported as efficient and selective catalysts for the electrochemical and photoelectrochemical reduction of CO2 to methanol. Although the catalytic mechanism remains a subject of considerable recent debate, most proposed models involve interfacial proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) to electrode-bound catalysts. We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the photoreduction of 4,4'-bipyridium (bPYD) using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) as a model system for interfacial PCET. We observed ultrafast photoinduced PCET from CdSe QDs to form doubly protonated [bPYDH2](+•) radical cations at low pH (4-6). Through studies of the dependence of PCET rate on isotopic substitution, pH and bPYD concentration, the radical formation mechanism was identified to be a sequential interfacial electron and proton transfer (ET/PT) process with a rate-limiting pH independent electron transfer rate constant, kint, of 1.05 ± 0.13 × 10(10) s(-1) between a QD and an adsorbed singly protonated [bPYDH](+). Theoretical studies of the adsorption of [bPYDH](+) and methylviologen on QD surfaces revealed important effects of hydrogen bonding with the capping ligand (3-mercaptopropionic acid) on binding geometry and interfacial PCET. In the presence of sacrificial electron donors, this system was shown to be capable of generating [bPYDH2](+•) radical cations under continuous illumination at 405 nm with a steady-state photoreduction quantum yield of 1.1 ± 0.1% at pH 4. The mechanism of bPYD photoreduction reported in this work may provide useful insights into the catalytic roles of pyridine and pyridine derivatives in the electrochemical and photoelectrochemical reduction of CO2.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(8): 2828-31, 2015 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25671760

RESUMO

Constructing nanoparticles into well-defined structures at mesoscale and larger to create novel functional materials remains a challenge. Inspired by atomic epitaxial growth, we propose an "epitaxial assembly" method to form two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays (2D NAs) directly onto desired materials. As an illustration, we employ a series of surfactant-capped nanoparticles as the "artificial atoms" and layered hybrid perovskite (LHP) materials as the substrates and obtain 2D NAs in a large area with few defects. This method is universal for nanoparticles with different shapes, sizes, and compositions and for LHP substrates with different metallic cores. Raman spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction data support our hypothesis of epitaxial assembly. The novel method offers new insights into the controllable assembly of complex functional materials and may push the development of materials science at the mesoscale.

5.
ACS Nano ; 9(1): 961-8, 2015 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25548944

RESUMO

Colloidal cadmium chalcogenide nanosheets with atomically precise thickness of a few atomic layers and size of 10-100 nm are two-dimensional (2D) quantum well materials with strong and precise quantum confinement in the thickness direction. Despite their many advantageous properties, excitons in these and other 2D metal chalcogenide materials are short-lived due to large radiative and nonradiative recombination rates, hindering their applications as light harvesting and charge separation/transport materials for solar energy conversion. We showed that these problems could be overcome in type-II CdSe/CdTe core/crown heteronanosheets (with CdTe crown laterally extending on the CdSe nanosheet core). Photoluminesence excitation measurement revealed that nearly all excitons generated in the CdSe and CdTe domains localized to the CdSe/CdTe interface to form long-lived charge transfer excitons (with electrons in the CdSe domain and hole in the CdTe domain). By ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, we showed that the efficient exciton localization efficiency could be attributed to ultrafast exciton localization (0.64 ± 0.07 ps), which was facilitated by large in-plane exciton mobility in these 2D materials and competed effectively with exiton trapping at the CdSe or CdTe domains. The spatial separation of electrons and holes across the CdSe/CdTe heterojunction effectively suppressed radiative and nonradiative recombination processes, leading to a long-lived charge transfer exciton state with a half-life of ∼ 41.7 ± 2.5 ns, ∼ 30 times longer than core-only CdSe nanosheets.

6.
Langmuir ; 30(51): 15520-30, 2014 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25510972

RESUMO

We have investigated the vertical growth of citrate-free Ag nanoplates into truncated right bipyramids and twinned cubes with truncated corners in the presence of Cl(-) ions at low and high concentrations, respectively, with Au serving as a marker for electron microscopy analysis. Both the Cl(-) ions and Au atoms could be introduced through the use of HAuCl4 as a dual agent. When HAuCl4 was added into an aqueous mixture of citrate-free Ag nanoplates, ascorbic acid (AA), and poly(vinylpyrrolidone), Au would be immediately formed and deposited on the surfaces of the nanoplates due to the reduction by both Ag and AA. The deposited Au could be easily resolved under STEM to reveal the growth patterns of the nanoplates. We found that the presence of Au did not change the growth pattern of the original Ag nanoplates. In contrast, the Cl(-) ions could deterministically direct the formation of Ag nanoplates with a triangular or hexagonal shape, followed by their further growth into truncated right bipyramids or twinned cubes with truncated corners upon the introduction of AgNO3. This work demonstrates, for the first time, that citrate-free Ag nanoplates could be transformed into right bipyramids or twinned cubes by controlling a single experimental parameter: the concentration of Cl(-) ions in the growth solution. The mechanistic understanding represents a step forward toward the rational design and shape-controlled synthesis of nanocrystals with desired properties.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(25): 9311-4, 2013 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23745607

RESUMO

Deduced from thermodynamics and the Thomson-Gibbs equation that the surface energy of crystal face is in proportion to the supersaturation of crystal growth units during the crystal growth, we propose that the exposed crystal faces can be simply tuned by controlling the supersaturation, and higher supersaturation will result in the formation of crystallites with higher surface-energy faces. We have successfully applied it for the growth of ionic (NaCl), molecular (TBPe), and metallic (Au, Pd) micro/nanocrystals with high-surface-energy faces. The above proposed strategy can be rationally designed to synthesize micro/nanocrystals with specific crystal faces and functionality toward specific applications.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas/química , Paládio/química , Fenolftaleínas/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Íons/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Termodinâmica
8.
Nanoscale ; 5(5): 1793-6, 2013 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23364465

RESUMO

A dispersive scattering centers-based strategy was proposed to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts in liquid-phase photochemical processes. Photocatalytic efficiencies of the photocatalyst, Degussa P25, in water splitting and photodegradation were markedly enhanced by using Ag nanosheets as dispersive scattering centers.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(12): 4130-5, 2013 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23400238

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) benefits from the enhanced electromagnetic field of the localized surface plasmon resonance effect of metallic (especially coinage metals) nanoparticles or nanostructures. The detection sensitivity and reproducibility of SERS measurement appear to be the two critical issues in SERS. To solve the problem associated with traditional nanoparticle aggregates and SERS substrates, we propose in this work single particle SERS. We prepared uniform gold microspheres with controllable size and surface roughness using an etching-assisted seed-mediated method. Single particle dark-field spectroscopy and SERS measurements show that particles with a larger roughness give a stronger SERS signal, but still retain a good reproducibility. This study points to the promising future of the practical application of the single particle SERS technique for trace analysis.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(5): 1926-33, 2013 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23339400

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and related material classes are attracting considerable attention for their applications in gas storage/separation as well as catalysis. In contrast, research concerning potential uses in electronic devices (such as sensors) is in its infancy, which might be due to a great challenge in the fabrication of MOFs and semiconductor composites with well-designed structures. In this paper, we proposed a simple self-template strategy to fabricate metal oxide semiconductor@MOF core-shell heterostructures, and successfully obtained freestanding ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorods as well as vertically standing arrays (including nanorod arrays and nanotube arrays). In this synthetic process, ZnO nanorods not only act as the template but also provide Zn(2+) ions for the formation of ZIF-8. In addition, we have demonstrated that solvent composition and reaction temperature are two crucial factors for successfully fabricating well-defined ZnO@ZIF-8 heterostructures. As we expect, the as-prepared ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod arrays display distinct photoelectrochemical response to hole scavengers with different molecule sizes (e.g., H(2)O(2) and ascorbic acid) owing to the limitation of the aperture of the ZIF-8 shell. Excitingly, such ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod arrays were successfully applied to the detection of H(2)O(2) in the presence of serous buffer solution. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that the semiconductor@MOFs heterostructure potentially has promising applications in many electronic devices including sensors.


Assuntos
Nanotubos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Zeolitas/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Estrutura Molecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Semicondutores
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(23): 8152-7, 2010 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20499873

RESUMO

Fe electrodeposition on Au(111) and Au(100) in BMIBF(4) ionic liquid is found to form hitherto unreported shape-ordered nanoscale morphologies of pseudorods and pseudosquare rings, respectively, both composed of grains of 4-7 nm. The manner of growth of the square rings is a ring-on-ring structure with enlarging side length and slightly protruding four corners. The generality of the growth mechanism is verified by the formation of almost exactly the same shape-ordered Fe nanostructures on Pt, i.e., pseudorod structure on Pt(111) and pseudosquare rings Pt(100). These structures are explained within the framework of magnetostatic interactions of spontaneously magnetized grains under crystallographic constraint of the substrate surface, which result in an antiparallel arrangement in magnetization of the grains at pseudorods and magnetic flux closure at the pseudosquare rings. The closed magnetic flux further leads to magnetic field-enhanced growth at the four corners and the outer peripheries of the pseudosquare rings. The observed shape-ordering of the Fe thin film serves as a paradigm of magnetostatic coupling, in which the roles of ionic liquid as surfactant and magnetic media may not be underestimated. The present work adds a new dimension to electrodeposition in ionic liquid, by which new magnetic film structures may be expected.

12.
Chem Asian J ; 5(6): 1439-44, 2010 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20397186

RESUMO

Porous hollow nanostructures have attracted intensive interest owing to their unique structure and promising applications in various fields. A facile hydrothermal synthesis has been developed to prepare porous hollow nanostructures of silicate materials through a sacrificial-templating process. The key factors, such as the concentration of the free metal cation and the alkalinity of the solution, are discussed. Porous hollow nanostructures of magnesium silicate, nickel silicate, and iron silicate have been successfully prepared by using SiO(2) spheres as the template, as well as a silicon source. Several yolk-shell structures have also been fabricated by a similar process that uses silica-coated composite particles as a template. As-prepared mesoporous magnesium silicate hollow spheres showed an excellent ability to remove Pb(2+) ions in water treatment owing to their large specific surface and unique structures.

13.
Langmuir ; 26(4): 2774-8, 2010 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20141212

RESUMO

Ag(2)O particles with different polyhedral shapes including octahedron, truncated octahedron, and cube were successfully synthesized by a simple wet-chemical method using silver nitrate, ammonia, and sodium hydroxide as raw materials at room temperature. Simply by tuning the concentration of starting materials, the shape of Ag(2)O particles evolved from octahedron to cube, and the size gradually decreased from 1-2 microm to 400-700 nm. As examples for promising applications, the antibacterial activities of the as-prepared Ag(2)O polyhedral particles were preliminarily studied. It has been found the antibacterial activity of Ag(2)O particles against E. coli depends on the shape of Ag(2)O particles, demonstrating that the surface structure of Ag(2)O particles affects the antibacterial activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxidos/química , Óxidos/farmacologia , Compostos de Prata/química , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óxidos/síntese química , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos de Prata/síntese química , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Langmuir ; 26(4): 2745-50, 2010 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19957938

RESUMO

Higher-ordered architectures self-assembly of nanomaterials have recently attracted increasing attention. In this work, we report a spontaneous and efficient route to simultaneous synthesis and self-assembly of 3D layered beta-FeOOH nanorods depending on a pH-induced strategy, in which the continuous change of pH is achieved by hydrolysis of FeCl(3).6H(2)O in the presence of urea under hydrothermal conditions. The electron microscopy observations reveal that the square-prismic beta-FeOOH nanorods are self-assembled in a side-by-side fashion to form highly oriented 2D nanorod arrays, and the 2D nanorod arrays are further stacked in a face-to-face fashion to form the final 3D layered architectures. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, a multistage reaction mechanism for the formation of the 3D layered beta-FeOOH nanorods architecture is presented, involving the fast growth and synchronous self-assembly of the nanorods toward 1D, 2D, and 3D spontaneously. The experimental evidence further demonstrates that the urea-decomposition-dependent pH continuously changing in the solution, spontaneously altering the driving force competition between the electrostatic repulsive force and the attractive van der Waals force among the nanorods building blocks, is the essential factor to influence the self-assembly of the beta-FeOOH nanorods from 1D to 3D.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(41): 14728-37, 2009 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19778042

RESUMO

Neutral inorganic molecules are generally weak in surface adsorption and intermolecular interactions. Self-assembly of such types of molecule would provide valuable information about various interactions. At electrochemical interfaces, the relative strength of these interactions may be modified through control of electrode potential and electrolyte, which may lead to the discovery of new structures and new phenomena. However, studies of this nature are as yet lacking. In this work, we consider the covalent-bound semimetal compound molecules, XCl(3) (X = Sb, Bi), as model systems of neutral inorganic molecules to investigate their self-assembly at electrochemical interfaces under a high ionic atmosphere. To fulfill such investigations, in situ STM and cyclic voltammetry are employed, and comparative experiments are performed on Au(111) in ionic liquids as well as aqueous solutions with high ionic strength. In the room temperature ionic liquid of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIBF(4)), potential-dependent partial charge transfer between the Au surface and XCl(3) molecules creates a molecule-surface interaction and provides the driving force for adsorption of the molecules. Supramolecular aggregations of adsorbed XCl(3) are promoted through chlorine-based short-range intermolecular correlation under crystallographic constraint, while repulsive Coulombic interactions created between the partially charged aggregations facilitate their long-range ordering. For SbCl(3) molecules, hexagonally arranged 6- or 7-member clusters are formed at 0.08 to -0.2 V (vs Pt), which assemble into a secondary ( radical31 x radical31)R8.9 degrees structure. For BiCl(3) molecules, both the 6-membered hexagonal and 3-membered trigonal clusters are formed in the narrow potential range -0.3 to -0.35 V, and are also arranged into an ordered secondary structure. Comparative studies were performed with SbCl(3) in concentrated aqueous solutions containing 2 M HCl to simulate the strong ionic strength of the ionic liquid. Almost identical 6-/7-member clusters and long-range ( radical31 x radical31)R8.9 degrees structure are observed at -0.1 V, demonstrating the crucial role of strong ionic strength in such supramolecular aggregations. However, such supramolecular structures are modified and eventually destroyed as ionic strength is further increased by addition of NaClO(4) up to 6 M. The destructive changes of the supramolecular structures are attributed to the alteration of ion distribution in the double layer from cation-rich to anion-rich at increasing NaClO(4) concentration. This modifies and eventually breaks the balance of intermolecular and molecule-electrolyte interactions. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the SbCl(3) assembly is investigated down to molecular level. It has been demonstrated that the initial stage of assembly follows a two-dimensional nucleation and growth mechanism and has a potential-dependent rate that is closely related to the surface mobility of the SbCl(3) clusters. There is a probability that clusters can escape from an existing assembly domain or insert into a vacancy in such a domain while they can also relax with central or ring members in a dynamic fashion. These phenomena indirectly reflect the dynamic properties of cations from electrolytes at the interface. The rich information contained in the self-assembly behavior of SbCl(3) and BiCl(3) demonstrates that neutral inorganic molecules can be employed for fundamental studies of a variety of interesting issues, especially the interplay of various interfacial interactions.

16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 24(12): 3702-5, 2009 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19523808

RESUMO

A novel direct readout colorimetric optical glucose sensor strip was constructed based on a three-layer film, including a green-emitted CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) layer as a stable color background, a red-fluorescent platinum-porphyrin oxygen-sensing layer and a glucose oxidase layer. The sensor achieved high resolution (up to 0.2 mmol L(-1)) glucose determination with a detection range from 0 to 3.0 mmol L(-1). A "glucose ruler" which acts as a glucose standard colorimetric card was obtained. Glucose concentration could easily be directly readout using the "glucose ruler", which made the glucose determination rapid, convenient and easy. The effects of pH, salinity and temperature were systematically investigated. The prepared sensor was finally applied for glucose sample analysis, compared with the "glucose ruler", accurate results could be directly readout.


Assuntos
Colorimetria/instrumentação , Glucose Oxidase/química , Glucose/análise , Dispositivos Ópticos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Refratometria/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento
17.
Anal Chem ; 81(2): 830-3, 2009 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19067540

RESUMO

A colorimetric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor was fabricated for the first time, based on a dual-color system including a strong red Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) ECL and a green reference light from a light emitting diode. Traditional ECL intensity information can be easily transformed into a color variation with this sensor, and the color variation can be directly monitored using the naked eye or a commercial CCD camera. The sensor has been successfully used to determine the concentration of tripropylamine, proline (enhancing system), and dopamine (quenching system). The results indicated that the color variation obtained corresponded to the concentration of target analytes. This sensor has potential application in rapid and semiquantitative ECL analysis.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 130(22): 6949-51, 2008 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18465860

RESUMO

With octahedral Au nanocrystals as seeds, highly monodisperse Au@Pd and Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes were synthesized by a two-step seed-mediated method in aqueous solution. Accordingly, we have preliminarily proposed a general rule that the atomic radius, bond dissociation energy, and electronegativity of the core and shell metals play key roles in determining the conformal epitaxial layered growth mode.

20.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(46): 23007-11, 2006 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17107138

RESUMO

In this paper, we report the synthesis of thorium oxide and Eu-doped thorium oxide nanotubes for the first time using the sol-gel method in porous anodic aluminum oxide template. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to characterize the morphology and structure of the as-prepared nanotubes. It has been demonstrated that Eu(3+) ions were homogeneously doped into the ThO(2) crystal lattice. The optical properties resulting from Eu-doped products were investigated by means of photoluminescence spectroscopy. Strong visible light emissions were observed at low doping concentration, and the luminescent intensity decreased at high doping concentration. The luminescent centers were concluded to be the Eu(3+) ions in the cubic (O(h)) sites rather than the C(3v) sites, which accounted well for the decrease of luminescent intensity at high doping concentration.

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