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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770632

RESUMO

Suffering from structural deterioration and natural disasters, the resilience of civil structures in the face of extreme loadings inevitably drops, which may lead to catastrophic structural failure and presents great threats to public safety. Earthquake-induced extreme loading is one of the major reasons behind the structural failure of buildings. However, many buildings in earthquake-prone areas of China lack safety monitoring, and prevalent structural health monitoring systems are generally very expensive and complicated for extensive applications. To facilitate cost-effective building-safety monitoring, this study investigates a method using cost-effective MEMS accelerometers for buildings' rapid after-earthquake assessment. First, a parameter analysis of a cost-effective MEMS sensor is conducted to confirm its suitability for building-safety monitoring. Second, different from the existing investigations that tend to use a simplified building model or small-scaled frame structure excited by strong motions in laboratories, this study selects an in-service public building located in a typical earthquake-prone area after an analysis of earthquake risk in China. The building is instrumented with the selected cost-effective MEMS accelerometers, characterized by a low noise level and the capability to capture low-frequency small-amplitude dynamic responses. Furthermore, a rapid after-earthquake assessment scheme is proposed, which systematically includes fast missing data reconstruction, displacement response estimation based on an acceleration response integral, and safety assessment based on the maximum displacement and maximum inter-story drift ratio. Finally, the proposed method is successfully applied to a building-safety assessment by using earthquake-induced building responses suffering from missing data. This study is conducive to the extensive engineering application of MEMS-based cost-effective building monitoring and rapid after-earthquake assessment.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Sistemas Microeletromecânicos , Aceleração , Acelerometria , Análise Custo-Benefício
2.
Cell Rep ; 37(7): 110007, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788619

RESUMO

CCR4-NOT deadenylase is a major regulator of mRNA turnover. It contains two heterogeneous catalytic subunits CNOT7/8 and CNOT6/6L in vertebrates. The physiological function of each catalytic subunit is unclear due to the gene redundancy. In this study, Cnot6/6l double knockout mice are generated. Cnot6l-/- female mice are infertile, with poor ovarian responses to gonadotropins. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the transcription and translation of Cnot6 and Cnot6l in ovarian granulosa cells. CNOT6/6L function as key effectors of FSH in granulosa cells and trigger the clearance of specific transcripts in granulosa cells during preantral to antral follicle transition. These results demonstrate that FSH modulates granulosa cell function by stimulating selective translational activation and degradation of existing mRNAs, in addition to inducing de novo gene transcription. Meanwhile, this study provides in vivo evidence that CNOT6/6L-mediated mRNA deadenylation is dispensable in most somatic cell types, but is essential for female reproductive endocrine regulation.

3.
Phytomedicine ; : 153831, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the identification of accurate biomarkers for the diagnosis of patients with early-stage lung cancer remains difficult. Fortunately, metabolomics technology can be used to improve the detection of plasma metabolic biomarkers for lung cancer. In a previous study, we successfully utilised machine learning methods to identify significant metabolic markers for early-stage lung cancer diagnosis. However, a related research platform for the investigation of tumour metabolism and drug efficacy is still lacking. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: A novel methodology for the comprehensive evaluation of the internal tumour-metabolic profile and drug evaluation needs to be established. METHODS: The optimal location for tumour cell inoculation was identified in mouse chest for the non-traumatic orthotopic lung cancer mouse model. Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was applied to monitor lung tumour growth. Proscillaridin A (P.A) and cisplatin (CDDP) were utilised to verify the anti-lung cancer efficacy of the platform. The top five clinically valid biomarkers, including proline, L-kynurenine, spermidine, taurine and palmitoyl-L-carnitine, were selected as the evaluation indices to obtain a suitable lung cancer mouse model for clinical metabolomics research by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). RESULTS: The platform was successfully established, achieving 100% tumour development rate and 0% surgery mortality. P.A and CDDP had significant anti-lung cancer efficacy in the platform. Compared with the control group, four biomarkers in the orthotopic model and two biomarkers in the metastatic model had significantly higher abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a significant separation between the orthotopic/metastatic model and the control/subcutaneous/KRAS transgenic model. The platform was mainly involved in arginine and proline metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to simulate clinical metabolomics by comparing the metabolic phenotype of plasma in different lung cancer mouse models. We found that the orthotopic model was the most suitable for tumour metabolism. Furthermore, the anti-tumour drug efficacy was verified in the platform. The platform can very well match the clinical reality, providing better lung cancer diagnosis and securing more precise evidence for drug evaluation in the future.

4.
J Neurol ; 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia in China, particularly in rural areas, is consistently increasing; however, research on population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of risk factors for dementia is scarce. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey, namely, the China Multicentre Dementia Survey (CMDS) in selected rural and urban areas from 2018 to 2020. We performed face-to-face interviews and neuropsychological and clinical assessments to reach a consensus on dementia diagnosis. Prevalence and weighted PAFs of eight modifiable risk factors (six classical: less childhood education, hearing impairment, depression, physical inactivity, diabetes, and social isolation, and two novels: olfactory decline and being unmarried) for all-cause dementia were estimated. RESULTS: Overall, CMDS included 17,589 respondents aged ≥ 65 years, 55.6% of whom were rural residents. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence for all-cause dementia was 9.11% (95% CI 8.96-9.26), 5.19% (5.07-5.31), and 11.98% (11.8-12.15) in the whole, urban, and rural areas of China, respectively. Further, the overall weighted PAFs of the eight potentially modifiable risk factors were 53.72% (95% CI 52.73-54.71), 50.64% (49.4-51.89), and 56.54% (55.62-57.46) in the whole, urban, and rural areas of China, respectively. The eight risk factors' prevalence differed between rural and urban areas. Lower childhood education (PAF: 13.92%) and physical inactivity (16.99%) were primary risk factors in rural and urban areas, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial urban-rural disparities in the prevalence of dementia and its risk factors exist, suggesting the requirement of resident-specific dementia-prevention strategies.

5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the improved access to health services in China, inadequate diagnosis and management of dementia are common issues, especially in rural regions. OBJECTIVE: The Hubei Memory & Aging Cohort Study was designed as a prospective study in Central China to determine the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among urban and rural older adults. METHODS: From 2018-2020, participants aged ≥65 years were screened, and data regarding their life behaviors, families, socio-economic status, physical and mental health, social and psychological factors, and cognition were collected. Diagnoses of MCI and dementia were made via consensus diagnosis using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition criteria. RESULTS: Of 8,221 individuals who completed their baseline clinical evaluation, 4,449 (54.1%) were women and 3,164 (38.4%) were from remote rural areas (average age: 71.96 years; mean education period: 7.58 years). At baseline, 25.98%(95%confidence interval [CI]: 24.99-26.96) and 7.24%(95%CI: 6.68-7.80) of the participants were diagnosed with MCI and dementia, respectively. Prevalence showed a strong relationship with age. The substantial disparities between rural and urban regions in MCI and dementia prevalence and multiple dementia-related risk factors were revealed. Especially for dementia, the prevalence rate in rural areas was 2.65 times higher than that in urban regions. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that public health interventions are urgently needed to achieve equitable diagnosis and management for people living with dementia in the communities across urban and rural areas.

6.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 14: 720984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720871

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the role of GRIN2A gene in idiopathic generalized epilepsies and the potential underlying mechanism for phenotypic variation. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in a cohort of 88 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Electro-physiological alterations of the recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) containing GluN2A mutants were examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings. The alterations of protein expression were detected by immunofluorescence staining and biotinylation. Previous studies reported that epilepsy related GRIN2A missense mutations were reviewed. The correlation among phenotypes, functional alterations, and molecular locations was analyzed. Results: Three novel heterozygous missense GRIN2A mutations (c.1770A > C/p.K590N, c.2636A > G/p.K879R, and c.3199C > T/p.R1067W) were identified in three unrelated cases. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated R1067W significantly increased the current density of GluN1/GluN2A NMDARs. Immunofluorescence staining indicated GluN2A mutants had abundant distribution in the membrane and cytoplasm. Western blotting showed the ratios of surface and total expression of the three GluN2A-mutants were significantly increased comparing to the wild type. Further analysis on the reported missense mutations demonstrated that mutations with severe gain-of-function were associated with epileptic encephalopathy, while mutations with mild gain of function were associated with mild phenotypes, suggesting a quantitative correlation between gain-of-function and phenotypic severity. The mutations located around transmembrane domains were more frequently associated with severe phenotypes and absence seizure-related mutations were mostly located in carboxyl-terminal domain, suggesting molecular sub-regional effects. Significance: This study revealed GRIN2A gene was potentially a candidate pathogenic gene of idiopathic generalized epilepsies. The functional quantitative correlation and the molecular sub-regional implication of mutations helped in explaining the relatively mild clinical phenotypes and incomplete penetrance associated with GRIN2A variants.

7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 719755, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722657

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) for primary and secondary stroke prevention in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: This pilot study enrolled 36 patients with HCM and AF who underwent LAAC between April 2017 and December 2019, of whom 22 were for primary stroke prevention and 14 were for secondary prevention. Results: The patients enrolled in this study had non-obstructive (86.1%) or mild obstructive (13.9%) HCM. Patients in the Secondary Prevention Group had higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 2.6 ± 1.6, P < 0.001) and higher HAS-BLED scores (2.8 ± 1.0 vs. 1.5 ± 0.9, P < 0.001) compared with those in the Primary Prevention Group. Successful closure with satisfactory seals (residual leak ≤ 5 mm) was achieved in all patients, with complete occlusion in 86.4% of the Primary Prevention Group and 92.9% of the Secondary Prevention Group. Procedural-related complications included one pericardial effusion and one groin hematoma. One device-related thrombus was identified in the Secondary Prevention Group and resolved after anticoagulation. During a mean follow-up time of 28.4 months, one bleeding event was recorded. There were no thromboembolic events or deaths in either group, with 97.2% of the patients achieving freedom from anticoagulation therapy. Conclusions: Initial results suggest that LAAC can be a safe and feasible alternative for primary and secondary stroke prevention in selected patients with HCM and AF. Further studies with larger samples are required.

8.
Chem Asian J ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751508

RESUMO

Two-photon (TP) imaging with a donor-acceptor (D-A) type fluorophore is an emerging tool for bioimaging and sensing. However, current TP probes suffer from serious solvatochromic quenching in aqueous solution due to their strong intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in excited states. In this work, based on solvatochromism reversal, we report a novel strategy to develop TP probes for bioimaging. Specifically, compared with the normal two-photon probes that showed a fluorescence off with ICT suppressed, the novel probes exhibited strong fluorescence in the aqueous solution when their ICT was inhibited. This strategy not only provides a new way for the design of high-performance TP probes, but also expands the biological analysis toolbox for use in living systems.

9.
Phytomedicine ; : 153786, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer has become the principal cause of cancer-related deaths. Emodin is a Chinese herb-derived compound extracted from the roots of Rheum officinale that exhibits numerous pharmacological characteristics. Secretory phospholipase A2-IIa (sPLA2-IIa) is overexpressed in cancers and plays an important role in cancer development. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the anti-tumor mechanism of emodin in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: MTT assay was applied to detect the sensitivity of emodin to NSCLC cell line. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of emodin on cell cycle distribution and evaluate ROS level and apoptosis. Western blot analysis was utilised to examine the expression levels of sPLA2-IIa, PKM2, and AMPK and its downstream pathways induced by emodin. Enzyme inhibition assay was applied to investigate the inhibitory effect of emodin on sPLA2-IIa. The anticancer effect of emodin was also detected using an in vivo model. RESULTS: Emodin significantly inhibited NSCLC proliferation in vivo and in vitro and was relatively less cytotoxic to normal lung cell lines. Most importantly, emodin inhibited the proliferation of KRAS mutant cell lines by decreasing the expression of sPLA2-IIa and NF-κB pathways. Emodin also inhibited mTOR and AKT and activated the AMPK pathway. Furthermore, emodin induced apoptosis, increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and arrested the cell cycle. CONCLUSION: Emodin exhibited a novel anti-tumor mechanism of inhibiting the proliferation of KRAS mutant cell lines by decreasing the expression levels of sPLA2-IIa and NF-κB pathways. Hence, emodin can potentially serve as a therapeutic target in NSCLC.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787307

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells exert anti-viral effects after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The balance between inhibition and activation of NK cells determined by the inherited repertoire of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genes may influence Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation after transplantation. To evaluate the relative contributions of KIR genotypes to EBV reactivation, we prospectively enrolled 300 patients with malignant haematological disease who were suitable for haploidentical HSCT. Univariate analysis showed that donors with KIR2DS1, KIR2DS3 or KIR3DS1 genes were associated with an increased risk of EBV reactivation [hazard ratio (HR) 1·86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·19-2·9, P = 0·0067; HR 1·78, 95% CI 1·07-2·97, P = 0·027; HR 1·86, 95% CI 1·19-2·91, P = 0·0065 respectively]. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of KIR2DS1, KIR2DS3 or KIR3DS1 genes was associated with increased EBV reactivation after HSCT. This effect was more evident in the absence of the cognate ligands for the corresponding activating receptors. Our present data firstly showed that donors with activating KIR genes, specifically activating KIR2DS1, KIR2DS3 and KIR3DS1, had an increased risk of EBV reactivation. Precaution for patients whose donors carry activating genes will help prevent EBV reactivation and improve patient prognosis after HSCT.

11.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643234

RESUMO

Protein post-translational modifications (PTM) play vital roles in cellular regulation, modulating functions by driving changes in protein structure and dynamics. Exploring comprehensively the influence of PTM on conformational dynamics can facilitate the understanding of the related biological function and molecular mechanism. Currently, a series of excellent computation tools have been designed to analyze the time-dependent structural properties of proteins. However, the protocol aimed to explore conformational dynamics of post-translational modified protein is still a blank. To fill this gap, we present PTMdyna to visually predict the conformational dynamics differences between unmodified and modified proteins, thus indicating the influence of specific PTM. PTMdyna exhibits an AUC of 0.884 tested on 220 protein-protein complex structures. The case of heterochromatin protein 1α complexed with lysine 9-methylated histone H3, which is critical for genomic stability and cell differentiation, was used to demonstrate its applicability. PTMdyna provides a reliable platform to predict the influence of PTM on protein dynamics, making it easier to interpret PTM functionality at the structure level. The web server is freely available at http://ccbportal.com/PTMdyna.

12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2982-2988, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664473

RESUMO

In this study, three dominant bacteria Cellulomonas flavigena (Ⅰ), Cellulomonas flavigena (Ⅱ), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (Ⅲ) from Fire Phoenix rhizosphere soil were used to develop a multi-microbial agent system. For oil-contaminated soil in the Dagang oilfield, the immobilized test bacteria were inoculated into the Fire Phoenix rhizosphere soil to examine the effects of bacterial agents on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. The results showed that PAHs degradation was promoted under the ⅠⅢ (with an effective number of viable bacteria of 109 cfu·mL-1) and ⅠⅡⅢ (with an effective number of viable bacteria of 107 cfu·mL-1) treatments. The PAHs degradation rates were 32.2% and 41.4%, respectively, being significantly higher than that in the control treatments. The ⅠⅡⅢ treatment significantly promoted the belowground biomass of Fire Phoenix, which was 31.2% higher than that of the control treatment. Our results suggested that the multi-microbial agent constructed by the three dominant bacteria ⅠⅡⅢ could be used as a strengthening method for the remediation of PAHs-contaminated soil by Fire Phoenix, which provided a novel method for microbial enhanced phytoremediation technology.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Cellulomonas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sphingomonas
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702140

RESUMO

The conazole fungicide propiconazole is frequently found in vegetables although usage is not allowed. To overcome the high-cost and time-consuming labour requirements of instrumental methods, we developed a simple and visual lateral flow immunoassay for the sensitive determination of propiconazole. A hapten was carefully designed to raise a monoclonal antibody against propiconazole. Bal b/c mice were immunised with the hapten-carrier protein conjugate and a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) was produced. Based on this mAb, a sensitive immunochromatographic strip assay (ICA) was established for rapid screening of propiconazole in vegetable samples. After optimisation of analytical parameters, the ICA strip showed a detection limit of 0.13 ng g-1 and a linear range from 0.5 to 80 ng g-1 using a strip reader. The assay also can be read by the naked eye with a visual limit of detection of 80 ng g-1. The recoveries for spiked vegetable samples by ICA ranged from 85.2% to 114.9%, with a coefficient of variation less than 11.7%. The assay time is within 45 min for a single sample including the sample pre-treatment. For spiked and blind samples, the detection capability of ICA was equivalent to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

14.
Age Ageing ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-hospital falls constitute a significant health concern for older adults who have been recently discharged from the hospital. OBJECTIVES: To systematically summarise existing evidence on the incidence and risk factors for post-hospital falls among older adults. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Six electronic databases were searched to identify cohort studies investigating the incidence and risk factors for post-hospital falls in older adults. The incidence and risk factors for post-hospital falls were extracted. The meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled incidences and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The meta-regression and subgroup meta-analysis were conducted to explore sources of heterogeneity in incidence proportions across the eligible studies. A qualitative synthesis was performed for the post-hospital falls risk factors. RESULTS: Eighteen studies from eight countries (n = 9,080,568) were included. The pooled incidence proportion of any and recurrent post-hospital falls was 14% (95% CI: 13%-15%) and 10% (95% CI: 5%-14%), respectively. Follow-up period, study quality, study country, setting, percentage of female subjects, percentage of subjects with previous falls and the primary data collection method for falls significantly contributed to the 64.8% of the heterogeneity in incidence proportions. Twenty-six risk factors for post-hospital falls were identified in the eligible studies, where biological factors were the most commonly identified factors. The highest risks were reported for previous falls, previous fractures, delirium and neurological diseases. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggested future post-hospital falls prevention should prioritise the needs of older adults with the dominant risk factors. Further investigations into the period-specific incidence and socioeconomic and environmental risk factors for post-hospital falls are also required.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617655

RESUMO

We disclose that the carbonates of 4-hydroxy-2-cyclopentenones can form π-allylpalladium-based 1,2-carbodipoles, which isomerize to interesting η2 -Pd0 -cyclopentadienone complexes. Compared with the labile parent cyclopentadienone, the HOMO energy of the related η2 -complex was significantly raised via the back-bonding of Pd0 as a π-Lewis base, rendering the uncoordinated C=C bond an electron-richer dienophile in inverse-electron-demand aza-Diels-Alder-type reactions with diverse 1-azadienes. The vinylogous (aza)Morita-Baylis-Hillman or cross Rauhut-Currier addition to (imine)carbonyls or activated alkenes, respectively, was also realized to afford chiral [4+2] or [2+2] cycloadducts, respectively, after trapping the re-generated π-allylpalladium species. New C1 -symmetric ligands from simple chiral sources were developed, exhibiting high stereoselectivity even with racemic substrates via an unusual dynamic kinetic resolution process. Besides, tropone could be similarly activated by a Pd0 complex.

16.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 34(11): 2309-2318, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665607

RESUMO

Covalent drugs are newly developed and proved to be successful therapies in past decades. However, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) studies of covalent drugs now ignore the drug and metabolite-protein modification. The low abundance of modified proteins also prevents its investigation. Herein, a simple, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS quantitative method was established based on the mechanism of a drug and its metabolite-protein adducts using osimertinib as an example. Five metabolites with covalent modification potential were identified. The drug and its metabolite-cysteine adducts released from modified proteins by a mixed hydrolysis method were developed to characterize the level of the modified proteins. This turned the quantitative objects from proteins or peptides to small molecules, which increased the sensitivity and throughput of the quantitative approach. Accumulation of protein adducts formed by osimertinib and its metabolites in target organs was observed in vivo and long-lasting modifications were noted. These results interpreted the long duration of the covalent drugs' effect from the perspective of both parent and the metabolites. In addition, the established method could also be applied in blood testing as noninvasive monitoring. This newly developed approach showed great feasibility for PK and PD studies of covalent drugs.

17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 84(3): 1193-1218, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that general anesthetics like isoflurane and sevoflurane may aggravate Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathogenesis, e.g., increased amyloid-ß (Aß) protein aggregation resulting in synaptotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction. Other studies showed neuroprotective effects, e.g., with xenon. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we want to detail the interactions of inhalational anesthetics with Aß-derived pathology. We hypothesize xenon-mediated beneficial mechanisms regarding Aß oligomerization and Aß-mediated neurotoxicity on processes related to cognition. METHODS: Oligomerization of Aß1-42 in the presence of anesthetics has been analyzed by means of TR-FRET and silver staining. For monitoring changes in neuronal plasticity due to anesthetics and Aß1-42, Aß1-40, pyroglutamate-modified amyloid-(AßpE3), and nitrated Aß (3NTyrAß), we quantified long-term potentiation (LTP) and spine density. We analyzed network activity in the hippocampus via voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) and cognitive performance and Aß plaque burden in transgenic AD mice (ArcAß) after anesthesia. RESULTS: Whereas isoflurane and sevoflurane did not affect Aß1-42 aggregation, xenon alleviated the propensity for aggregation and partially reversed AßpE3 induced synaptotoxic effects on LTP. Xenon and sevoflurane reversed Aß1-42-induced spine density attenuation. In the presence of Aß1-40 and AßpE3, anesthetic-induced depression of VSDI-monitored signaling recovered after xenon, but not isoflurane and sevoflurane removal. In slices pretreated with Aß1-42 or 3NTyrAß, activity did not recover after washout. Cognitive performance and plaque burden were unaffected after anesthetizing WT and ArcAß mice. CONCLUSION: None of the anesthetics aggravated Aß-derived AD pathology in vivo. However, Aß and anesthetics affected neuronal activity in vitro, whereby xenon showed beneficial effects on Aß1-42 aggregation, LTP, and spine density.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 696921, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531835

RESUMO

Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a widely used analytical technique based on the detection of molecular vibrations in a defined system, which generates Raman spectra that contain unique and highly resolved fingerprints of the system. However, the low intensity of normal Raman scattering effect greatly hinders its application. Recently, the newly emerged surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique overcomes the problem by mixing metal nanoparticles such as gold and silver with samples, which greatly enhances signal intensity of Raman effects by orders of magnitudes when compared with regular RS. In clinical and research laboratories, SERS provides a great potential for fast, sensitive, label-free, and non-destructive microbial detection and identification with the assistance of appropriate machine learning (ML) algorithms. However, choosing an appropriate algorithm for a specific group of bacterial species remains challenging, because with the large volumes of data generated during SERS analysis not all algorithms could achieve a relatively high accuracy. In this study, we compared three unsupervised machine learning methods and 10 supervised machine learning methods, respectively, on 2,752 SERS spectra from 117 Staphylococcus strains belonging to nine clinically important Staphylococcus species in order to test the capacity of different machine learning methods for bacterial rapid differentiation and accurate prediction. According to the results, density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) showed the best clustering capacity (Rand index 0.9733) while convolutional neural network (CNN) topped all other supervised machine learning methods as the best model for predicting Staphylococcus species via SERS spectra (ACC 98.21%, AUC 99.93%). Taken together, this study shows that machine learning methods are capable of distinguishing closely related Staphylococcus species and therefore have great application potentials for bacterial pathogen diagnosis in clinical settings.

19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of chemical insecticides to control Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is widespread, although it might exert a sublethal effect on its dominant parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). To investigate the sublethal effect of spirotetramat on E. formosa, we observed the ability of E. formosa to locate and handle the host, oviposit and preen after exposure to sublethal concentrations of spirotetramat. RESULTS: After exposure to spirotetramat at LC50 , the response time of E. formosa to the volatile reached 223.40 s and was significantly prolonged. Only 56.44% of the wasps were attracted by the volatile and the insect crawled the slowest among all of the treatments. The averages of oviposition posture adopted and host handled by each E. formosa in 1 h decreased significantly to 1.79 and 1.27, respectively. At the sublethal concentration of LC10 , 94.59% of the wasps were attracted by the volatile and the insect crawled the fastest. The average of host handled by each E. formosa was 3.92, and the frequency of drumming while walking and drumming the host was 12.34 times per second and 12.30 times per second, respectively, demonstrating a significant acceleration in these abilities. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that spirotetramat induced hormesis in E. formosa on exposure to its LC10 concentration and accelerated its host locating, host handling and frequency of antennae drumming. These findings could assist in balancing the chemical and biological control of B. tabaci and enhancing the efficacy of E. formosa as a biocontrol agent.

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