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1.
Ecol Lett ; 22(2): 284-291, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467932

RESUMO

The underlying drivers of ß-diversity along latitudinal gradients have been unclear. Previous studies have focused on ß-diversities calculated at a local scale and shed limited light on regional ß-diversity. We tested the much-debated effects of range size vs. environmental filtering on the ß-gradient using data from the US Forest Inventory Analysis Program. We showed that the drivers of the ß-gradient were scale dependent. At the local scale species spatial patterns contributed little to the ß-gradient, whereas at the regional scale spatial patterns dominated the gradient and a U-shape latitudinal relationship for the standardised ß-diversity deviation was revealed. The relationship can be explained by spatial variation in climate and soil texture, thus supporting the environmental filtering hypothesis. But it is inconsistent with Rapoport's rule about the effect of range size on ß-gradient. These results resolve the debate on whether species spatial distributions contribute to ß-gradient and attest the importance of environmental filtering in determining regional ß-diversity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Biodiversidade , Clima , Estados Unidos
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(8): 2149-57, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25509062

RESUMO

Spruce-fir forest is the best protected forest vegetation, while larch forest is intrazonal vegetation on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains. To further understand their species composition and community structure, we established a 4 hm2 forest permanent plot in each of these two forests in 2010. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥ 1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species. The results showed that there were 9257 stems belonging to 8640 genotype individuals, 22 species, 6 genera and 12 families in the spruce-fir forest plot, while 4060 stems belonging to 3696 genotype individuals, 22 species, 8 genera and 16 families in the larch forest plot. Species composition in the two plots was very similar. Most of the species belonged to the Changbai Mountains plant flora. The analysis of species' importance values showed that there were dominant species in both communities. The spruce-fir forest was dominated by Abies nephrolepis and Larix olgensis, whose importance values accounted for 38.7% and 23.9% of the sum of importance values over all species in the plot, respectively. The larch forest was dominated solely by L. olgensis, whose importance value accounted for 61.9% of the sum of importance values over all species in the plot. Both forests were in good condition of regeneration and showed a reversed 'J' type in tree size distributions, at community level. However, different species showed different shapes in size distribution in the two forests. A. nephrolepis showed a reversed 'J' type size distribution in the spruce-fir forest, while L. olgensis with DBH ≥ 10 cm showed a hump-shaped distribution in the larch forest. Spatial distribution patterns of the main species changed differently with size class and spatial scales. Common species had different spatial distribution patterns in the two plots.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Árvores , Abies , China , Larix , Picea
3.
Front Genet ; 5: 358, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25414723

RESUMO

Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of phylogenetic diversity in the mega-phylogeny were more consistent, thereby removing a potential source of bias at the plot-level, and demonstrating the value of assessing phylogenetic relationships simultaneously within a mega-phylogeny. An unexpected result of the comparisons among plots based on the mega-phylogeny was that the communities in the ForestGEO plots in general appear to be assemblages of more closely related species than expected by chance, and that differentiation among communities is very low, suggesting deep floristic connections among communities and new avenues for future analyses in community ecology.

4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 25(5): 1239-49, 2014 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25129921

RESUMO

The broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest represents the typical vegetation type of the eastern mountain area in Northeast China. However, due to the interference of human activities, the natural broad-leaved Korean pine forest only distributes in some residual fragments with unequal areas in Changbai Mountains and Small Hinggan Mountains. To compare and analyze the similarities and differences of broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forests in the different areas, we established six forest plots following the field protocol of the 50 hm2 forest plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2012 in Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve in Jilin Province and the eastern mountain area in Liaoning Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were mapped, tagged and identified to species. The results showed that there were 69 woody species in the six plots, comprising 42 genera and24 families. Aceraceae was the most species-rich family in all six plots. Most species belonged to the plant type of North Temperate Zone, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The statistics of species abundance, basal area, mean DBH, and importance value showed that there were obviously dominant species in each community. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type. However, the percentage of individuals in small size-class and large size-class varied in the six communities, which indicated that these communities were at different successional stages. Ranked by the importance value, the DBH distribution of the top three species in the six plots showed four distribution types: reversed "J" distribution, reversed "L" distribution, unimodal distribution, and partial peak distribution. Spatial distribution patterns of the main species in the six plots changed differently with species and size-class, and the distribution patterns of the same species varied in the different plots.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Árvores , China , Pinus
5.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e98200, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24887513

RESUMO

A multi-stemmed growth form may be an important trait enabling the persistence of individual shrubs in the forest understory. With the aim of evaluating the role of multiple stems, neighbor competition and soil nutrients in shrub performance, we study the dynamics of two temperate multi-stemmed shrub species. We modeled stem growth and survival of Corylus mandshurica and Acer barbinerve in two temperate forests with differing structure in northeastern China. One forest was an old growth broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest; the other was a secondary poplar-birch forest. Growth of the two species and survival of C. mandshurica increased with stem number in the old growth forest, but not the secondary forest, suggesting the benefits of a multi-stemmed growth form are facultative. C. mandshurica also suffered more from overstory neighbor competition in the old growth forest, which may suggest that this species is less shade-tolerant than A. barbinerve. Moreover, the performance of the two species were clearly influenced by understory neighbors and soil variables in the old growth forest relative to the secondary forest, which may be due to different forest structure. We conclude that multiple stems are not always important for the persistence of shrub species. Even within the same species, the multi-stemmed benefits might be facultative, differing among forests and neighborhood compositions.


Assuntos
Florestas , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , China , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Solo
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 24(2): 303-10, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23705371

RESUMO

Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH> or = 1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28.79 m2.m-2 to 30.55 m2.m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBH<5 cm occupied 65% of the total. B. platyphylla and P. davidiana contributed most in the dead individuals with large DBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals with different size classes showed greater variation.


Assuntos
Betula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betula/anatomia & histologia , China , Dinâmica Populacional , Populus/anatomia & histologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Oecologia ; 170(3): 755-65, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22644047

RESUMO

Seedling dynamics play a crucial role in determining species distributions and coexistence. Exploring causes of variation in seedling dynamics can therefore provide key insights into the factors affecting these phenomena. We examined the relative importance of biotic neighborhood processes and habitat heterogeneity using survival data for 5,827 seedlings in 39 tree and shrub species over 2 years from an old-growth temperate forest in northeastern China. We found significant negative density-dependence effects on survival of tree seedlings, and limited effects of habitat heterogeneity (edaphic and topographic variables) on survival of shrub seedlings. The importance of negative density dependence on young tree seedling survival was replaced by habitat in tree seedlings ≥ 4 years old. As expected, negative density dependence was more apparent in gravity-dispersed species compared to wind-dispersed and animal-dispersed species. Moreover, we found that a community compensatory trend existed for trees. Therefore, although negative density dependence was not as pervasive as in other forest communities, it is an important mechanism for the maintenance of community diversity in this temperate forest. We conclude that both negative density dependence and habitat heterogeneity drive seedling survival, but their relative importance varies with seedling age classes and species traits.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima , Mortalidade , Densidade Demográfica , Dispersão de Sementes , Especificidade da Espécie
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