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1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(1): 165554, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513833

RESUMO

Activation of interferon (IFN)-I signaling in B cells contributes to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have shown that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) significantly expand in SLE patients and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice and contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE. However, the role of SLE-derived MDSCs in regulating IFN-I signaling activation of B cells remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that expansions of MDSCs, including granulocyte (G)-MDSCs and monocytic (M)-MDSCs, during the progression of SLE were correlated with the IFN-I signature of B cells. Interestingly, G-MDSCs from MRL/lpr mice, but not M-MDSCs, could significantly promote IFN-I signaling activation of B cells and contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE. Mechanistically, we identified that the long non-coding RNA NEAT1 was over-expressed in G-MDSCs from MRL/lpr mice and could induce the promotion of G-MDSCs on IFN-I signaling activation of B cells through B cell-activating factor (BAFF) secretion. Importantly, NEAT1 deficiency significantly attenuated the lupus symptoms in pristane-induced lupus mice. In addition, there was a positive correlation between NEAT1 and BAFF with the IFN signature in SLE patients. In conclusion, G-MDSCs may contribute to the IFN signature in SLE B cells through the NEAT1-BAFF axis, highlighting G-MDSCs as a potential therapeutic target to treat SLE.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4517, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586069

RESUMO

Neonatal inflammatory diseases are associated with severe morbidity, but the inflammatory factors underlying them and their potential effector mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we show that necrotizing enterocolitis in neonate mice is accompanied by elevation of IL-23 and IL-22 and decreased production of pancreatic enzymes. These phenotypes are mirrored in neonate mice overexpressing IL-23 in CX3CR1+ myeloid cells or in keratinocytes. The mice fail to grow and die prematurely, displaying systemic inflammation, nutrient malabsorption and decreased expression of intestinal and pancreatic genes mediating digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Germ-free environment improves, and genetic ablation of IL-22 restores normal growth in mice overexpressing IL-23. Mechanistically, IL-22 acts directly at the level of pancreatic acinar cells to decrease expression of the pancreas associated transcription factor 1a (PTF1a). These results show that augmented production of IL-23 and IL-22 in early life has a negative impact on pancreatic enzyme secretion and food absorption.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1824, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428103

RESUMO

Macrophages play a critical role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock by producing excessive amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. A pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD, can be used to induce necroptosis under certain stimuli. The role of zVAD in both regulating the survival and activation of macrophages, and the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock remains not entirely clear. Here, we found that treatment of mice with zVAD could significantly reduce mortality and alleviate disease after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Notably, in LPS-challenged mice, treatment with zVAD could also reduce the percentage of peritoneal macrophages by promoting necroptosis and inhibiting pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages. In vitro studies showed that pretreatment with zVAD promoted LPS-induced nitric oxide-mediated necroptosis of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), leading to reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Interestingly, zVAD treatment promoted the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in a mouse model of endotoxin shock, and this process inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages. Based on these findings, we conclude that treatment with zVAD alleviates LPS-induced endotoxic shock by inducing macrophage necroptosis and promoting MDSC-mediated inhibition of macrophage activation. Thus, this study provides insights into the effects of zVAD treatment in inflammatory diseases, especially endotoxic shock.

6.
Immunology ; 157(3): 257-267, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120548

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves a variety of cytokines and cells. Interleukin-16 (IL-16) is highly expressed during allergic airway inflammation and is involved in its development. However, its specific mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we used an animal model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma with mice harboring an IL-16 gene deletion to investigate the role of this cytokine in asthma, in addition to its underlying mechanism. Increased IL-16 expression was observed during OVA-induced asthma in C57BL/6J mice. However, when OVA was used to induce asthma in IL-16-/- mice, a diminished inflammatory reaction, decreased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophil numbers, and the suppression of OVA-specific IgE levels in the serum and BALF were observed. The results also demonstrated decreased levels of T helper type 2 (Th2) and Th17 cytokines upon OVA-induced asthma in IL-16-/- mice. Hence, we confirmed that IL-16 enhances the lung allergic inflammatory response and suggest a mechanism possibly associated with the up-regulation of IgE and the promotion of Th2 and Th17 cytokine production. This work explored the mechanism underlying the regulation of IL-16 in asthma and provides a new target for the clinical treatment of asthma.

7.
J Autoimmun ; 102: 50-64, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080014

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can function as an inflammatory mediator, but whether GM-CSF-producing CD4+ T cells (TH-GM-CSF) are a distinct T helper cell subset is lacking. Herein we demonstrate that interleukin (IL)-1ß exclusively drives differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into TH-GM-CSF cells via inducing ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and subsequent activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB (NF-κB), independent of RAR-related orphan receptor gamma (RORγt) required for TH17 differentiation. In vivo, TH-GM-CSF cells are present in murine Citrobacter Rodentium infections and mediate colitis following adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells into Rag1-/- mice via GM-CSF-induced macrophage activation. The TH-GM-CSF cell phenotype is stable and distinct from the TH17 genetic program, but IL-1ß can convert pre-formed TH17 cells into TH-GM-CSF cells, thereby accounting for previously reported associations between IL-17 and GM-CSF. Together, our results newly identify IL-1ß/NF-κB-dependent TH-GM-CSF cells as a unique T helper cell subset and highlight the importance of CD4+ T cell-derived GM-CSF induced macrophage activation as a previously undescribed T cell effector mechanism.

8.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013255

RESUMO

IL-17-producing CD4+ cells (TH17) are pathogenically linked to autoimmunity including to autoimmune kidney disease. Erythropoietin's (EPO) newly recognized immunoregulatory functions and its predominant intra-renal source suggested that EPO physiologically regulates TH17 differentiation, thereby serving as a barrier to the development of autoimmune kidney disease. Using in vitro studies of human and murine cells and in vivo models, we show that EPO ligation of its receptor (EPO-R) on CD4+ T cells directly inhibits TH17 generation and promotes trans-differentiation of TH17 into IL-17-FOXP3+CD4+ T cells. Mechanistically, EPO/EPO-R ligation abrogates upregulation of SGK1 gene expression and blocks p38 activity to prevent SGK1 phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting RORC-mediated transcription of IL-17 and IL-23 receptor genes. In a murine model of TH17-dependent aristolochic acid (ArA)-induced, interstitial kidney disease associated with reduced renal EPO production, we demonstrate that transgenic EPO overexpression or recombinant EPO (rEPO) administration limits TH17 formation and clinical/histological disease expression. EPO/EPO-R ligations on CD4+ T cells abrogate, while absence of T cell-expressed EPO-R augments, TH17 induction and clinical/histological expression of pristane-induced glomerulonephritis (associated with decreased intrarenal EPO). rEPO prevents spontaneous glomerulonephritis and TH17 generation in MRL-lpr mice. Together, our findings indicate that EPO physiologically and therapeutically modulate TH17 cells to limit expression of TH17-associated autoimmune kidney disease.

9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 73, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The drug-resistance and relapse of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which are related to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have become increasingly common. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. METHODS: CCK 8 assay, colony formation assay, and xenograft mouse model were used to investigate the effects of hBMSCs on DLBCL growth. Immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and ELISA were used to study the expressions of IL-6 and IL-17A. Flow cytometry was used to analyze Th17 cells and Treg cells expressions. Western blot analysis, microarray analysis, and bioinformatics analysis were used to analyze the pathways of IL-6 or IL-17A mediated DLBCL growth. RESULTS: HBMSCs promoted DLBCL growth by secreting IL-6 in vitro and in vivo and simultaneously upregulating IL-17A in vitro. IL-6 and IL-17A synergistically promoted the growth and drug-resistance of DLBCL cells by protecting them from spontaneous or drug-induced apoptosis in vitro. IL-6 or IL-17A activated the JAK2/STAT3 pathway or upregulated cyclin D2 via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling in vitro, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicated that hBMSCs might have a "dual effect" on promoting DLBCL progression and drug-resistance by secreting IL-6 and upregulating IL-17A. IL-6, IL-17A, p-STAT3, p-Akt or cyclin D2 may be potential molecular targets for overcoming drug-resistance in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL.


Assuntos
Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809230

RESUMO

Dysregulation of macrophage has been demonstrated to contribute to aberrant immune responses and inflammatory diseases. CD11b, expressed on macrophages, plays a critical role in regulating pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, and cell survival. In the present study, we explored the effect of leukadherin-1 (LA1), an agonist of CD11b, on regulating LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response in macrophages and endotoxic shock. Intriguingly, we found that LA1 could significantly reduce mortalities of mice and alleviated pathological injury of liver and lung in endotoxic shock. In vivo studies showed that LA1-induced activation of CD11b significantly inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response in macrophages of mice. Moreover, LA1-induced activation of CD11b significantly inhibited LPS/IFN-γ-induced pro-inflammatory response in macrophages by inhibiting MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways in vitro. Furthermore, the mice injected with LA1-treated BMDMs showed fewer pathological lesions than those injected with vehicle-treated BMDMs in endotoxic shock. In addition, we found that activation of TLR4 by LPS could endocytose CD11b and activation of CD11b by LA1 could endocytose TLR4 in vitro and in vivo, subsequently blocking the binding of LPS with TLR4. Based on these findings, we concluded that LA1-induced activation of CD11b negatively regulates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response in macrophages and subsequently protects mice from endotoxin shock by partially blocking LPS-TLR4 interaction. Our study provides a new insight into the role of CD11b in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

11.
Immunology ; 157(1): 13-20, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681737

RESUMO

Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a recently identified heterodimeric cytokine in the IL-12 family. It consists of an IL-12 subunit α chain (P35) and IL-27 subunit Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) ß chain. Unlike the other IL-12 family members, it signals through four unconventional receptors: IL-12Rß2-IL-27Rα, IL-12Rß2-IL-12Rß2, IL-12Rß2-GP130, and GP130-GP130. Interleukin-35 signaling is mainly carried out through the signal transducer and activator of transcription family of proteins. It is secreted not only by regulatory T (Treg) cells, but also by CD8+ Treg cells, activated dendritic cells and regulatory B cells. It exhibits immunosuppressive functions distinct from those of other members of the IL-12 family; these are mediated primarily by the inhibition of T helper type 17 cell differentiation and promotion of Treg cell proliferation. Interleukin-35 plays a critical role in several immune-associated diseases, such as autoimmune diseases and viral and bacterial infections, as well as in tumors. In this review, we summarize the structure and function of IL-35, describe its role in immune-related disorders, and discuss the mechanisms by which it regulates the development and progression of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, collagen-induced arthritis, allergic airway disease, hepatitis, and tumors. The recent research on IL-35, combined with improved techniques of studying receptors and signal transduction pathways, allows for consideration of IL-35 as a novel immunotherapy target.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Autoimunidade , Humanos , Subunidade p35 da Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(3): 535-546, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557700

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an immunosuppressive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. CD180, a TLR-like protein, can regulate the proliferation and activation of immune cells. However, the roles of CD180 in regulating the accumulation and function of MDSCs have not been investigated. Here, we found that, compared with non-treated controls, the expression of CD180 was significantly elevated in MDSCs, especially granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs), from mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ligation of CD180 by the anti-CD180 antibody not only blocked the expansion of MDSCs by preventing the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), but also reduced the immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs on M1 macrophage polarization through inhibition of Arg-1 expression in vitro. In vivo studies showed that injection of anti-CD180 antibody significantly aggravated pathological lesions in mice challenged with LPS. Furthermore, injection of anti-CD180 antibody inhibited the accumulation of G-MDSCs in mice challenged with LPS and reduced the immunosuppressive activity of G-MDSCs on M1 macrophage polarization. Based on these findings, we conclude that ligation of CD180 contributes to the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock by inhibiting the accumulation and immunosuppressive activity of G-MDSCs, thus providing insight into the function of CD180 in inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/fisiologia , Choque Séptico/induzido quimicamente , Choque Séptico/imunologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Supressoras Mieloides/citologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2643, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498494

RESUMO

Activation of TLR7 and TLR9 by endogenous RNA- or DNA-containing ligands, respectively, can lead to hyper-activation of immune cells, including macrophages and DCs, subsequently contributes to the pathogenesis of SLE. CD180, a TLR-like protein, is specifically involved in the development and activation of immune cells. Our previous study and others have reported that CD180-negative B cells are dramatically increased in SLE patients and responsible for the production of auto-antibodies. However, the mode of CD180 expression on macrophages and DCs in SLE remains unclear and the role of CD180 on regulating TLR7- and TLR9-mediated activation of macrophages and DCs are largely unknown. In the present study, we found that the percentages of CD180-negative macrophages and DCs were both increased in SLE patients and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice compared with healthy donors and wild-type mice, respectively. Notably, ligation of CD180 significantly inhibited the activation of TLR7 and TLR9 signaling pathways in macrophages and DCs through the Lyn-SHP-1/2 axis. What's more, injection of anti-CD180 Ab could markedly ameliorate the lupus-symptoms of imiquimod-treated mice and lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice through inhibiting the activation of macrophages and DCs. Collectively, our results highlight a critical role of CD180 in regulating TLR7- and TLR9-mediated activation of macrophages and DCs, hinting that CD180 can be regarded as a potential therapeutic target for SLE treatment.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501075

RESUMO

In recent years, there have been many studies on the function of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in experimental animals and humans. This review analyzes and explores the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cell et al. differentiation using data based on laboratory research, highlighting recent NOS laboratory research. Our insights into research prospects and directions are also presented.

15.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 34(11): 961-968, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591103

RESUMO

Objective To study the effect of CD11b agonist leukadherin-1 (LA1) on the aggregation and immunosuppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and its therapeutic effect on the condition of endotoxic shock mice. Methods The percentages of MDSCs , granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells(G-MDSCs)and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells(M-MDSCs)in spleen were detected by flow cytometry, after C57BL/6 female mice were injected of LA1 to activate through abdominal cavity for 12 hours and 48 hours. MDSCs were induced from the femur and tibia of C57BL/6 female mice in vitro. The expression levels of immunosuppressive related factors, such as interleukin 10 (IL-10), NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) , were detected by real time quantitative PCR. C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into PBS group, LA1 group, PBS combined LPS group and LA1 combined LPS group. Flow cytometry was utilized to detect the ratio changes of MDSCs, G-MDSCs and M-MDSCs as well as the expression of CD86 and CD40 in macrophage, hematoxylin-eosin staining of lung and liver was utilized to detect the pathological injury, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling(TUNEL)was used to detect the apoptosis of pneumonocyte and hepatocyte and mortality analysis was reflected the severity of the disease. Based on the above indicators, we analyzed the effects of LA1 on the aggregation of MDSCs and the condition of mice in endotoxic shock. Results The ratio of MDSCs was increased by LA1 treatment for 12 and 48 hours. Further analysis of the proportions of G-MDSCs showed that LA1 treatment for 12 hours increased the proportions of G-MDSCs compared with the control group. In vitro, mRNA levels of IL-10, NOX1 and iNOS were increased after LA1 treatment in MDSCs. In vivo experiments, compared with the PBS combined LPS group, the proportions of MDSCs and G-MDSCs in LA1 combined LPS group were increased, the injuries of liver and lung were alleviated, the mortalities were reduced, and the activations of macrophage were decreased. Conclusion The activation of CD11b by LA1 alleviates endotoxin shock by promoting the aggregation of MDSCs and the expression of immunosuppressive related factors.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Antígeno CD11b/agonistas , Células Supressoras Mieloides/citologia , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Tioidantoínas/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NADPH Oxidase 1/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Baço/citologia
16.
JCI Insight ; 3(24)2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568034

RESUMO

CD4+ follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are specialized providers of T cell help to B cells and can function as pathogenic mediators of murine antibody-dependent chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Using a parent→F1 model of lupus-like chronic GvHD, in which Tfh cell and germinal center (GC) B cell differentiation occurs over 14 days, we demonstrate that absence of CD4+ T cell-expressed C5a receptor 1 (C5ar1) or pharmacological C5aR1 blockade abrogated generation/expansion of Tfh cells, GC B cells, and autoantibodies. In a Tfh cell-dependent model of chronic GvHD manifested by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), C5aR1 antagonism initiated in mice with established disease ameliorated BOS and abolished the associated differentiation of Tfh and GC B cells. Guided by RNA-sequencing data, mechanistic studies performed using murine and human T cells showed that C5aR1 signaling amplifies IL-6-dependent expression of the transcription factor c-MAF and the cytokine IL-21 via phosphorylating phosphokinase B (AKT) and activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In addition to linking C5aR1-initiated signaling to Tfh cell differentiation, our findings suggest that C5aR1 may be a useful therapeutic target for prevention and/or treatment of individuals with Tfh cell-dependent diseases, including those chronic GvHD patients who have anti-host reactive antibodies.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite Obliterante/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a/imunologia , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Interleucinas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
17.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 34(8): 695-701, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384867

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the role of interleukin-16 (IL-16) in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and clarify its regulatory mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. Methods Seven-week-old wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and IL-16 knockout (IL-16-/-) female mice were divided into WT control group, WT dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment group, IL-16-/- control group and IL-16-/- DSS treatment group. The DSS model groups were given the water with 25 g/L DSS for 7 days to establish the IBD models, while the control groups were given the normal water. During the modeling period, the body mass of mice was recorded to calculate the body mass curve. After 7 days, the whole colon of the mice was dissected and the level of IL-16 mRNA in the colon tissue was detected by real-time PCR. The level of IL-16 protein in the colon tissue was detected by ELISA. The expression and localization of IL-16 in the colon tissue were observed by immunofluorescence technique. HE staining was used to detect colonic pathological injury in mice. TUNEL assay was used to detect cell apoptosis of the colon tissue. Flow cytometry was used to detect the number and polarization of macrophages in peritoneal cells (F4/80, CD86). Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the distribution of macrophages in the colon tissues. Real-time PCR was used to detect IL-6 and IL-12 mRNA levels in the colon tissue, and IL-6 and IL-12 protein levels were detected by ELISA. Results DSS induced high expression of IL-16 in the colon tissue. Compared with WT DSS treatment group, IL-16-/- DSS treatment group showed less changes in body mass, less colon tissue damage, and markedly lower percents of apoptotic cells in the peritoneal or colonic tissues of IL-16-/- mice. What's more, the number of macrophages, the polarization level of M1 macrophages, and the levels of the iconic inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-12 significantly decreased in IL-16-/- DSS treatment group compared with WT DSS treatment group. Conclusion IL-16 can aggravate DSS-induced IBD by promoting the polarization of M1 macrophages.

18.
J Autoimmun ; 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241692

RESUMO

The follicular helper T cell (TFH) are established regulators of germinal center (GC) B cells, whether TFH have pathogenic potential independent of B cells is unknown. Based on in vitro TFH cell differentiation, in vivo T cell transfer animal colitis model, and intestinal tissues of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, TFH and its functions in colitis development were analyzed by FACS, ChIP, ChIP-sequencing, WB, ELISA and PCR. Herein we demonstrate that intestinal tissues of patients and colon tissues obtained from Rag1-/- recipients of naïve CD4+ T cells with colitis, each over-express TFH-associated gene products. Adoptive transfer of naïve Bcl6-/- CD4+ T cells into Rag1-/- recipient mice abrogated development of colitis and limited TFH differentiation in vivo, demonstrating a mechanistic link. In contrast, T cell deficiency of interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) resulted in augmentation of TFH induction in vitro and in vivo. Functional studies showed that adoptive transfer of IRF8 deficient CD4+ T cells into Rag1-/- recipients exacerbated colitis development associated with increased gut TFH-related gene expression, while Irf8-/-/Bcl6-/- CD4+ T cells abrogated colitis, together indicating that IRF8-regulated TFH can directly cause colon inflammation. Molecular analyses revealed that IRF8 suppresses TFH differentiation by inhibiting transcription and transactivation of the TF IRF4, which is also known to be essential for TFH induction. Our documentation showed that IRF8-regulated TFH can function as B-cell-independent, pathogenic, mediators of colitis suggests that targeting TFH could be effective for treatment of IBD.

19.
Inflammation ; 41(6): 2090-2100, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143931

RESUMO

Endotoxin shock is a life-threatening response caused by a disordered immune response to an infection. MDSCs are accumulated and play a protective role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock. However, the regulation of MDSCs by small molecule remains unrevealed. Here, we report that arctigenin, a small molecule extracted from Arctium lappa, induces accumulation of functional MDSCs. Arctigenin was able to ameliorate LPS-induced inflammation through accumulating MDSCs, especially granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs), and enhancing the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, arctigenin promoted the accumulation of MDSCs through upregulating miR-127-5p which targets the 3'UTR of interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8) mRNA. In addition, arctigenin enhanced the immunosuppressive activity of MDSCs on M1 macrophage polarization by elevating the expression of arginase 1 (Arg-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Our study provides new insights into the regulation of functional MDSCs by arctigenin in exerting immune responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

20.
Am J Transl Res ; 10(5): 1552-1561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887968

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important roles in tumor initiation, metastasis, and progression. They are also mainly responsible for high treatment failure rates. Identification and characterization of CSCs are crucial for facilitating the detection, prevention, or therapy of cancer. Great efforts have been paid to develop an effective method and the ideal method for CSCs research is still in the going. In our study, we created an ultra-low concentration of serum and non-adhesive (ULCSN) culture system to enrich CSCs from murine lewis lung cancer cell line LL/2 with cell spheres structure and characterize the LL/2 CSCs properties. Their characteristics were investigated through colony formation, spheres formation, chemoresistance, flow cytometry for putative stem cell markers, such as CD133, CD34 and CD45, immunofluorescence staining and tumor initiation capacity in vivo. Tumor spheres were formed within 7-10 days under the condition of ULCSN culture system. Compared with adherent parental LL/2 cells, the colony capacity, chemo-resistance, and expression of stem cell markers increased significantly in addition to tumor-initiating capability in the tumor sphere cells. Using the ULCSN culture system, an available isolation method of lewis lung CSCs was established, which is simple, effective, and inexpensive compared with the cytokines attachment serum free culture method. The stem cell properties of the tumor sphere LL/2 cells reflected the CSCs phenotypes. We developed a useful CSCs model for basic and pre-clinical studies for lung cancer and other types of cancer.

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