Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 201
Filtrar
1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 454-462, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989530

RESUMO

Agricultural products are a primary pathway for humans to accumulate heavy metals (HMs) via the soil-crop system and should therefore should be included as a crucial part of the food security in our country. Given that previous studies on protection zoning for preventing farmland HM pollution rarely considered agricultural products as a basic element, this study attempted to establish a zoning system for farmland HM prevention, which was based on the perspective of agricultural product pollution. We subsequently took a representative peri-urban area in the black soil region, which was provided with a higher risk of being polluted, as an empirical case. The results indicated that:① the comprehensive quality index of agricultural products (IICQAP) was 1.09, illustrating only a mild HM pollution, with Pb and Ni having the highest accumulation levels; ② the human health risk index (QHI) was 0.61, showing no risk for human health; and ③ the designed zoning method revealed 89.45% of the farmlands to be risk-free at the moment and 10.55% of the farmlands to be under low risk of HM pollution in agricultural products. According to the zoning results, we suggested prioritized protection and an early-warning strategy, respectively, and further recommended prevention methods such as accumulation intervention, crop restructuring, and in-situ passivation. The results served to enrich the theoretical basis for preventing farmland HM pollution, to reinforce the management standards for agricultural products in the black soil region, and also to build a differentiated urban-rural farmland protection system.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
FASEB J ; 36(2): e22144, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990050

RESUMO

Renal fibrosis is a progressive, fatal renal disease characterized by the aberrant accumulation of myofibroblasts that produce excess extracellular matrix (ECM) in the renal interstitium and glomeruli. Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been regarded as a crucial modulator in myofibroblast transformation, but its upstream regulator remains a mystery. In the present study investigating the participation of m6A methylation during renal fibrosis through bioinformatics analysis, we identified YTHDF1, a modulator of m6A methylation, as a key contributor for renal fibrosis because it was highly expressed in human fibrotic kidneys and had a significant correction with YAP. Their co-localization in human fibrotic kidneys was additionally shown by immunofluorescence. We then found that YTHDF1 was also up-regulated in fibrotic mouse kidneys induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), high-dose folic acid administration, or the unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury, further supporting a causal role of YTHDF1 during renal fibrosis. Consistent with this notion, YTHDF1 knockdown alleviated the progression of renal fibrosis both in cultured cells induced by transforming growth factor-beta administration and in the UUO mouse model. Meanwhile, YAP was accordingly down-regulated when YTHDF1 was inhibited. Furthermore, the specific binding of YTHDF1 to YAP mRNA was detected using RNA Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation, and the up-regulation of fibrotic related molecules in cultured cells induced by YTHDF1 over-expression plasmid was attenuated by YAP siRNA. Taken together, our data highlight the potential utility of YTHDF1 as an indicator for renal fibrosis and suggest that YTHDF1 inhibition might be a promising therapeutic strategy to alleviate renal fibrosis via downregulating YAP.

3.
Gene ; 808: 145973, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Abnormal expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor NMDA type subunit 1, the key subunit of the NMDA receptor, may be related to many neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we explored the functional sequence of the 5' regulatory region of the human GRIN1 gene and discussed the transcription factors that may regulate gene expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve recombinant pGL3 vectors with gradually truncated fragment lengths were constructed, transfected into HEK-293, U87, and SK-N-SH cell lines, and analyzed through the luciferase reporter gene assay. JASPAR database is used to predict transcription factors. RESULTS: In SK-N-SH and U87 cell lines, regions from -337 to -159 bp, -704 to -556 bp inhibited gene expression, while -556 to -337 bp upregulated gene expression. In HEK-293 and U87 cell lines, the expression of fragment -1703 to + 188 bp was significantly increased compared to adjacent fragments -1539 to + 188 bp and -1843 to + 188 bp. The protein expressions of fragments -2162 to + 188 bp and -2025 to + 188 bp, -1539 to + 188 bp and -1215 to + 188 bp, -1215 to + 188 bp and -1066 to + 188 bp were significantly different in HEK-293 and SK-N-SH cells. According to the predictions of the JASPAR database, the transcription factors REST, EGR1, and CREB1/HIC2 may bind the DNA sequences of GRIN1 gene from the -337 to -159, -556 to -337, and -704 to -556, respectively. In addition, zinc finger transcription factors may regulate the expression of other differentially expressed fragments. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal transcription regulation in the proximal promoter region of GRIN1 (-704 to + 188 bp) may be involved in the course of neuropsychiatric diseases.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
4.
Atmos Res ; 265: 1-11, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857979

RESUMO

Fast and accurate prediction of ambient ozone (O3) formed from atmospheric photochemical processes is crucial for designing effective O3 pollution control strategies in the context of climate change. The chemical transport model (CTM) is the fundamental tool for O3 prediction and policy design, however, existing CTM-based approaches are computationally expensive, and resource burdens limit their usage and effectiveness in air quality management. Here we proposed a novel method (noted as DeepCTM) that using deep learning to mimic CTM simulations to improve the computational efficiency of photochemical modeling. The well-trained DeepCTM successfully reproduces CTM-simulated O3 concentration using input features of precursor emissions, meteorological factors, and initial conditions. The advantage of the DeepCTM is its high efficiency in identifying the dominant contributors to O3 formation and quantifying the O3 response to variations in emissions and meteorology. The emission-meteorology-concentration linkages implied by the DeepCTM are consistent with known mechanisms of atmospheric chemistry, indicating that the DeepCTM is also scientifically reasonable. The DeepCTM application in China suggests that O3 concentrations are strongly influenced by the initialized O3 concentration, as well as emission and meteorological factors during daytime when O3 is formed photochemically. The variation of meteorological factors such as short-wave radiation can also significantly modulate the O3 chemistry. The DeepCTM developed in this study exhibits great potential for efficiently representing the complex atmospheric system and can provide policymakers with urgently needed information for designing effective control strategies to mitigate O3 pollution.

5.
J Environ Manage ; 303: 114210, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871908

RESUMO

Quickly quantifying the PM2.5 or O3 response to their precursor emission changes is a key point for developing effective control policies. The polynomial function-based response surface model (pf-RSM) can rapidly predict the nonlinear response of PM2.5 and O3 to precursors, but has drawbacks of overload computation and marginal effects (relatively larger prediction errors under strict control scenarios). To improve the performance of pf-RSM, a novel self-adaptive RSM (SA-RSM) was proposed by integrating the machine learning-based stepwise regression for establishing robust models to increase the computational efficiency and the collinearity diagnosis for reducing marginal effects caused by overfitting. The pilot study case demonstrated that compared with pf-RSM, SA-RSM can effectively reduce the training number by 70% and 40% and the fitting time by 40% and 52%, and decrease the prediction error by 49% and 74% for PM2.5 and O3 predictions respectively; moreover, the isopleths of PM2.5 or O3 as a function of their precursors generated by SA-RSM were more similar to those derived by chemical transport model (CTM), after successfully addressing the marginal effect issue. With the improved computation efficiency and prediction performance, SA-RSM is expected as a better scientific tool for decision-makers to make sound PM2.5 and O3 control policies.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962805

RESUMO

Serious ambient PM2.5 and O3 pollution is one of the most important environmental challenges of China, necessitating an urgent cost-effective cocontrol strategy. Herein, we introduced a novel integrated assessment system to optimize a NOx and volatile organic compound (VOC) control strategy for the synergistic reduction of ambient PM2.5 and O3 pollution. Focusing on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei cities and their surrounding regions, which are experiencing the most serious PM2.5 and O3 pollution in China, we found that NOx emission reduction (64-81%) is essential to attain the air quality standard no matter how much VOC emission is reduced. However, the synergistic VOC control is strongly recommended considering its substantially human health and crop production benefits, which are estimated up to 163 (PM2.5-related) and 101 (O3-related) billion CHY during the reduction of considerable emissions. Notably, such benefits will be greatly reduced if the synergistic VOC reduction is delayed. This study also highlights the necessity of simultaneous VOC and NOx emission control in winter while enhancing the NOx control in the summer, which is contrary to the current control strategy adopted in China. These findings point out the right pathways for future policy making on comitigating PM2.5 and O3 pollution in China and other countries.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151757, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800450

RESUMO

Identifying the emission source contributions to PM2.5 is essential for a sound PM2.5 pollution control policy. In this study, we conduct a comparative analysis of PM2.5 source contributions over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China using two advanced source contribution modeling techniques: Response Surface Model (RSM) and Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT). Our comparative analyses show that RSM and PSAT can both reasonably predict the contribution of primary PM2.5 emission sources to PM2.5 formation due to its linear nature. For the secondary PM2.5 formed by the nonlinear reactions among PM2.5 precursors, however, our study shows that PSAT appears to have limitations in quantifying the nonlinear contribution of PM2.5 precursors to emission reductions, while RSM seems to better address the nonlinear relationship among PM2.5 precursors (e.g., PM2.5 disbenefits due to local NOx emission reductions in major cities with high NOx emissions). The pilot study case results show that for the ambient PM2.5 in the central cities (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Dongguan, and Zhongshan) of the PRD, the regional source emissions contribute the most by 42-66%; the dust emissions are the top contribution sources (29-34% by RSM and 27-31% by PSAT), and the mobile sources are listed as the secondary contributors accounting for 16-25% by RSM and 19-30% by PSAT among the anthropogenic emission sources. The city-scale cooperation on emission reductions and the enhancement of dust and mobile emission control are recommended to effectively reduce the ambient PM2.5 concentration in the PRD.

8.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 21(20): 15809-15826, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804135

RESUMO

We compare Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model predictions with measured nitrous acid (HONO) concentrations in Beijing, China for December 2015. The model with the existing HONO chemistry in CMAQ severely under-estimates the observed HONO concentrations with a normalized mean bias of -97%. We revise the HONO chemistry in the model by implementing six additional heterogeneous reactions in the model: reaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on ground surfaces, reaction of NO2 on aerosol surfaces, reaction of NO2 on soot surfaces, photolysis of aerosol nitrate, nitric acid displacement reaction, and hydrochloric acid displacement reaction. The model with the revised chemistry substantially increases HONO predictions and improves the comparison with observed data with a normalized mean bias of -5%. The photolysis of HONO enhances day-time hydroxyl radical by almost a factor of two. The enhanced hydroxyl radical concentrations compare favourably with observed data and produce additional sulfate via the reaction with sulfur dioxide, aerosol nitrate via the reaction with nitrogen dioxide, and secondary organic aerosols via the reactions with volatile organic compounds. The additional sulfate stemming from revised HONO chemistry improves the comparison with observed concentration; however, it does not close the gap between model prediction and the observation during polluted days.

9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 741060, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805150

RESUMO

Renal fibrosis is the most common pathological manifestation of a wide variety of chronic kidney disease. Increased extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and enhanced microenvironment stiffening aggravate the progression of renal fibrosis. However, the related mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the mechanism by which ECM stiffness aggravates renal fibrosis. In the present study, renal mesangial cells (MCs) were cultured on polyacrylamide hydrogels with different stiffness accurately detected by atomic force microscope (AFM), simulating the in vivo growth microenvironment of MCs in normal kidney and renal fibrosis. A series of in vitro knockdown and activation experiments were performed to establish the signaling pathway responsible for mechanics-induced MCs activation. In addition, an animal model of renal fibrosis was established in mice induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Lentiviral particles containing short hairpin RNA (sh RNA) targeting Piezo1 were used to explore the effect of Piezo1 knockdown on matrix stiffness-induced MCs activation and UUO-induced renal fibrosis. An in vitro experiment demonstrated that elevated ECM stiffness triggered the activation of Piezo1, which increased YAP nuclear translocation through the p38MAPK, and consequently led to increased ECM secretion. Furthermore, these consequences have been verified in the animal model of renal fibrosis induced by UUO and Piezo1 knockdown could alleviate UUO-induced fibrosis and improve renal function in vivo. Collectively, our results for the first time demonstrate enhanced matrix stiffness aggravates the progression of renal fibrosis through the Piezo1-p38MAPK-YAP pathway. Targeting mechanosensitive Piezo1 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for delaying the progression of renal fibrosis.

10.
EMBO Rep ; : e53166, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779554

RESUMO

Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) functions as a key sensor for microbial invasion and cellular damage by detecting emerging cytosolic DNA. Here, we report that GTPase-activating protein-(SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) primes cGAS for its prompt activation by engaging cGAS in a primary liquid-phase condensation state. Using high-resolution microscopy, we show that in resting cells, cGAS exhibits particle-like morphological characteristics, which are markedly weakened when G3BP1 is deleted. Upon DNA challenge, the pre-condensed cGAS undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) more efficiently. Importantly, G3BP1 deficiency or its inhibition dramatically diminishes DNA-induced LLPS and the subsequent activation of cGAS. Interestingly, RNA, previously reported to form condensates with cGAS, does not activate cGAS. Accordingly, we find that DNA - but not RNA - treatment leads to the dissociation of G3BP1 from cGAS. Taken together, our study shows that the primary condensation state of cGAS is critical for its rapid response to DNA.

11.
Front Physiol ; 12: 680544, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630132

RESUMO

Folic acid (FA)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by the disturbance of redox homeostasis, resulting in massive tubular necrosis and inflammation. Α-lipoic acid (LA), as an antioxidant, has been reported to play an important role in renal protection, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly explored. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of LA on FA-induced renal damage. Our findings showed that LA could ameliorate renal dysfunction and histopathologic damage induced by FA overdose injection. Moreover, FA injection induced severe inflammation, indicated by increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1ß, as well as infiltration of macrophage, which can be alleviated by LA supplementation. In addition, LA not only reduced the cellular iron overload by upregulating the expressions of Ferritin and ferroportin (FPN), but also mitigated reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and lipid peroxidation by increasing the levels of antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4). More importantly, we found that LA supplementation could reduce the number of Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive tubular cells caused by FA, indicating that the tubular cell death mediated by ferroptosis may be inhibited. Further study demonstrated that LA supplementation could reverse the decreased expression of cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT (SLC7A11), which mediated GSH synthesis. What is more, mechanistic study indicated that p53 activation was involved in the inhibitory effect of SLC7A11 induced by FA administration, which could be suppressed by LA supplementation. Taken together, our findings indicated that LA played the protective effect on FA-induced renal damage mainly by inhibiting ferroptosis.

12.
Environ Int ; 158: 106918, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient and household air pollution are found to lead to premature deaths from all-cause or cause-specific death. The national lockdown measures in China during COVID-19 were found to lead to abrupt changes in ambient surface air quality, but indoor air quality changes were neglected. In this study, we aim to investigate the impacts of lockdown measures on both ambient and household air pollution as well as the short-term health effects of air pollution changes. METHODS: In this study, an up-to-date emission inventory from January to March 2020 in China was developed based on air quality observations in combination with emission-concentration response functions derived from chemical transport modeling. These emission inventories, together with the emissions data from 2017 to 2019, were fed into the state-of-the-art regional chemistry transport model to simulate the air quality in the North China Plain. A hypothetical scenario assuming no lockdown effects in 2020 was also performed to determine the effects of the lockdown on air quality in 2020. A difference-to-difference approach was adopted to isolate the effects on air quality due to meteorological conditions and long-term decreasing emission trends by comparing the PM2.5 changes during lockdown to those before lockdown in 2020 and in previous years (2017-2019). The short-term premature mortality changes from both ambient and household PM2.5 changes were quantified based on two recent epidemiological studies, with uncertainty of urban and rural population migration considerations. FINDINGS: The national lockdown measures during COVID-19 led to a reduction of 5.1 µg m-3 in ambient PM2.5 across the North China Plain (NCP) from January 25th to March 5th compared with the hypothetical simulation with no lockdown measures. However, a difference-to-difference method showed that the daily domain average PM2.5 in the NCP decreased by 9.7 µg m-3 between lockdown periods before lockdown in 2020, while it decreased by 7.9 µg m-3 during the same periods for the previous three-year average from 2017 to 2019, demonstrating that lockdown measures may only have caused a 1.8 µg m-3 decrease in the NCP. We then found that the integrated population-weighted PM2.5, including both ambient and indoor PM2.5 exposure, increased by 5.1 µg m-3 during the lockdown periods compared to the hypothetical scenario, leading to additional premature deaths of 609 (95% CI: 415-775) to 2,860 (95% CI: 1,436-4,273) in the short term, depending on the relative risk chosen from the epidemiological studies. INTERPRETATION: Our study indicates that lockdown measures in China led to abrupt reductions in ambient PM2.5 concentration but also led to significant increases in indoor PM2.5 exposure due to confined indoor activities and increased usages of household fuel for cooking and heating. We estimated that hundreds of premature deaths were added as a combination of decreased ambient PM2.5 and increased household PM2.5. Our findings suggest that the reduction in ambient PM2.5 was negated by increased exposure to household air pollution, resulting in an overall increase in integrated population weighted exposure. Although lockdown measures were instrumental in reducing the exposure to pollution concentration in cities, rural areas bore the brunt, mainly due to the use of dirty solid fuels, increased population density due to the large-scale migration of people from urban to rural areas during the Chinese New Year and long exposure time to HAP due to restrictions in outdoor movement.

13.
Atmosphere (Basel) ; 12(8): 1-1044, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567797

RESUMO

Reducing PM2.5 and ozone concentrations is important to protect human health and the environment. Chemical transport models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, are valuable tools for exploring policy options for improving air quality but are computationally expensive. Here, we statistically fit an efficient polynomial function in a response surface model (pf-RSM) to CMAQ simulations over the eastern U.S. for January and July 2016. The pf-RSM predictions were evaluated using out-of-sample CMAQ simulations and used to examine the nonlinear response of air quality to emission changes. Predictions of the pf-RSM are in good agreement with the out-of-sample CMAQ simulations, with some exceptions for cases with anthropogenic emission reductions approaching 100%. NOX emission reductions were more effective for reducing PM2.5 and ozone concentrations than SO2, NH3, or traditional VOC emission reductions. NH3 emission reductions effectively reduced nitrate concentrations in January but increased secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations in July. More work is needed on SOA formation under conditions of low NH3 emissions to verify the responses of SOA to NH3 emission changes predicted here. Overall, the pf-RSM performs well in the eastern U.S., but next-generation RSMs based on deep learning may be needed to meet the computational requirements of typical regulatory applications.

14.
Orthop Surg ; 13(7): 2163-2169, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of closed reduction and external fixation in the treatment of grade IV supination-external rotation fractures of the ankle joint. METHODS: Fifty-six patients treated with closed reduction and external fixation from February 2016 to March 2020 were included in this retrospective study, all with sprains. After receiving nerve block anesthesia, the patient underwent closed reduction under C-arm fluoroscopy, and the ankle joint was fixed in a dorsiflexion-inversion position with casting and splints after the end of the fracture met the reduction standard by fluoroscopy. One week and four weeks after the reduction treatment, oblique axial and coronal MR scans of the ankle joint were performed to determine the degree of injury and healing of the inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis; anteroposterior and lateral X-rays of the ankle joint (including the ankle acupoints) were regularly reviewed to observe the fracture alignment and healing. Combined with the images and physical examination, the patients were instructed to undergo ankle weight-bearing rehabilitation training when they met the clinical healing standard, and at the last follow-up, the Mazur ankle evaluation and grading system were used for evaluation. After the reduction, the images were evaluated according to the Leeds standard. The image healing of fracture was evaluated by callus growth criteria. RESULTS: The follow-up period of patients ranged from 11 to 58 months, with an average of 26.8 months. The clinical healing time was (8.51 ± 2.12) weeks. The excellent and good rating after reduction was 82.1%, and the excellent and good rating during clinical fracture healing was 73.2%, according to the Leeds imaging evaluation. According to the Mazur ankle evaluation and grading system, the excellent and good rating was 75.0%. Pairwise comparison of callus images at 4, 6 and 12 weeks showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05), suggesting callus growth at different time periods. A total of 56 patients had anterior inferior tibial fibular ligament (AITFL) injuries (grade II-III), among which 11 patients had AITFL injuries combined with grade II injuries of the interosseous ligament (IOL) and 4 patients had AITFL injuries combined with grade III injuries of the IOL. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the patients with grade IV supination-external rotation fracture of the ankle joint had good prognosis after closed reduction and plaster combined with splint fixation. For patients with IOL injury who had poor prognosis, open reduction and internal fixation therapy is appropriate.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Redução Fechada/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(14): 1669-1680, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly used in advanced gastric cancer, but the effects on safety and survival are still controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the overall survival and short-term surgical outcomes between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery (NACS) and surgery alone (SA) for locally advanced gastric cancer. METHODS: Databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar) were explored for relative studies from January 2000 to January 2021. The quality of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies was evaluated using the modified Jadad scoring system and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, respectively. The Review Manager software (version 5.3) was used to perform this meta-analysis. The overall survival was evaluated as the primary outcome, while perioperative indicators and post-operative complications were evaluated as the secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty studies, including 1420 NACS cases and 1942 SA cases, were enrolled. The results showed that there were no significant differences in overall survival (P = 0.240), harvested lymph nodes (P = 0.200), total complications (P = 0.080), and 30-day post-operative mortality (P = 0.490) between the NACS and SA groups. However, the NACS group was associated with a longer operation time (P < 0.0001), a higher R0 resection rate (P = 0.003), less reoperation (P = 0.030), and less anastomotic leakage (P = 0.007) compared with SA group. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with SA, NACS was considered safe and feasible for improved R0 resection rate as well as decreased reoperation and anastomotic leakage. While unbenefited overall survival indicated a less important effect of NACS on long-term oncological outcomes.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347472

RESUMO

The 1.5 °C pathways initially promoted by the challenges presented by climate change could bring substantial air quality-related benefits. However, since there is a lack of comprehensive assessment on emissions of air pollutants, meteorology, air quality, and heatwave occurrences under different climate goals, how significant the clean air cobenefits compared with the direct climate-related impact is uncertain. In this study, we assess the cobenefits of 1.5 °C pathways for air quality in China by linking multiple shared socioeconomic pathways, ensembling simulations of regional climate-air quality dynamic downscaling and an air pollution and climate-related health assessment model, and compare different kinds of benefits: the health benefits from direct slowing climate (reduced heatwaves) versus the health cobenefits from air quality improvement (the improved air quality from reduced air pollutants versus meteorological changes). The benefit of reduced air pollution emissions associated with sustainable development under 1.5 °C pathways dominated the overall impact, which could avoid 1 589 000 PM2.5-related and 526 000 O3-related deaths in 2050. Correspondingly, the impact of changed meteorology on air quality would avoid additional 8000 PM2.5-related deaths in 2050 under 1.5 °C pathways yet would lead to 22 000 O3-related deaths. Also, the heatwave-related deaths could be avoided by 7000. The substantial anthropogenic emission reduction cobenefits of 1.5 °C pathways in improving air quality significantly exceed the direct climate (heatwave-related) benefits and completely offset the impact of meteorological changes' impact on air pollution under climate change.

17.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117860, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332168

RESUMO

Quantification of source impacts and contributions is a key element for the design of effective air pollution control policies. In this study, O3 source impacts and contributions were comprehensively assessed over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China using brute-force method (BFM), response surface modeling with BFM (RSM-BFM) and differential method (RSM-DM) respectively, high-order decoupled direct method (HDDM), and ozone source apportionment technology (OSAT). The multi-modeling comparison results indicated that under typical nonlinear atmospheric conditions during the O3 formation, BFM, RSM-BFM, and HDDM seemed to be appropriate for assessing the impact of single source emissions; however, the results of HDDM could deviate from those of BFM when the emission reduction ratio was higher than 50 %. Under multi-source control scenarios, the results of source contribution analyses obtained from RSM-DM and OSAT were reasonably well, but the performance of OSAT was limited by its capability in representing the nonlinearity of O3 response to emission reductions of its precursors, particularly NOx. The results of this pilot study in the PRD showed that the RSM-DM appeared to replicate the nonlinearity of O3 chemistry reasonably well (e.g., O3 disbenefits due to local NOx emission reductions in Guangzhou city). Based on the source contribution results, on-road mobile (including both NOx and VOC emissions) and industrial process (mainly VOC emissions) sources were identified as two major contribution sectors by both RSM-DM and OSAT, contributing an average of 31.5 % and 11.4 % (estimated by RSM-DM) and 29.2 % and 13.0 % (estimated by OSAT) respectively to O3 formation in 9 cities of the PRD. Therefore, the reinforced emission reductions on NOx and VOC from on-road mobile and industrial process sources in the central cities (i.e., Guangzhou, Foshan, Dongguan, Shenzhen, and Zhongshan) were suggested to effectively mitigate the ambient O3 levels in the PRD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Projetos Piloto
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(5): 1989-1998, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cellular mechanisms involved in the development of proximal tubules are not only associated with morphogenesis in fetal life, but also with restoration of damaged tubules in adulthood. Knowledge about morphological features of cell differentiation and proliferation along the developing tubule is insufficient, which hinders identification of the cellular origin. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate ultrastructures of the proximal tubule at different stages of nephrogenesis. METHODS: Electron microscopy was used and guided by computer-assisted tubular tracing to identify the cellular structures. RESULTS: Renal vesicles and S-shaped bodies revealed more proliferative features, such as densely-packed fusiform-shaped cells with numerous protein-producing organelles than membrane specializations typical for mature tubules. At the capillary-loop stage the proximal tubules demonstrated all characteristics of the mature tubules, but not as developed, including shorter but densely packed microvilli, fewer lateral processes with cell-cell contacts, lower basal membrane infoldings, and lower mitochondrial volume density. However, they exhibited an elaborated endocytic system above the nucleus, indicating a membrane transport is being established. Abundant free- and endoplasmic reticulum-adhered ribosomes and Golgi complexes reflected active protein synthesis for cell growth and proliferation. Interestingly, electron dense cells were occasionally intermixed with electron lucent cells characterized by various organelles in less cytosol and a larger nucleus with abundant euchromatin, which is a feature of active proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These ultrastructures indicate that the morphogenesis of the developing proximal tubule corresponds to the gradually established physiological activities. The two different cellular electron densities may suggest distinctive differentiation of the cells along the tubule.

19.
J Int Med Res ; 49(6): 3000605211022279, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the clinical effects of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy and a standard oxygen atomizer mask on the respiratory tract in patients with hypostatic pneumonia. METHODS: We included patients with hypostatic pneumonia in this retrospective cohort study. Patients were provided continuous airway humidification by continuous oxygen atomization using either an HFNC or standard oxygen mask. Arterial blood gas analysis, the dyspnea score, inflammatory-related parameters, and adverse events of patients in the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients had HFNC delivery and 57 had a standard oxygen atomizer mask. After 7 days of treatment, patients in the HFNC group had a higher partial pressure of arterial blood oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (268.12±28.44 vs 238.28±30.04) and lower partial pressure of arterial blood carbon dioxide (38.02±8.84 vs 49.27±7.84 mmHg) than those in the standard oxygen mask group. The dyspnea score and inflammatory-related parameters in the HFNC group were significantly lower than those in the standard oxygen mask group. The incidence of adverse events was lower in the HFNC group than in the standard oxygen mask group. CONCLUSION: HFNC therapy relieves clinical symptoms more quickly than a standard oxygen mask and reduces the incidence of adverse events.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Insuficiência Respiratória , Cânula , Humanos , Máscaras , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112827, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062428

RESUMO

During winter 2018, the 16 prefecture-level cities in Anhui Province, Western Yangtze River Delta region, China had very high PM2.5 concentrations and prolonged pollution days. The impact of regional transport in the formation, accumulation, as well as dispersion of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Anhui Province was very significant. This study quantified and analyzed the vertical transport of PM2.5 in three major cities (Hefei, Fuyang, and Suzhou) of Anhui Province in January and July 2018 using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The results of the inter-regional transport of PM2.5 revealed the dominant transport pathways for the three cities. The flux mainly flowed into Fuyang from Henan (2.23 and 1.42 kt/day in January and July, respectively) and Bozhou (1.96 and 1.21 kt/day in January and July, respectively), while the main flux from Fuyang flowed into Henan (-2.15 kt/day) and Lu'an (-1.91 kt/day) in January and Henan (-0.34 kt/day) and Bozhou (-0.29 kt/day) in July. In addition, the dominant transport pathways and the heights at which they occurred were identified: the northwest-southeast and northeast-south pathways in both winter and summer at both lower (˂300 m) and higher (≥300 m) levels for Fuyang; the northwest-south and northeast-southwest pathways in winter (at both lower and upper levels) and northwest-east and northeast-southwest pathways in summer at lower and upper levels for Hefei; and the northwest-southeast and northeast-south pathways in both winter (from 50 m up to the top level) and summer (between 100 and 300 m) for Suzhou. Furthermore, the intensities of daily PM2.5 transport fluxes in Fuyang during the atmospheric pollution episode (APE1) were stronger than the monthly average. These results show that joint emission controls across multiple cities along the identified pathways are urgently needed to reduce winter episodes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...