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1.
Sci China Technol Sci ; 66(1): 223-232, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593863

RESUMO

Elastomeric encapsulation layers are widely used in soft, wearable devices to physically isolate rigid electronic components from external environmental stimuli (e.g., stress) and facilitate device sterilization for reusability. In devices experiencing large deformations, the stress-isolation effect of the top encapsulation layer can eliminate the damage to the electronic components caused by external forces. However, for health monitoring and sensing applications, the strain-isolation effect of the bottom encapsulation layer can partially block the physiological signals of interest and degrade the measurement accuracy. Here, an analytic model is developed for the strain- and stress-isolation effects present in wearable devices with elastomeric encapsulation layers. The soft, elastomeric encapsulation layers and main electronic components layer are modeled as transversely isotropic-elastic mediums and the strain- and stress-isolation effects are described using isolation indexes. The analysis and results show that the isolation effects strongly depend on the thickness, density, and elastic modulus of both the elastomeric encapsulation layers and the main electronic component layer. These findings, combined with the flexible mechanics design strategies of wearable devices, provide new design guidelines for future wearable devices to protect them from external forces while capturing the relevant physiological signals underneath the skin. Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s11431-022-2034-y.

2.
Sci Robot ; 8(74): eadd1053, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652505

RESUMO

Bioengineering approaches that combine living cellular components with three-dimensional scaffolds to generate motion can be used to develop a new generation of miniature robots. Integrating on-board electronics and remote control in these biological machines will enable various applications across engineering, biology, and medicine. Here, we present hybrid bioelectronic robots equipped with battery-free and microinorganic light-emitting diodes for wireless control and real-time communication. Centimeter-scale walking robots were computationally designed and optimized to host on-board optoelectronics with independent stimulation of multiple optogenetic skeletal muscles, achieving remote command of walking, turning, plowing, and transport functions both at individual and collective levels. This work paves the way toward a class of biohybrid machines able to combine biological actuation and sensing with on-board computing.


Assuntos
Robótica , Robótica/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Eletrônica , Caminhada
3.
Small ; : e2205048, 2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534830

RESUMO

Repositioning is a common guideline for the prevention of pressure injuries of bedridden or wheelchair patients. However, frequent repositioning could deteriorate the quality of patient's life and induce secondary injuries. This paper introduces a method for continuous multi-site monitoring of pressure and temperature distribution from strategically deployed sensor arrays at skin interfaces via battery-free, wireless ionic liquid pressure sensors. The wirelessly delivered power enables stable operation of the ionic liquid pressure sensor, which shows enhanced sensitivity, negligible hysteresis, high linearity and cyclic stability over relevant pressure range. The experimental investigations of the wireless devices, verified by numerical simulation of the key responses, support capabilities for real-time, continuous, long-term monitoring of the pressure and temperature distribution from multiple sensor arrays. Clinical trials on two hemiplegic patients confined on bed or wheelchair integrated with the system demonstrate the feasibility of sensor arrays for a decrease in pressure and temperature distribution under minimal repositioning.

4.
Sci Adv ; 8(51): eade2450, 2022 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563155

RESUMO

Tactile sensations are mainly transmitted to each other by physical touch. Wireless touch perception could be a revolution for us to interact with the world. Here, we report a wireless self-sensing and haptic-reproducing electronic skin (e-skin) to realize noncontact touch communications. A flexible self-sensing actuator was developed to provide an integrated function in both tactile sensing and haptic feedback. When this e-skin was dynamically pressed, the actuator generated an induced voltage as tactile information. Via wireless communication, another e-skin could receive this tactile data and run a synchronized haptic reproduction. Thus, touch could be wirelessly conveyed in bidirections between two users as a touch intercom. Furthermore, this e-skin could be connected with various smart devices to form a touch internet of things where one-to-one and one-to-multiple touch delivery could be realized. This wireless touch presents huge potentials in remote touch video, medical care/assistance, education, and many other applications.

5.
Sci Adv ; 8(51): eade0838, 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542721

RESUMO

DNA and proteins fold in three dimensions (3D) to enable functions that sustain life. Emulation of such folding schemes for functional materials can unleash enormous potential in advancing a wide range of technologies, especially in robotics, medicine, and telecommunication. Here, we report a microfolding strategy that enables formation of 3D morphable microelectronic systems integrated with various functional materials, including monocrystalline silicon, metallic nanomembranes, and polymers. By predesigning folding hosts and configuring folding pathways, 3D microelectronic systems in freestanding forms can transform across various complex configurations with modulated functionalities. Nearly all transitional states of 3D microelectronic systems achieved via the microfolding assembly can be easily accessed and modulated in situ, offering functional versatility and adaptability. Advanced morphable microelectronic systems including a reconfigurable microantenna for customizable telecommunication, a 3D vibration sensor for hand-tremor monitoring, and a bloomable robot for cardiac mapping demonstrate broad utility of these assembly schemes to realize advanced functionalities.

7.
Science ; 377(6601): 109-115, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771907

RESUMO

Implantable devices capable of targeted and reversible blocking of peripheral nerve activity may provide alternatives to opioids for treating pain. Local cooling represents an attractive means for on-demand elimination of pain signals, but traditional technologies are limited by rigid, bulky form factors; imprecise cooling; and requirements for extraction surgeries. Here, we introduce soft, bioresorbable, microfluidic devices that enable delivery of focused, minimally invasive cooling power at arbitrary depths in living tissues with real-time temperature feedback control. Construction with water-soluble, biocompatible materials leads to dissolution and bioresorption as a mechanism to eliminate unnecessary device load and risk to the patient without additional surgeries. Multiweek in vivo trials demonstrate the ability to rapidly and precisely cool peripheral nerves to provide local, on-demand analgesia in rat models for neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Bloqueio Nervoso , Neuralgia , Manejo da Dor , Nervos Periféricos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Bloqueio Nervoso/instrumentação , Neuralgia/terapia , Manejo da Dor/instrumentação , Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Ratos
8.
Nat Mater ; 21(5): 564-571, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501364

RESUMO

Realizing fully stretchable electronic materials is central to advancing new types of mechanically agile and skin-integrable optoelectronic device technologies. Here we demonstrate a materials design concept combining an organic semiconductor film with a honeycomb porous structure with biaxially prestretched platform that enables high-performance organic electrochemical transistors with a charge transport stability over 30-140% tensional strain, limited only by metal contact fatigue. The prestretched honeycomb semiconductor channel of donor-acceptor polymer poly(2,5-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-diketo-pyrrolopyrrole-alt-2,5-bis(3-triethyleneglycoloxy-thiophen-2-yl) exhibits high ion uptake and completely stable electrochemical and mechanical properties over 1,500 redox cycles with 104 stretching cycles under 30% strain. Invariant electrocardiogram recording cycles and synapse responses under varying strains, along with mechanical finite element analysis, underscore that the present stretchable organic electrochemical transistor design strategy is suitable for diverse applications requiring stable signal output under deformation with low power dissipation and mechanical robustness.


Assuntos
Eletrônica , Transistores Eletrônicos , Polímeros/química , Semicondutores , Tiofenos/química
9.
Nat Protoc ; 17(4): 1073-1096, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173306

RESUMO

Wireless battery-free optogenetic devices enable behavioral neuroscience studies in groups of animals with minimal interference to natural behavior. Real-time independent control of optogenetic stimulation through near-field communication dramatically expands the realm of applications of these devices in broad contexts of neuroscience research. Dissemination of these tools with advanced functionalities to the neuroscience community requires protocols for device manufacturing and experimental implementation. This protocol describes detailed procedures for fabrication, encapsulation and implantation of recently developed advanced wireless devices in head- and back-mounted forms. In addition, procedures for standard implementation of experimental systems in mice are provided. This protocol aims to facilitate the application of wireless optogenetic devices in advanced optogenetic experiments involving groups of freely moving rodents and complex environmental designs. The entire protocol lasts ~3-5 weeks.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Optogenética , Animais , Camundongos , Optogenética/métodos , Tecnologia sem Fio
10.
Sci Adv ; 8(2): eabl6700, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030019

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic has highlighted the importance of developing intelligent robotics to prevent infectious disease spread. Human-machine interfaces (HMIs) give a chance of interactions between users and robotics, which play a significant role in teleoperating robotics. Conventional HMIs are based on bulky, rigid, and expensive machines, which mainly focus on robots/machines control, but lack of adequate feedbacks to users, which limit their applications in conducting complicated tasks. Therefore, developing closed-loop HMIs with both accurate sensing and feedback functions is extremely important. Here, we present a closed-loop HMI system based on skin-integrated electronics, whose electronics compliantly interface with the whole body for wireless motion capturing and haptic feedback via Bluetooth, Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi), and Internet. The integration of visual and haptic VR via skin-integrated electronics together into a closed-loop HMI for robotic VR demonstrates great potentials in noncontact collection of bio samples, nursing infectious disease patients and many others.

11.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(9): e2104635, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35088587

RESUMO

Wearable electronics have attracted extensive attentions over the past few years for their potential applications in health monitoring based on continuous data collection and real-time wireless transmission, which highlights the importance of portable powering technologies. Batteries are the most used power source for wearable electronics, but unfortunately, they consist of hazardous materials and are bulky, which limit their incorporation into the state-of-art skin-integrated electronics. Sweat-activated biocompatible batteries offer a new powering strategy for skin-like electronics. However, the capacity of the reported sweat-activated batteries (SABs) cannot support real-time data collection and wireless transmission. Focused on this issue, soft, biocompatible, SABs are developed that can be directly integrated on skin with a record high capacity of 42.5 mAh and power density of 7.46 mW cm-2 among the wearable sweat and body fluids activated batteries. The high performance SABs enable powering electronic devices for a long-term duration, for instance, continuously lighting 120 lighting emitting diodes (LEDs) for over 5 h, and also offers the capability of powering Bluetooth wireless operation for real-time recording of physiological signals for over 6 h. Demonstrations of the SABs for powering microfluidic system based sweat sensors are realized in this work, allowing real-time monitoring of pH, glucose, and Na+ in sweat.


Assuntos
Suor , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrônica , Pele
12.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 7: 85, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745644

RESUMO

Skin-integrated electronics, also known as electronic skin (e-skin), are rapidly developing and are gradually being adopted in biomedical fields as well as in our daily lives. E-skin capable of providing sensitive and high-resolution tactile sensations and haptic feedback to the human body would open a new e-skin paradigm for closed-loop human-machine interfaces. Here, we report a class of materials and mechanical designs for the miniaturization of mechanical actuators and strategies for their integration into thin, soft e-skin for haptic interfaces. The mechanical actuators exhibit small dimensions of 5 mm diameter and 1.45 mm thickness and work in an electromagnetically driven vibrotactile mode with resonance frequency overlapping the most sensitive frequency of human skin. Nine mini actuators can be integrated simultaneously in a small area of 2 cm × 2 cm to form a 3 × 3 haptic feedback array, which is small and compact enough to mount on a thumb tip. Furthermore, the thin, soft haptic interface exhibits good mechanical properties that work properly during stretching, bending, and twisting and therefore can conformally fit onto various parts of the human body to afford programmable tactile enhancement and Braille recognition with an accuracy rate over 85%.

14.
Sci Adv ; 7(43): eabj3686, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669471

RESUMO

Microfluidic technologies have wide-ranging applications in chemical analysis systems, drug delivery platforms, and artificial vascular networks. This latter area is particularly relevant to 3D cell cultures, engineered tissues, and artificial organs, where volumetric capabilities in fluid distribution are essential. Existing schemes for fabricating 3D microfluidic structures are constrained in realizing desired layout designs, producing physiologically relevant microvascular structures, and/or integrating active electronic/optoelectronic/microelectromechanical components for sensing and actuation. This paper presents a guided assembly approach that bypasses these limitations to yield complex 3D microvascular structures from 2D precursors that exploit the full sophistication of 2D fabrication methods. The capabilities extend to feature sizes <5 µm, in extended arrays and with various embedded sensors and actuators, across wide ranges of overall dimensions, in a parallel, high-throughput process. Examples include 3D microvascular networks with sophisticated layouts, deterministically designed and constructed to expand the geometries and operating features of artificial vascular networks.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
16.
Nat Mater ; 20(11): 1559-1570, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326506

RESUMO

Flexible electronic/optoelectronic systems that can intimately integrate onto the surfaces of vital organ systems have the potential to offer revolutionary diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities relevant to a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders. The critical interfaces between such technologies and living tissues must provide soft mechanical coupling and efficient optical/electrical/chemical exchange. Here, we introduce a functional adhesive bioelectronic-tissue interface material, in the forms of mechanically compliant, electrically conductive, and optically transparent encapsulating coatings, interfacial layers or supporting matrices. These materials strongly bond both to the surfaces of the devices and to those of different internal organs, with stable adhesion for several days to months, in chemistries that can be tailored to bioresorb at controlled rates. Experimental demonstrations in live animal models include device applications that range from battery-free optoelectronic systems for deep-brain optogenetics and subdermal phototherapy to wireless millimetre-scale pacemakers and flexible multielectrode epicardial arrays. These advances have immediate applicability across nearly all types of bioelectronic/optoelectronic system currently used in animal model studies, and they also have the potential for future treatment of life-threatening diseases and disorders in humans.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Adesivos , Animais , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletrônica
17.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(10): 1228-1238, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183859

RESUMO

Temporary cardiac pacemakers used in periods of need during surgical recovery involve percutaneous leads and externalized hardware that carry risks of infection, constrain patient mobility and may damage the heart during lead removal. Here we report a leadless, battery-free, fully implantable cardiac pacemaker for postoperative control of cardiac rate and rhythm that undergoes complete dissolution and clearance by natural biological processes after a defined operating timeframe. We show that these devices provide effective pacing of hearts of various sizes in mouse, rat, rabbit, canine and human cardiac models, with tailored geometries and operation timescales, powered by wireless energy transfer. This approach overcomes key disadvantages of traditional temporary pacing devices and may serve as the basis for the next generation of postoperative temporary pacing technology.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis , Marca-Passo Artificial , Animais , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Camundongos , Coelhos , Ratos , Tecnologia sem Fio
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(7): 1035-1045, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972800

RESUMO

Advanced technologies for controlled delivery of light to targeted locations in biological tissues are essential to neuroscience research that applies optogenetics in animal models. Fully implantable, miniaturized devices with wireless control and power-harvesting strategies offer an appealing set of attributes in this context, particularly for studies that are incompatible with conventional fiber-optic approaches or battery-powered head stages. Limited programmable control and narrow options in illumination profiles constrain the use of existing devices. The results reported here overcome these drawbacks via two platforms, both with real-time user programmability over multiple independent light sources, in head-mounted and back-mounted designs. Engineering studies of the optoelectronic and thermal properties of these systems define their capabilities and key design considerations. Neuroscience applications demonstrate that induction of interbrain neuronal synchrony in the medial prefrontal cortex shapes social interaction within groups of mice, highlighting the power of real-time subject-specific programmability of the wireless optogenetic platforms introduced here.


Assuntos
Optogenética/instrumentação , Comportamento Social , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Camundongos
19.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(7): 759-771, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045731

RESUMO

Evaluating the biomechanics of soft tissues at depths well below their surface, and at high precision and in real time, would open up diagnostic opportunities. Here, we report the development and application of miniaturized electromagnetic devices, each integrating a vibratory actuator and a soft strain-sensing sheet, for dynamically measuring the Young's modulus of skin and of other soft tissues at depths of approximately 1-8 mm, depending on the particular design of the sensor. We experimentally and computationally established the operational principles of the devices and evaluated their performance with a range of synthetic and biological materials and with human skin in healthy volunteers. Arrays of devices can be used to spatially map elastic moduli and to profile the modulus depth-wise. As an example of practical medical utility, we show that the devices can be used to accurately locate lesions associated with psoriasis. Compact electronic devices for the rapid and precise mechanical characterization of living tissues could be used to monitor and diagnose a range of health disorders.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Pele/química , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miniaturização , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos , Vibração , Adulto Jovem
20.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806569

RESUMO

Structural topology and loading condition have important influences on the mechanical behaviors of porous soft solids. The porous solids are usually set to be under uniaxial tension or compression. Only a few studies have considered the biaxial loads, especially the combined loads of tension and compression. In this study, porous soft solids with oblique and square lattices of circular voids under biaxial loadings were studied through integrated experiments and numerical simulations. For the soft solids with oblique lattices of circular voids, we found a new pattern transformation under biaxial compression, which has alternating elliptic voids with an inclined angle. This kind of pattern transformation is rarely reported under uniaxial compression. Introducing tensile deformation in one direction can hamper this kind of pattern transformation under biaxial loading. For the soft solids with square lattices of voids, the number of voids cannot change their deformation behaviors qualitatively, but quantitatively. In general, our present results demonstrate that void morphology and biaxial loading can be harnessed to tune the pattern transformations of porous soft solids under large deformation. This discovery offers a new avenue for designing the void morphology of soft solids for controlling their deformation patterns under a specific biaxial stress-state.

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