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1.
Nature ; 597(7877): 503-510, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552257

RESUMO

Large, distributed collections of miniaturized, wireless electronic devices1,2 may form the basis of future systems for environmental monitoring3, population surveillance4, disease management5 and other applications that demand coverage over expansive spatial scales. Aerial schemes to distribute the components for such networks are required, and-inspired by wind-dispersed seeds6-we examined passive structures designed for controlled, unpowered flight across natural environments or city settings. Techniques in mechanically guided assembly of three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures7-9 provide access to miniature, 3D fliers optimized for such purposes, in processes that align with the most sophisticated production techniques for electronic, optoelectronic, microfluidic and microelectromechanical technologies. Here we demonstrate a range of 3D macro-, meso- and microscale fliers produced in this manner, including those that incorporate active electronic and colorimetric payloads. Analytical, computational and experimental studies of the aerodynamics of high-performance structures of this type establish a set of fundamental considerations in bio-inspired design, with a focus on 3D fliers that exhibit controlled rotational kinematics and low terminal velocities. An approach that represents these complex 3D structures as discrete numbers of blades captures the essential physics in simple, analytical scaling forms, validated by computational and experimental results. Battery-free, wireless devices and colorimetric sensors for environmental measurements provide simple examples of a wide spectrum of applications of these unusual concepts.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2103974, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510572

RESUMO

Continuous monitoring of vital signs is an essential aspect of operations in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICUs and PICUs), of particular importance to extremely premature and/or critically ill patients. Current approaches require multiple sensors taped to the skin and connected via hard-wired interfaces to external data acquisition electronics. The adhesives can cause iatrogenic injuries to fragile, underdeveloped skin, and the wires can complicate even the most routine tasks in patient care. Here, materials strategies and design concepts are introduced that significantly improve these platforms through the use of optimized materials, open (i.e., "holey") layouts and precurved designs. These schemes 1) reduce the stresses at the skin interface, 2) facilitate release of interfacial moisture from transepidermal water loss, 3) allow visual inspection of the skin for rashes or other forms of irritation, 4) enable triggered reduction of adhesion to reduce the probability for injuries that can result from device removal. A combination of systematic benchtop testing and computational modeling identifies the essential mechanisms and key considerations. Demonstrations on adult volunteers and on a neonate in an operating NICUs illustrate a broad range of capabilities in continuous, clinical-grade monitoring of conventional vital signs, and unconventional indicators of health status.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
4.
Nat Mater ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326506

RESUMO

Flexible electronic/optoelectronic systems that can intimately integrate onto the surfaces of vital organ systems have the potential to offer revolutionary diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities relevant to a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders. The critical interfaces between such technologies and living tissues must provide soft mechanical coupling and efficient optical/electrical/chemical exchange. Here, we introduce a functional adhesive bioelectronic-tissue interface material, in the forms of mechanically compliant, electrically conductive, and optically transparent encapsulating coatings, interfacial layers or supporting matrices. These materials strongly bond both to the surfaces of the devices and to those of different internal organs, with stable adhesion for several days to months, in chemistries that can be tailored to bioresorb at controlled rates. Experimental demonstrations in live animal models include device applications that range from battery-free optoelectronic systems for deep-brain optogenetics and subdermal phototherapy to wireless millimetre-scale pacemakers and flexible multielectrode epicardial arrays. These advances have immediate applicability across nearly all types of bioelectronic/optoelectronic system currently used in animal model studies, and they also have the potential for future treatment of life-threatening diseases and disorders in humans.

5.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(10): 1228-1238, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183859

RESUMO

Temporary cardiac pacemakers used in periods of need during surgical recovery involve percutaneous leads and externalized hardware that carry risks of infection, constrain patient mobility and may damage the heart during lead removal. Here we report a leadless, battery-free, fully implantable cardiac pacemaker for postoperative control of cardiac rate and rhythm that undergoes complete dissolution and clearance by natural biological processes after a defined operating timeframe. We show that these devices provide effective pacing of hearts of various sizes in mouse, rat, rabbit, canine and human cardiac models, with tailored geometries and operation timescales, powered by wireless energy transfer. This approach overcomes key disadvantages of traditional temporary pacing devices and may serve as the basis for the next generation of postoperative temporary pacing technology.

6.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(7): 759-771, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045731

RESUMO

Evaluating the biomechanics of soft tissues at depths well below their surface, and at high precision and in real time, would open up diagnostic opportunities. Here, we report the development and application of miniaturized electromagnetic devices, each integrating a vibratory actuator and a soft strain-sensing sheet, for dynamically measuring the Young's modulus of skin and of other soft tissues at depths of approximately 1-8 mm, depending on the particular design of the sensor. We experimentally and computationally established the operational principles of the devices and evaluated their performance with a range of synthetic and biological materials and with human skin in healthy volunteers. Arrays of devices can be used to spatially map elastic moduli and to profile the modulus depth-wise. As an example of practical medical utility, we show that the devices can be used to accurately locate lesions associated with psoriasis. Compact electronic devices for the rapid and precise mechanical characterization of living tissues could be used to monitor and diagnose a range of health disorders.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Pele/química , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miniaturização , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos , Vibração , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(7): 1035-1045, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972800

RESUMO

Advanced technologies for controlled delivery of light to targeted locations in biological tissues are essential to neuroscience research that applies optogenetics in animal models. Fully implantable, miniaturized devices with wireless control and power-harvesting strategies offer an appealing set of attributes in this context, particularly for studies that are incompatible with conventional fiber-optic approaches or battery-powered head stages. Limited programmable control and narrow options in illumination profiles constrain the use of existing devices. The results reported here overcome these drawbacks via two platforms, both with real-time user programmability over multiple independent light sources, in head-mounted and back-mounted designs. Engineering studies of the optoelectronic and thermal properties of these systems define their capabilities and key design considerations. Neuroscience applications demonstrate that induction of interbrain neuronal synchrony in the medial prefrontal cortex shapes social interaction within groups of mice, highlighting the power of real-time subject-specific programmability of the wireless optogenetic platforms introduced here.


Assuntos
Optogenética/instrumentação , Comportamento Social , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Camundongos
8.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806569

RESUMO

Structural topology and loading condition have important influences on the mechanical behaviors of porous soft solids. The porous solids are usually set to be under uniaxial tension or compression. Only a few studies have considered the biaxial loads, especially the combined loads of tension and compression. In this study, porous soft solids with oblique and square lattices of circular voids under biaxial loadings were studied through integrated experiments and numerical simulations. For the soft solids with oblique lattices of circular voids, we found a new pattern transformation under biaxial compression, which has alternating elliptic voids with an inclined angle. This kind of pattern transformation is rarely reported under uniaxial compression. Introducing tensile deformation in one direction can hamper this kind of pattern transformation under biaxial loading. For the soft solids with square lattices of voids, the number of voids cannot change their deformation behaviors qualitatively, but quantitatively. In general, our present results demonstrate that void morphology and biaxial loading can be harnessed to tune the pattern transformations of porous soft solids under large deformation. This discovery offers a new avenue for designing the void morphology of soft solids for controlling their deformation patterns under a specific biaxial stress-state.

9.
Sci Adv ; 7(7)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568482

RESUMO

Accurate, real-time monitoring of intravascular oxygen levels is important in tracking the cardiopulmonary health of patients after cardiothoracic surgery. Existing technologies use intravascular placement of glass fiber-optic catheters that pose risks of blood vessel damage, thrombosis, and infection. In addition, physical tethers to power supply systems and data acquisition hardware limit freedom of movement and add clutter to the intensive care unit. This report introduces a wireless, miniaturized, implantable optoelectronic catheter system incorporating optical components on the probe, encapsulated by soft biocompatible materials, as alternative technology that avoids these disadvantages. The absence of physical tethers and the flexible, biocompatible construction of the probe represent key defining features, resulting in a high-performance, patient-friendly implantable oximeter that can monitor localized tissue oxygenation, heart rate, and respiratory activity with wireless, real-time, continuous operation. In vitro and in vivo testing shows that this platform offers measurement accuracy and precision equivalent to those of existing clinical standards.

11.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 68(4): 1389-1398, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-density surface electromyography (HD-sEMG) has been utilized extensively in neuromuscular research. Despite its potential advantages, limitations in electrode design have largely prevented widespread acceptance of the technology. Commercial electrodes have limited spatial fidelity, because of a lack of sharpness of the signal, and variable signal stability. We demonstrate here a novel tattoo electrode that addresses these issues. Our dry HD electrode grid exhibits remarkable deformability which ensures superior conformity with the skin surface, while faithfully recording signals during different levels of muscle contraction. METHOD: We fabricated a 4 cm×3 cm tattoo HD electrode grid on a stretchable electronics membrane for sEMG applications. The grid was placed on the skin overlying the biceps brachii of healthy subjects, and was used to record signals for several hours while tracking different isometric contractions. RESULTS: The sEMG signals were recorded successfully from all 64 electrodes across the grid. These electrodes were able to faithfully record sEMG signals during repeated contractions while maintaining a stable baseline at rest. During voluntary contractions, broad EMG frequency content was preserved, with accurate reproduction of the EMG spectrum across the full signal bandwidth. CONCLUSION: The tattoo grid electrode can potentially be used for recording high-density sEMG from skin overlying major limb muscles. Layout programmability, good signal quality, excellent baseline stability, and easy wearability make this electrode a potentially valuable component of future HD electrode grid applications. SIGNIFICANCE: The tattoo electrode can facilitate high fidelity recording in clinical applications such as tracking the evolution and time-course of challenging neuromuscular degenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Tatuagem , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Eletrodos , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(50): 31674-31684, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257558

RESUMO

The standard of clinical care in many pediatric and neonatal neurocritical care units involves continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics using hard-wired devices that physically adhere to the skin and connect to base stations that commonly mount on an adjacent wall or stand. Risks of iatrogenic skin injuries associated with adhesives that bond such systems to the skin and entanglements of the patients and/or the healthcare professionals with the wires can impede clinical procedures and natural movements that are critical to the care, development, and recovery of pediatric patients. This paper presents a wireless, miniaturized, and mechanically soft, flexible device that supports measurements quantitatively comparable to existing clinical standards. The system features a multiphotodiode array and pair of light-emitting diodes for simultaneous monitoring of systemic and cerebral hemodynamics, with ability to measure cerebral oxygenation, heart rate, peripheral oxygenation, and potentially cerebral pulse pressure and vascular tone, through the utilization of multiwavelength reflectance-mode photoplethysmography and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Monte Carlo optical simulations define the tissue-probing depths for source-detector distances and operating wavelengths of these systems using magnetic resonance images of the head of a representative pediatric patient to define the relevant geometries. Clinical studies on pediatric subjects with and without congenital central hypoventilation syndrome validate the feasibility for using this system in operating hospitals and define its advantages relative to established technologies. This platform has the potential to substantially enhance the quality of pediatric care across a wide range of conditions and use scenarios, not only in advanced hospital settings but also in clinics of lower- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Monitorização Hemodinâmica/instrumentação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Monitorização Neurofisiológica/instrumentação , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Monitorização Hemodinâmica/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Neurofisiológica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação
13.
Sci Adv ; 6(49)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277260

RESUMO

Present-day dermatological diagnostic tools are expensive, time-consuming, require substantial operational expertise, and typically probe only the superficial layers of skin (~15 µm). We introduce a soft, battery-free, noninvasive, reusable skin hydration sensor (SHS) adherable to most of the body surface. The platform measures volumetric water content (up to ~1 mm in depth) and wirelessly transmits data to any near-field communication-compatible smartphone. The SHS is readily manufacturable, comprises unique powering and encapsulation strategies, and achieves high measurement precision (±5% volumetric water content) and resolution (±0.015°C skin surface temperature). Validation on n = 16 healthy/normal human participants reveals an average skin water content of ~63% across multiple body locations. Pilot studies on patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriasis, urticaria, xerosis cutis, and rosacea highlight the diagnostic capability of the SHS (P AD = 0.0034) and its ability to study impact of topical treatments on skin diseases.

14.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(574)2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328330

RESUMO

Precise form-fitting of prosthetic sockets is important for the comfort and well-being of persons with limb amputations. Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressure and temperature at the skin-prosthesis interface can be valuable in the fitting process and in monitoring for the development of dangerous regions of increased pressure and temperature as limb volume changes during daily activities. Conventional pressure transducers and temperature sensors cannot provide comfortable, irritation-free measurements because of their relatively rigid construction and requirements for wired interfaces to external data acquisition hardware. Here, we introduce a millimeter-scale pressure sensor that adopts a soft, three-dimensional design that integrates into a thin, flexible battery-free, wireless platform with a built-in temperature sensor to allow operation in a noninvasive, imperceptible fashion directly at the skin-prosthesis interface. The sensor system mounts on the surface of the skin of the residual limb, in single or multiple locations of interest. A wireless reader module attached to the outside of the prosthetic socket wirelessly provides power to the sensor and wirelessly receives data from it, for continuous long-range transmission to a standard consumer electronic device such as a smartphone or tablet computer. Characterization of both the sensor and the system, together with theoretical analysis of the key responses, illustrates linear, accurate responses and the ability to address the entire range of relevant pressures and to capture skin temperature accurately, both in a continuous mode. Clinical application in two prosthesis users demonstrates the functionality and feasibility of this soft, wireless system.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Desenho de Prótese , Pele , Temperatura
15.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2020: 1085417, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134931

RESUMO

Electronic skin made of thin, soft, stretchable devices that can mimic the human skin and reconstruct the tactile sensation and perception offers great opportunities for prosthesis sensing, robotics controlling, and human-machine interfaces. Advanced materials and mechanics engineering of thin film devices has proven to be an efficient route to enable and enhance flexibility and stretchability of various electronic skins; however, the density of devices is still low owing to the limitation in existing fabrication techniques. Here, we report a high-throughput one-step process to fabricate large tactile sensing arrays with a sensor density of 25 sensors/cm2 for electronic skin, where the sensors are based on intrinsically stretchable piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) elastomer. The PZT elastomer sensor arrays with great uniformity and passive-driven manner enable high-resolution tactile sensing, simplify the data acquisition process, and lower the manufacturing cost. The high-throughput fabrication process provides a general platform for integrating intrinsically stretchable materials into large area, high device density soft electronics for the next-generation electronic skin.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5990, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239608

RESUMO

Bioresorbable electronic stimulators are of rapidly growing interest as unusual therapeutic platforms, i.e., bioelectronic medicines, for treating disease states, accelerating wound healing processes and eliminating infections. Here, we present advanced materials that support operation in these systems over clinically relevant timeframes, ultimately bioresorbing harmlessly to benign products without residues, to eliminate the need for surgical extraction. Our findings overcome key challenges of bioresorbable electronic devices by realizing lifetimes that match clinical needs. The devices exploit a bioresorbable dynamic covalent polymer that facilitates tight bonding to itself and other surfaces, as a soft, elastic substrate and encapsulation coating for wireless electronic components. We describe the underlying features and chemical design considerations for this polymer, and the biocompatibility of its constituent materials. In devices with optimized, wireless designs, these polymers enable stable, long-lived operation as distal stimulators in a rat model of peripheral nerve injuries, thereby demonstrating the potential of programmable long-term electrical stimulation for maintaining muscle receptivity and enhancing functional recovery.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Poliuretanos/química , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ratos , Regeneração , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Nervo Isquiático/fisiologia
17.
Sci Adv ; 6(35): eabb1093, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923633

RESUMO

Implantable drug release platforms that offer wirelessly programmable control over pharmacokinetics have potential in advanced treatment protocols for hormone imbalances, malignant cancers, diabetic conditions, and others. We present a system with this type of functionality in which the constituent materials undergo complete bioresorption to eliminate device load from the patient after completing the final stage of the release process. Here, bioresorbable polyanhydride reservoirs store drugs in defined reservoirs without leakage until wirelessly triggered valve structures open to allow release. These valves operate through an electrochemical mechanism of geometrically accelerated corrosion induced by passage of electrical current from a wireless, bioresorbable power-harvesting unit. Evaluations in cell cultures demonstrate the efficacy of this technology for the treatment of cancerous tissues by release of the drug doxorubicin. Complete in vivo studies of platforms with multiple, independently controlled release events in live-animal models illustrate capabilities for control of blood glucose levels by timed delivery of insulin.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2405, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415064

RESUMO

Fiber-based electronics enabling lightweight and mechanically flexible/stretchable functions are desirable for numerous e-textile/e-skin optoelectronic applications. These wearable devices require low-cost manufacturing, high reliability, multifunctionality and long-term stability. Here, we report the preparation of representative classes of 3D-inorganic nanofiber network (FN) films by a blow-spinning technique, including semiconducting indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) and copper oxide, as well as conducting indium-tin oxide and copper metal. Specifically, thin-film transistors based on IGZO FN exhibit negligible performance degradation after one thousand bending cycles and exceptional room-temperature gas sensing performance. Owing to their great stretchability, these metal oxide FNs can be laminated/embedded on/into elastomers, yielding multifunctional single-sensing resistors as well as fully monolithically integrated e-skin devices. These can detect and differentiate multiple stimuli including analytes, light, strain, pressure, temperature, humidity, body movement, and respiratory functions. All of these FN-based devices exhibit excellent sensitivity, response time, and detection limits, making them promising candidates for versatile wearable electronics.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanofibras/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Testes Respiratórios , Cobre/química , Elastômeros , Etanol/análise , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Gálio/química , Humanos , Índio/química , Teste de Materiais , Movimento (Física) , Poliestirenos/química , Semicondutores , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Temperatura , Têxteis , Óxido de Zinco/química
19.
Nat Med ; 26(3): 418-429, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161411

RESUMO

Standard clinical care in neonatal and pediatric intensive-care units (NICUs and PICUs, respectively) involves continuous monitoring of vital signs with hard-wired devices that adhere to the skin and, in certain instances, can involve catheter-based pressure sensors inserted into the arteries. These systems entail risks of causing iatrogenic skin injuries, complicating clinical care and impeding skin-to-skin contact between parent and child. Here we present a wireless, non-invasive technology that not only offers measurement equivalency to existing clinical standards for heart rate, respiration rate, temperature and blood oxygenation, but also provides a range of important additional features, as supported by data from pilot clinical studies in both the NICU and PICU. These new modalities include tracking movements and body orientation, quantifying the physiological benefits of skin-to-skin care, capturing acoustic signatures of cardiac activity, recording vocal biomarkers associated with tonality and temporal characteristics of crying and monitoring a reliable surrogate for systolic blood pressure. These platforms have the potential to substantially enhance the quality of neonatal and pediatric critical care.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Tecnologia sem Fio , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletrocardiografia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fotopletismografia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 153: 112009, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989934

RESUMO

Optogenetic-based neuromodulation tools is evolving for the basic neuroscience research in animals combining optical manipulation and electrophysiological recordings. However, current opto-electric integrated devices attaching on cerebral cortex for electrocorticogram (ECoG) still exist potential damage risks for both brain tissue and electrode, due to the mechanical mismatch and brain deformation. Here, we propose a stretchable opto-electric integrated neural interface by integrating serpentine-shaped electrodes and multisite micro-LEDs onto a hyperelastic substrate, as well as a serpentine-shaped metal shielding embedded in recording electrode for low-noise signal acquisition. The delicate structure design, ultrasoft encapsulation and independent fabrication followed by assembly are beneficial to the conformality, reliability and yield. In vitro accelerated deterioration and reciprocating tensile have demonstrated good performance and high stability. In vivo optogenetic activation of focal cortical areas of awaked mouse expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 is realized with simultaneous high-quality recording. We highlight the potential use of this multifunctional neural interface for neural applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletrocorticografia/instrumentação , Animais , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Eletrodos Implantados , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Metais/química , Camundongos , Microeletrodos , Modelos Animais , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Propriedades de Superfície
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