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1.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 668-672, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383061

RESUMO

Currently, optical probes with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence are of great interest in chemical biology. In the present study, we designed and synthesized a novel NIR fluorescent probe, IR789. IR789 has high selectivity and sensitivity for living cells imaging. The stronger excitation and emission characteristics suggested its dominant optical properties over ICG. IR789 also showed a high affinity and inconspicuous cytotoxicity at the cellular level. The results of fluorescent image in living A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) further demonstrated its potential applications for biomedical diagnosis in biological systems utilization of nanotechnology.

2.
Dev Comp Immunol ; : 103492, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494219

RESUMO

The magnitude of the immune response induced by DNA vaccines depends on the amount and type of antigen-presenting cells attracted to the injection site. In our previous study, a DNA plasmid encoding the VAA gene of Vibrio anguillarum was constructed and shown to confer moderate protection against V. anguillarum challenge. To augment the protective efficacy of the VAA DNA vaccine and compare the adjuvant effects of CCL3, CCL4, CCL19 and CCL21, four bicistronic DNA plasmids containing the VAA gene of V. anguillarum together with the gene encoding the CCL3/CCL4/CCL19/CCL21 chemokines of flounder were successfully constructed and administered to fish, and the immune response of the animals and the enhancement of immunoprotection by the four chemokines were investigated. Vaccinated with pCCL3-VAA, pCCL4-VAA, pCCL19-VAA and pCCL21-VAA, flounder showed relative percent survivals of 62.16%, 83.78%, 78.38% and 72.97%, respectively, higher than the relative survival of flounder immunized with pVAA (40.54%). Compared with the pVAA group, the percentages of sIgM+, CD4-1+, and CD4-2+ lymphocytes and the levels of specific antibodies increased in pCCL3-VAA, pCCL4-VAA, pCCL19-VAA and pCCL21-VAA injection groups; CCL4 and CCL19 induced significantly higher levels of these parameters than CCL3 and CCL21 did. The amount of V. anguillarum in liver, spleen and kidney of pCCL3-VAA-, pCCL4-VAA-, pCCL19-VAA- and pCCL21-VAA-immunized flounder after V. anguillarum challenge was reduced compared to that in the pVAA group. Moreover, the co-expression of CCL3/CCL4/CCL19/CCL21 up-regulated immune-related gene expression associated with the local immune response. Our results indicate that CCL4 and CCL19 are promising adjuvants for use in VAA DNA vaccine against V. anguillarum.

3.
Microb Pathog ; : 103729, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505262

RESUMO

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are considered as potent vaccine candidates against a wide range of bacterial diseases. In the present study, a recombinant DNA plasmid based on the expression of Hsp33 gene was constructed and intramuscularly administrated to flounder to elucidate whether it induces immune response and prevents the infection of Vibrio anguillarum in flounder model. Meanwhile, the expression of pHsp33 was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that pHsp33 was successfully expressed both in transfected hirame natural embryo cell lines and injected flounder muscle, suggesting the functionality of pHsp33 to express Hsp33 protein. Fish, when intramuscularly injected with pHsp33 vaccine, exhibited the production of specific antibodies, upregulation of immune related genes expression in the head kidney and increase of sIgM+, CD4-1+ and CD4-2+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood, spleen and head kidney, which indicated the activation of humoral and cellular immune responses. Moreover, pHsp33 upregulated the expression of immune related genes at the inoculation site, indicating the activation of local immune response. In addition, pHsp33 vaccinated flounder provided a relative percent survival of 42.86% and inhibited the pathological lesion in liver following V. anguillarum challenge. In general, the results revealed that pHsp33 could elicit local and system immune responses and confer protection for flounder, suggesting pHsp33 could serve as a DNA vaccine candidate for the control of V. anguillarum infection.

4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(9): 881-885, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathogen composition and clinical features of preterm infants with sepsis, and to provide a basis for early identification and treatment of sepsis in preterm infants. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 371 preterm infants with sepsis who had a positive blood culture between January 2014 and May 2018. According to the time of onset, the preterm infants were divided into an early-onset group (an age of onset of <7 days) with 73 preterm infants and a late-onset group (an age of onset of ≥7 days) with 298 preterm infants. The two groups were compared in terms of pathogen composition and clinical features (initial symptoms, laboratory examination results at the time of onset, comorbidities, and prognosis). RESULTS: There was a higher proportion of infants with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in the late-onset group (P<0.05), while there was a higher proportion of infants with Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae or Listeria infection in the early-onset group (P<0.05). The early-onset group had a significantly higher proportion of infants with dyspnea than the late-onset group (P<0.05). Compared with the late-onset group, the early-onset group had significantly shorter time to negative conversion of blood culture, duration of antibiotic use before infection, and indwelling time of deep venous catheterization (P<0.05), and the late-onset group had a significantly higher incidence rate of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis than the early-onset group (P<0.05). The early-onset group had a significantly higher rate of treatment withdrawal than the late-onset group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Preterm infants with sepsis lack typical clinical manifestations and laboratory examination results at the time of onset. There are certain differences in pathogen composition and clinical features between preterm infants with early- and late-onset sepsis. Possible pathogens for sepsis should be considered based on age in days at the time of onset and related clinical features.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1622, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379827

RESUMO

B cells have recently been proven to have phagocytic activities, but few studies have explored the relevant regulation mechanisms. In this study, we showed that the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) membrane-bound (m)IgM+ B lymphocyte population could phagocytose inactivated Lactococcus lactis with a mean phagocytic rate of 25%. High-purity mIgM+ B lymphocytes were subsequently sorted to investigate the cellular response to L. lactis stimulation in vitro. Transcriptome analysis identified 1,375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after L. lactis stimulation, including 975 upregulated and 400 downregulated genes. Many of these DEGs were enriched in multiple pathways associated with phagocytosis such as focal adhesion, the phagosome, and actin cytoskeleton regulation. Moreover, many genes involved in phagolysosomal function and antigen presentation were also upregulated after stimulation, indicating that mIgM+ B lymphocytes may degrade the internalized bacteria and present processed antigenic peptides to other immune cells. Interestingly, the type I interferon 3 (IFN I-3) gene was upregulated after L. lactis stimulation, and further analysis showed that the recombinant (r)IFN I-3 significantly enhanced phagocytosis of L. lactis and Edwardsiella tarda by mIgM+ B lymphocytes. In addition, significantly higher intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected in mIgM+ B lymphocytes following rIFN I-3 treatment. We also found that IFN I-3 significantly upregulated Stat1 expression in mIgM+ B lymphocytes, and the enhancing effect of IFN I-3 on mIgM+ B lymphocyte-mediated phagocytosis was suppressed by fludarabine treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mIgM+ B cell-mediated phagocytosis in the Japanese flounder is effectively triggered by bacterial stimulation, and further enhanced by IFN I-3, which itself may be regulated by Stat1.

6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5201-5213, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371956

RESUMO

Background: SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy camptothecin), as a potent metabolite of irinotecan, is highly efficacious in cancer treatment. However, the clinical utility of SN38 has been greatly limited due to its undesirable properties, such as poor solubility and low stability. Materials and methods: In order to overcome these weaknesses, moeixitecan, a lipophilic SN38 prodrug containing a SN-38, a trolox, a succinic acid linker, and a hexadecanol chain, was loaded into liposomal nanoparticles by ethanol injection method. Results: Experiments showed that the moeixitecan-loaded liposomal nanoparticles (MLP) with a diameter of 105.10±1.49 nm have a satisfactory drug loading rate (90.54±0.41%), high solubility and stability, and showed sustained release of SN38. Notably, MLP exhibited better antitumor activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cells than irinotecan, a FDA-approved drug for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. Furthermore, xenograft model results showed that MLP outperformed irinotecan in terms of pharmacokinetics, in vivo therapeutic efficacy and safety. Finally, we used molecular dynamic simulations to explore the association between the structure of MLP and the physical and functional properties of MLP, moeixitecan molecules in MLP folded themselves inside the hydrocarbon chain of the lipid bilayer, which led an increased acyl chain order of the lipid bilayer, and therefore enhanced the lactone ring stability protecting it from hydrolysis. Conclusion: Our MLP constructing strategy by liposome engineering technology may serve a promising universal approach for the effective and safe delivery of lipophilic prodrug.

7.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 142, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirame novirhabdovirus (HIRRV) can infect a wide range of marine and freshwater fish, causing huge economic losses to aquaculture industry. Vaccine development, especially oral vaccine, has become an effective and convenient way to control aquatic infectious diseases. HIRRV glycoprotein (G), an immunogenic viral protein is a potential vaccine candidate for prevention of the disease. Here, we aimed to construct a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain expressing HIRRV-G on the cell surface as an oral vaccine to prevent HIRRV. RESULTS: Glycoprotein gene of HIRRV was successfully cloned and expressed in L. lactis NZ9000 in a surface-displayed form, yielding Ll:pSLC-G. An approximately 81 kDa recombinant G protein (containing LysM anchoring motif) was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, western blotting and mass spectrometry analysis. The surface-displayed G protein was also verified by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry assays. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential of Ll:pSLC-G as oral vaccine candidate, flounders were continuously fed with commercial diet pellets coated with 1.0 × 109 cfu/g of induced Ll:pSLC-G for 1 week. Four weeks later, booster vaccination was performed with the same procedure. Compared with the controls, Ll:pSLC-G elicited significantly higher levels of specific IgM against HIRRV in flounder gut mucus at the second week and in serum at the fourth week (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, oral immunization with Ll:pSLC-G could provide 60.7% protection against HIRRV infection and a significantly lower virus load was detected than the controls on the third day post-challenge (p < 0.01). Moreover, on the first day post 1-week feeding, approximately 104-105 recombinant L. lactis cells were detected in every gram of foregut, midgut and hindgut of flounder, which were mainly localized at the bottom of gut mucus layer; and on day 21, 102-103 L. lactis cells could still be recovered. CONCLUSIONS: HIRRV-G protein was successfully expressed on the surface of L. lactis cells, which could trigger mucosal and humoral immune response of flounder and provide considerable immune protection against HIRRV. It suggests that genetically engineered L. lactis expressing G protein can be employed as a promising oral vaccine against HIRRV infection.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446082

RESUMO

In our previous study, a DNA plasmid encoding the VAA gene of Vibrio anguillarum was constructed and demonstrated to confer moderated protection against V. anguillarum challenge. Here, a bicistronic DNA vaccine (pVAA-IRES-IL2), co-expressing the VAA gene of V. anguillarum and Interleukin-2 (IL2) gene of flounder, was constructed to increase the protective efficacy of VAA DNA vaccine. The potential of pVAA-IRES-IL2 to express both VAA and IL2 in transfected HINAE cell lines was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. Further, the variation of sIgM+, CD4-1+, CD4-2+ lymphocytes and production of VAA-specific antibodies in flounder, which was intramuscularly immunized with three DNA plasmids (pIRES, pVAA-IRES, pVAA-IRES-IL2), were investigated, respectively. The bacterial burden and relative percentage survival (RPS) of flounder exposed to V. anguillarum infection were both analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of bicistronic DNA plasmid. Our results revealed that the percentages of sIgM+, CD4-1+, CD4-2+ lymphocytes and antibodies specific to VAA were remarkably increased in pVAA-IRES or pVAA-IRES-IL2 immunized fish. Moreover, the co-expression of IL2 enhanced the immune response in response to VAA DNA vaccination, as shown by the higher percentages of sIgM+, CD4-1+, CD4-2+ lymphocytes and production of specific antibody. Importantly, the RPS in pVAA-IRES-IL2 and pVAA-IRES groups reached 64.1% and 51.3%, respectively, when compared with the 97.5% cumulative mortality in pIRES group. Furthermore, the number of V. anguillarum in liver, spleen and kidney of pVAA-IRES or pVAA-IRES-IL2 immunized flounder after V. anguillarum challenge was significantly reduced, as compared to that in pIRES group. These suggest that the bicistronic DNA vaccine can be an effective immunization strategy in inducing immune response against V. anguillarum infection and IL2 has the potential as the adjuvant for VAA DNA vaccine.

9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 813-820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271840

RESUMO

B cells have been found to have phagocytic activity in recent years, but the studies exploring the regulation mechanisms are still lacking to date. In the present study, the recombinant interleukin-10 (rIL-10) was obtained to study the function of IL-10 on phagocytosis of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) mIgM+ B lymphocytes. Flow cytometric analysis showed that IL-10 significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of Edwardsiella tarda but not Lactococcus lactis by mIgM+ B lymphocytes. Moreover, significantly higher intracellular ROS levels were detected in mIgM+ B lymphocytes following rIL-10 stimulation. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that rIL-10 could upregulate the expressions of IL-10Rb and Stat3 in mIgM+ B lymphocytes, suggesting that IL-10 might modulate the phagocytosis of mIgM+ B lymphocytes by activating IL-10R and Stat3. In addition, we also found that the enhancing effect of IL-10 on phagocytosis and intracellular ROS levels of mIgM+ B lymphocytes were suppressed by the administration of niclosamide. These results collectively demonstrated that IL-10 enhanced mIgM+ B lymphocyte-mediated phagocytosis of E. tarda and intracellular bactericidal ability, and IL-10R and Stat3 might play a curial role in the regulation of IL-10-stimulated phagocytosis, which would deepen our understanding of regulation mechanism of B cell phagocytosis.

10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 226, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in regulating cell differentiation. In the present study, we aimed to explore the role of miR-140-5p in odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). METHODS: DPSCs from normal human impacted third molars were isolated and cultured. After overexpression or silencing of miR-140-5p in DPSCs, activity, proliferation, and odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs were evaluated. The possible target gene of miR-140-5p was verified by luciferase reporter gene assay. Using gene transfection technology, RT-CPR, and Western blot to confirm miR-140-5p regulates the odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs through Wnt1/ß-catenin signaling. RESULTS: We found the expression of miR-140-5p decreased in the differentiated DPSCs for odontoblastic cells, and at the same time, the expressions of Wnt1 and ß-catenin increased. Wnt1 was the target gene of miR-140-5p which was confirmed by luciferase reporter gene system. miR-140-5p overexpression suppressed the expression of Wnt1. miR-140-5p inhibitor could promote the odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs. miR-140-5p mimic could weaken the odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs, which could be reversed by the overexpression of Wnt1. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated that miR-140-5p regulates the odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs via targeting Wnt1/ß-catenin signaling. Therefore, miR-140-5p might be a molecular target to regulate the odontoblastic differentiation for the therapeutic agents in dental medicine.

11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 55-65, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319204

RESUMO

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is mainly produced by CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, which is an important immunomodulatory cytokine that primarily promotes activation, proliferation and differentiation of T cells. In the present study, flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) interleukin 2 homologue (poIL-2) was identified for the first time, and its expression patterns were characterized in healthy, virus- or bacteria-infected flounder. The full-length cDNA sequences of poIL-2 was 989 bp with an open reading frame of 423 bp coding a polypeptide of 140 amino acids (aa). The deduced aa sequences shared low similarities (<53%) with other known fish IL-2s. Multiple alignment of aa sequences revealed that poIL-2 own the classical IL-2 family signature of "C-X(3)-EL-X(2)-(T/V)-(V/M/L)-(K/T/R)-X-EC" and "DS-X-(F/L)Y(A/T/S)P". In healthy flounder, IL-2 mRNA was highly expressed in PBLs, spleen and hindgut, and moderately expressed in gill, trunk kidney and stomach. PHA, LPS and Con-A could effectively induce poIL-2 expression in primary cultured peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro. poIL-2 transcripts were significantly up-regulated in spleen, kidney, gill and hindgut post infections with Edwardsiella tarda and Hirame novirhabdovirus (HIRRV). The eukaryotic expression vector encoding poIL-2 (pcIL-2) was constructed and intramuscularly injected, which could be successfully expressed in flounders and induced significantly higher expressions of six immune related genes including poIL-2, ß-defensin, CD4-1, CD8α, IFN-γ and TNF-α compared with the injection with control plasmid. Moreover, pretreatment with pcIL-2 could markedly increase the survival rate of flounder challenged with HIRRV. Our results demonstrated that poIL-2 plays an important role in the induction of immune responses and immune defense against bacterial and virus infection, which indicated its potential use as an immunopotentiator to prevent diseases in flounder.

12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 641-651, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344456

RESUMO

Interleukin-2 receptor subunit beta of flounder (Paralichthys olivace, fIL-2Rß) was annotated on the NCBI, its gene was cloned and characterized functionally in this study. And then the amino acids sequences and tertiary structure of fIL-2Rß were analyzed, respectively. RT-PCR and ImageJ analyzed showed that fIL-2Rß mRNA were expressed in the gill, spleen, kidney, intestines, liver, blood, muscle and skin, which showed high signals in spleen and blood. And then the recombinant protein of fIL-2Rß extracellular region and its polyclonal antibodies were produced, native fIL-2Rß molecules in flounder peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) were identified at 60.7 kDa by Mass spectrometry, which were in accordance with the molecular mass of full fIL-2Rß protein calculated on the predicted protein sequence. Then the IL-2Rß+ cell in T/B lymphocytes were characterized by Flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence assay, respectively. The results showed that the percentages of IL-2Rß+ leukocytes, IL-2Rß+/CD4+, IL-2Rß+/IgM+ lymphocytes were 18.4 ± 2.7%, 4.5 ± 0.8%, 4.3% ± 0.5 in PBLs, and were 13.6 ± 0.9%, 4.6 ± 1.1%, 6.1% ± 0.4 in spleen, similarly, the percentages of IL-2Rß+ leukocytes, IL-2Rß+/CD4+, IL-2Rß+/IgM+ lymphocytes were 9.4 ± 0.3%, 4.0 ± 0.5%, 5.7 ± 0.1% in head kidney, respectively. After KLH injection, compared with control group, the gene expression of IL-2, IL-2Rß, CD3, TCR, CD79b and IgM in spleen of flounder were up-regulated, respectively (p < 0.05). And the FCM results showed that the percentages of IL-2Rß+ leukocytes in PBLs were significantly increased post Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) injection, which peaked 23.9 ± 0.9% at 9th day (p < 0.05). To our knowledge, those results first reported that the characteristics of IL-2R and IL-2R + molecules were expressed on both B and T lymphocytes in fish. At the same time, this study lays a foundation for further exploring the interaction between IL-2 and IL-2R to promote cell proliferation and carrying out biological functions.

14.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076895

RESUMO

Composite materials ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) have achieved stable bone regeneration without cell transplantation in previous studies. Recent research shows that aspirin (ASP) has great potential in promoting bone regeneration. The objective of the present study was to incorporate PLGA into ß-TCP combined with a lower single-dose local administration of ASP to enhance its in vivo biodegradation and bone tissue growth. After the creation of a rodent critical-sized femoral metaphyseal bone defect, PLGA -modified ß-TCP (TP) was prepared by mixing sieved granules of ß-TCP and PLGA (50:50, v/v) for medical use, then TP with dripped 50 µg/0.1 ml and 100 µg/0.1 ml aspirin solution was implanted into the defect of OVX rats until death at 8 weeks. The defected area in distal femurs of rats was harvested for evaluation by histology, micro-CT, biomechanics and real time RT-PCR. The results of our study show that a single-dose local administration of ASP combined with the local usage of TP can increase the healing of defects in OVX rats. Single-dose local administration of aspirin can improve the transcription of genes involved in the regulation of bone formation and vascularization in the defect area, and inhibits osteoclast activity. Furthermore, treatments with a higher single-dose local administration of ASP and TP showed a stronger effect on accelerating the local bone formation than while using a lower dose of ASP. The results from our study demonstrate that the combination of a single-dose local administration of ASP and ß-TCP/PLGA had an additive effect on local bone formation in osteoporosis rats, and bone regeneration by PLGA/ß-TCP/ASP occured in a dose-dependent manner.

15.
Cell Prolif ; 52(4): e12627, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Based on previous reports that ginsenosides have been shown to exert better preventive effects on cisplatin-induced kidney injury, the present work aims to evaluate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rb3 (G-Rb3) on cisplatin-induced renal damage and underlying mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protective effect of G-Rb3 on cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in ICR mouse model and HEK293 cell model was investigated, and the underlying possible mechanisms were also explored. For animal experiment, renal function, kidney histology, inflammation, oxidative stress, relative protein molecules involved in apoptosis and autophagy signalling pathways were assessed. In addition, rapamycin (a specific inhibitor of mTOR), compound C (a specific inhibitor of AMPK) and acetylcysteine (NAC, a specific ROS scavenger) were employed to testify the effects of AMPK/mTOR signal pathway on the protective effects of G-Rb3 in HEK293 cells. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with G-Rb3 at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg for ten days significantly reversed the increases in serum creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Histopathological examination further revealed that G-Rb3 inhibited cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. G-Rb3 diminished cisplatin-induced increase in protein expression levels of p62, Atg3, Atg5 and Atg7, and decrease in protein expression level of p-mTOR and the ratio of LC3-I/LC3-II, indicating that G-Rb3 suppressed cisplatin-induced activation of autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy induced inactivation of apoptosis, which suggested that autophagy played an adverse effect on cisplatin-evoked renal damage. Further, we found that G-Rb3 might potentially modulate the expressions of AMPK-related signal pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These findings clearly suggested that G-Rb3-mediated alleviation of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was in part due to regulation of AMPK-/mTOR-mediated autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Linhagem Celular , Creatinina/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 499, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941134

RESUMO

Vibrio anguillarum is a pathogenic bacterium that infects flounder resulting in significant losses in the aquaculture industry. The VAA protein previously identified in flounder is associated with a role in immune protection within these fish. In the present study, a recombinant DNA plasmid encoding the VAA gene of V. anguillarum was constructed and its potential as a DNA vaccine, to prevent the infection of V. anguillarum in flounder fish, investigated. We verified the expression of the VAA protein both in vitro in cell lines and in vivo in flounder fish. The protective effects of pcDNA3.1-VAA (pVAA) were analyzed by determination of the percentage of sIgM+, CD4-1+, CD4-2+, CD8ß+ lymphocytes, and the production of VAA-specific antibodies in flounder following their immunization with the DNA vaccine. Histopathological changes in immune related tissues, bacterial load, and relative percentage survival rates of flounder post-challenge with V. anguillarum, were all investigated to assess the efficacy of the pVAA DNA vaccine candidate. Fish intramuscularly immunized with pVAA showed a significant increase in CD4-1+, CD4-2+, and CD8ß+ T lymphocytes at days 9, 11, and 14 post-vaccination, reaching peak T-cell levels at days 11 or 14 post-immunization. The percentage of sIgM+ lymphocytes reached peak levels at weeks 4-5 post-immunization. Specific anti-V. anguillarum or anti-rVAA antibodies were induced in inoculated fish at days 28-35 post-immunization. The liver of vaccinated flounder exhibited only slight histopathological changes compared with a significant pathology observed in control immunized fish. Additionally, a lower bacterial burden in the liver, spleen, and kidney were observed in pVAA protected fish in response to bacterial challenge, compared with pcDNA3.1 vector control injected fish. Moreover, the pVAA vaccine confers a relative percentage survival of 50.00% following V. anguillarum infection. In summary, this is the first study indicating an initial induction of the T lymphocyte response, followed by B lymphocyte induction of specific antibodies as a result of DNA immunization of flounder. This signifies the important potential of pVAA as a DNA vaccine candidate for the control of V. anguillarum infection.

17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 393-402, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980915

RESUMO

In order to investigate the dynamic distribution of antigen in different tissues post vaccination, an absolute real-time quantitative PCR was employed to detect the amount of antigen in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) post intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with three concentrations (107, 108, 109 CFU ml-1) of formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda bacterin. The results showed that the amount of uptaken antigen quickly increased and then decreased in different tissues. The peak occurred first in the spleen and head kidney at 6-9 h after injection, and in the liver and blood at 9-15 h, then in the gill, intestine and skin at 15-24 h, finally in the muscle at 24-36 h. The amount of antigen was highest in the spleen and head kidney, followed by the blood, liver and gill, and lowest in the intestine, skin and muscle. Among the three concentration groups, the amount of antigen increased with the increasing concentration of the vaccine in the blood, liver, gill, intestine, skin and muscle, except for the spleen and head kidney, in which more antigens were found in the 108 CFU ml-1 group than that in 109 CFU ml-1 group. Moreover, IIFA and western blotting was performed to examine the tissue distribution of antigen at 9 h after vaccination with 108 CFU ml-1 formalin-inactivated E. tarda. The bacteria were mainly observed in the spleen and head kidney, then the liver, gill and blood, and least in the intestine, skin and muscle, which was roughly in accordance with the results of absolute qPCR. Furthermore, the expressions of CD4-1, MHC IIα, CD8α and MHC Iα in different tissues were detected by RT-qPCR, and the expression levels of these genes were highest in the spleen and head kidney, then in the blood, gill, liver, and lowest in the intestine, skin and muscle. All these results provided useful information for dynamic transportation of antigen uptake post vaccination, and also deepened the understanding of immune response to the injection vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Edwardsiella tarda/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Linguados , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Edwardsiella tarda/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem
18.
J Virol ; 93(12)2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918079

RESUMO

In previous research, a 27.8-kDa protein in flounder Paralichthys olivaceus gill (FG) cells was identified as a putative cellular receptor (27.8R), which mediated lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection via interaction with a 32-kDa viral attachment protein (VAP) of LCDV, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against 27.8R and 32-kDa VAP were developed. In this study, the 27.8R was identified as voltage-dependent anion channel protein 2 (VDAC2) and receptor of activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1) of flounder. Recombinant VDAC2 (rVDAC2) and RACK1 (rRACK1) were obtained by prokaryotic expression, and rabbit anti-VDAC2/RACK1 polyclonal antibodies were prepared. The rVDAC2, rRACK1, and 27.8-kDa proteins in FG cells were recognized by anti-27.8R MAbs and anti-VDAC2/RACK1 polyclonal antibodies simultaneously. Preincubation of FG cells with anti-VDAC2/RACK1 polyclonal antibodies significantly decreased the percentages of LCDV-infected cells and LCDV copy numbers, blocked virus infection, and delayed the development of cytopathic effect. The mRNA expressions of VDAC2 and RACK1 in FG cells were upregulated to maximum levels 12 h and 48 h after LCDV infection, respectively. VDAC2/RACK1 knockdown through short interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced VDAC2/RACK1 expression and LCDV copy numbers in FG cells compared with negative controls, while VDAC2/RACK1 expression on LCDV-nonpermissive epithelial papillosum cells (EPCs) conferred susceptibility to LCDV infection, indicating the VDAC2 and RACK1 were sufficient to allow LCDV entry and infection. All these results collectively showed that VDAC2 and RACK1 function as receptors for LCDV entry and infection.IMPORTANCE Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) is the causative agent of lymphocystis disease in fish, which has caused huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry worldwide, but the molecular mechanism underlying the LCDV-host interaction remains unclear. Here, the 27.8-kDa putative cellular receptor for LCDV was identified as voltage-dependent anion channel protein 2 (VDAC2) and receptor of activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1), and our results revealed that VDAC2 and RACK1 expression was sufficient to allow LCDV entry and that they are functional receptors that initiate LCDV infection for the first time, which leads to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying LCDV infection and virus-host interactions.

19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 87: 524-533, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710627

RESUMO

In the present work, the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-like (pIgRL) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was firstly cloned and identified. The full length cDNA of flounder pIgRL was of 1393 bp including an open reading frame of 1053 bp, and the deduced pIgRL sequence encoded 350 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 39 kDa. There were two immunoglobulin-like domains in flounder pIgRL. In healthy flounder, the transcriptional level of pIgRL was detected in different tissues by real-time PCR, showing the highest level in the skin and gills, and higher levels in the spleen and hindgut. After flounders were vaccinated with inactivated Vibrio anguillarum via intraperitoneal injection and immersion, the pIgRL mRNA level increased firstly and then declined in all tested tissues during 48 h, and the maximum expression levels in the gills, skin, spleen and hindgut in immersion group, or in the spleen, head kidney, skin and gills in injection group, were higher than in other tested tissues. In addition, recombinant protein of the extracellular region of flounder pIgRL was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and rabbit anti-pIgRL polyclonal antibodies were prepared, which specifically reacted with the recombinant pIgRL, and a 39 kDa protein confirmed as natural pIgRL by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in skin mucus of flounder. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and western-blotting demonstrated that the pIgRL, together with IgM, could be immunoprecipitated by anti-pIgRL antibody in gut, skin and gill mucus of flounder, suggesting the existence of pIgRL-IgM complexes. These results indicated that the flounder pIgRL was probably involved in the mucosal IgM transportation and played important roles in mucosal immunity.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores de Imunoglobulina Polimérica/genética , Receptores de Imunoglobulina Polimérica/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Injeções Intraperitoneais/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Receptores de Imunoglobulina Polimérica/química , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Vibrio/imunologia
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 511(2): 323-329, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782485

RESUMO

Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, an important governing for Ca2+ homeostasis, is catalyzed by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. SMDT1, as a subunit of MCU complex, was essential for bridging the calcium-sensing role of MICU1 and MICU2 with the calcium-conducting role of MCU. However, the molecular mechanism and regulatory purpose of SMDT1 remain largely unexplored, especially no study was reported in cancer. Here, we firstly reported that how SMDT1 exerted its role through mediating mitochondrial dynamic in PDAC malignancy. In this study, by screening online of subunit of MCU complex, we confirmed that SMDT1 expression was significantly positive correlated with PDAC prognosis. The GEO datasets showed decreased SMDT1 expression in PDAC tumor compared with non-tumor tissues. SMDT1 overexpression could notably inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. Further analysis demonstrated that up-regulated SMDT1 in ASPC1 and Canpan1 cells led to increased accumulation of pro apoptotic protein BAX and decrease in anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bclx. And more releasing of cytochrome c located in cytosolic. Mechanistically, in the morphological analysis of mitochondria, more fragmented mitochondria were presented in SMDT1 overexpression cells by promting the phosphorylation of Drp1, increasing Fis and decreasing MFN1. Meanwhile, more Drp1 was translocated on the mitochondrial from the cytoplasm in up-regulated SMDT1 cells. On the basis of the evidence above we deduce that SMDT1-driven change in mitochondrial dynamics mediated cells apoptosis in PDAC. And, SMDT1 could serve as an important therapeutic target to normalize mitochondrial dynamic responsible for poor prognosis in PDAC.

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