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1.
Ophthalmology ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate the performance of a three-dimensional deep-learning based automated digital gonioscopy system (3D DGS) in detecting two major characteristics in eyes suspected to have primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG): 1) narrow iridocorneal angles (static gonioscopy, Task I) and; 2) peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) (dynamic gonioscopy, Task II) on optical coherence tomography scans. DESIGN: International cross-sectional multicentre study. SUBJECTS: A total of 1.112 million images of 8694 volume scans (2294 patients) from three centers were included in this study (Task I: training/internal validation/external testing - 4515, 1101, 2222 volume scans respectively; Task II: training/internal validation/external testing - 378, 376, 102 volume scans respectively). METHODS: For Task I, a narrow angle was defined as an eye in which the posterior pigmented trabecular meshwork not visible in more than 180 degrees without indentation in the primary position captured in the dark room from the scans. For Task II, PAS was defined as the adhesion of the iris to the trabecular meshwork. The diagnostic performance of the 3D DGS was evaluated in both tasks with gonioscopic records as reference. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The area under curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of the 3D DGS were calculated. RESULTS: In Task I, 29.4% patients had narrow angle. The AUC, sensitivity and specificity of 3D DGS on the external testing datasets were 0.943 (0.933-0.953), 0.867 (0.838-0.895), and 0.878 (0.859-0.896), respectively. For Task II, 13.8% patients had PAS. The AUC, sensitivity and specificity of 3D DGS were 0.902 (0.818-0.985), 0.900 (0.714-1.000), 0.890 (0.841-0.938) on the external testing set, at quarter level following normal clinical practice; and 0.885 (0.836-0.933), 0.912(0.816-1.000) and 0.700 (0.660-0.741) on the external testing set, at clock-hour level. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D DGS is effective in detecting the eyes suspected to have PACG. It has the potential to be used widely in the primary eye care community for screening of the subjects at high risk of developing PACG.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This phase II study evaluated camrelizumab in different PD-L1 expression cohorts of patients with previously treated advanced/metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; NCT03085069, registered March 21, 2017). METHODS: Patients who progressed during/after chemotherapy were enrolled and divided into four cohorts based on PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS). Patients with EGFR/ALK alterations and PD-L1 TPS ≥ 50% were also eligible. All enrolled patients received camrelizumab at 200 mg IV Q2W. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. RESULTS: A total of 146 patients were enrolled. As of data cutoff on Aug 20, 2020, the median follow-up was 29.5 months (95% CI 27.4-30.8). Objective response rate was 17.8% (95% CI 12.0-25.0) and improved with the increasing PD-L1 TPS (TPS < 1%, 12.2% [95% CI 5.7-21.8]; ≥ 1-< 25%, 19.4% [95% CI 7.5-37.5]; ≥ 25-< 50%, 36.4% [95% CI 10.9-69.2]; ≥ 50%, 23.3% [95% CI 9.9-42.3]). No response was observed in the five patients harboring EGFR mutations. Median progression-free survival was 3.2 months (95% CI 2.0-3.4), and patients with positive PD-L1 TPS had longer progression-free survival. Median overall survival was 14.8 months (95% CI 10.2-18.7). Treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) of any grade occurred in 87.7% of patients, and 21.2% had grade ≥ 3 TRAEs. CONCLUSION: Camrelizumab showed improved efficacy compared with historical data of the second-line chemotherapy in pre-treated advanced/metastatic NSCLC. Patients with positive PD-L1 expression derived greater benefit from camrelizumab. Camrelizumab has a manageable safety profile.

3.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509352

RESUMO

Intertrochanteric fractures have become a severe public health problem in elderly patients. Proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) is a commonly used intramedullary fixation device for unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Pelvic perforation by cephalic screw is a rare complication. We reported an 84-year-old female who fell at home and sustained an intertrochanteric fracture. The patient underwent surgery with PFNA as the intramedullary fixation device. Routine postoperative examination revealed medial migration of the helical blade that eventually caused pelvic perforation. We performed a cemented total hip arthroplasty as the savage procedure. At the latest follow-up 12 months after total hip arthroplasty, the patient had no pain or loosening of the prosthesis in the left hip. Pelvic perforation should be considered when choosing PFNA as the intramedullary fixation device, especially in patients with severe osteoporosis wherein the helical blade can be easily inserted during the operation. The lack of devices to avoid oversliding of the helical blade in PFNA is an unreported cause of this complication and should be considered in such cases.

4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 877-881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy of Huaiqihuang granules as adjuvant therapy for bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, and registered real-world study was performed for the children, aged 2-5 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the outpatient service of 21 hospitals in China. Among these children, the children treated with medications for long-term asthma control (inhaled corticosteroid and/or leukotriene receptor antagonist) without Huaiqihuang granules were enrolled as the control treatment group, and those treated with medications for long-term asthma control combined with Huaiqihuang granules were enrolled as the combined treatment group. The medical data of all children were collected. Outpatient or telephone follow-up was performed at weeks 4, 8, 12, 20, 28, and 36 after treatment, including asthma attacks and rhinitis symptoms. A statistical analysis was performed for the changes in these indices. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the frequency of asthma attacks or rhinitis attacks between the two groups before treatment (P>0.05). After treatment, the combined treatment group had significantly lower frequencies of asthma attacks, severe asthma attacks, and rhinitis attacks compared with the control treatment group (P<0.05). There was no signification difference in the incidence rate of adverse reactions between the two groups (P=0.667). CONCLUSIONS: Huaiqihuang granules in addition to medications for long-term asthma control can alleviate the symptoms of bronchial asthma and rhinitis and improve the level of asthma control in children with bronchial asthma, with good safety and little adverse effect. Citation.


Assuntos
Asma , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Brain ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581804

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies showed that genetic variants at 2q33.1 were strongly associated with schizophrenia. However, potential causal variants in this locus and their roles in schizophrenia remain unknown. Here we identified two functional variants (rs796364 and rs281759) that disrupt CTCF, RAD21 and FOXP2 binding at 2q33.1. We systematically investigated the regulatory mechanisms of these two variants with serial experiments, including reporter gene assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Intriguingly, these two SNPs physically interacted with TYW5 and showed the most significant associations with TYW5 expression in human brain. Consistently, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing also confirmed the regulatory effect of these two SNPs on TYW5 expression. Additionally, expression analysis indicated that TYW5 was significantly up-regulated in brains of schizophrenia cases compared with controls, suggesting that rs796364 and rs281759 might confer schizophrenia risk by modulating TYW5 expression. We over-expressed TYW5 in mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) and rat primary neurons to mimic its up-regulation in schizophrenia cases, and found significant alterations in proliferation and differentiation of NSCs, as well as dendritic spine density following TYW5 overexpression, indicating its important roles in neurodevelopment and spine morphogenesis. Furthermore, we independently confirmed the association between rs796364 and schizophrenia in a Chinese cohort of 8,202 subjects. Finally, transcriptome analysis revealed that TYW5 affected schizophrenia-associated pathways. These lines of evidence consistently revealed that rs796364 and rs281759 might contribute to schizophrenia risk through regulating expression of TYW5, a gene whose expression dysregulation affects two important schizophrenia pathophysiologic processes (i.e. neurodevelopment and dendritic spine formation).

6.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543218

RESUMO

Classic portfolio selection problems mainly focus on high-risk financial markets with tradeoffs between returns and risk. However, more risk-averse investors pursue long-term portfolio planning with the objectives of maximizing final returns and maximizing flexibility. This article addresses a new type of the portfolio problem, called periodic investment portfolio selection problems (PIPSPs), in which investors periodically allocate resources to financial products with different periods. A multiobjective model for PIPSPs is first presented. With a mechanism for utilizing the data generated during the implementation of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs), a data-assisted MOEA (DA-MOEA) is proposed to solve PIPSPs. The main idea of a DA-MOEA is to combine a MOEA with a data-assisted process that consists of three components: 1) feature construction; 2) data fusion model development; and 3) obtained information utilization. To solve the addressed PIPSPs, two versions of DA-MOEAs with baselines of nondominated sorting and decomposition-based mechanisms are implemented, namely, the data-assisted NSGA-II (DA-NSGA-II) and data-assisted MOEA/D (DA-MOEA/D). In the developed DA-MOEAs for PIPSPs, a feature construction process and a data fusion model are well designed for mining data with different formats. To validate the algorithms, two sets of test instances are generated. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the data-assisted process. Furthermore, the effects of the algorithm components, such as the data source sizes, information types, and information utilization strategies, are investigated.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542284

RESUMO

The emerging carbon-based mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (MPSCs) are known as one of the most promising candidates for photovoltaic applications thanks to their screen-printing process and excellent stability. Unfortunately, they usually suffer from serious defects because it is challenging to realize sufficient mesopore filling of the perovskite precursor solution throughout the triple-mesoporous scaffold. Herein, a bifunctional additive, biuret, endowed with both carbonyl and amino groups, was designed to realize a convenient fabrication approach for controllable crystallization of the precursor solution. Owing to the strong coordination ability with perovskite components, the incorporation of biuret can not only regulate crystallization kinetics allowing for the growth of high-quality perovskite crystals but also associate with uncoordinated ions for defect passivation to enhance the overall photovoltaic performance of MPSCs. A champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.42% with an enhanced short-circuit current density of 19.49 mA cm-2 and a much higher open-circuit voltage of 0.96 V was achieved for the device doped with 3 mol % biuret, which is 26% higher than that of the control device (10.66%). Moreover, the unencapsulated devices with biuret incorporation demonstrated superior stability, maintaining over 90% of the original PCE after 50 days of storage under ambient conditions. This work helps exploit bifunctional additive strategies for simultaneous defect passivation and crystallization control toward high-efficiency and long-term stability of carbon-based MPSCs.

8.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(5)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558653

RESUMO

Vitiligo is a cutaneous depigmentation disorder caused by melanocyte injury or aberrant functioning. Oxidative stress (OS) is considered to be a major cause of the onset and progression of vitiligo. Ginsenoside Rk1 (RK1), a major compound isolated from ginseng, has antioxidant activity. However, whether RK1 can protect melanocytes against oxidative injury remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of RK1 against OS in the human PIG1 melanocyte cell line induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and to explore its underlying mechanism. PIG1 cells were pretreated with RK1 (0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mM) for 2 h followed by exposure to 1.0 mM H2O2 for 24 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined with Cell Counting Kit­8 and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH­Px) were analyzed using ELISA kits. Protein expression levels, including Bax, caspase­3, Bcl­2, phosphorylated­AKT, AKT, nuclear factor erythroid 2­related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase­1 (HO­1), cytosolic Nrf2 and nuclear Nrf2, were analyzed using western blot analysis. In addition, the expression and localization of Nrf2 were detected by immunofluorescence. RK1 treatment significantly improved cell viability, reduced the apoptotic rate and increased the activity levels of SOD, CAT and GSH­Px in the PIG1 cell line exposed to H2O2. In addition, RK1 treatment notably induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, increased the protein expression levels of Nrf2 and HO­1, and the ratio of phosphorylated­AKT to AKT in the PIG1 cells exposed to H2O2. Furthermore, LY294002 could reverse the protective effect of RK1 in melanocytes against oxidative injury. These data demonstrated that RK1 protected melanocytes from H2O2­induced OS by regulating Nrf2/HO­1 protein expression, which may provide evidence for the application of RK1 for the treatment of vitiligo.

9.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 2178281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413966

RESUMO

Background: Ferroptosis is a type of cell death with major topic of debate under current research and plays an important role in disease regulation. Objective: In this study, the literature management software Bibexcel and knowledge graph tool VOSviewer were used to summarize and analyze the international research trends and hotspots about ferroptosis in recent years, which highlight the disease mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment related to ferroptosis. Material/Methods. The core collection database of Web of Science was used for retrieving ferroptosis research literature. The information such as the amount of text, the country, the period, the institution, the fund, and the keywords was extracted by the bibliometric tool Bibexcel. The cooccurrence and clustering function of VOSviewer were used to analyze the high-frequency keywords and the cooperative network of the author, institution, and country. Results: The research of ferroptosis started late and was formally proposed in 2012. It has developed rapidly and presented an "exponential" growth trend. China, the United States, Germany, Japan, and France are the main national forces of ferroptosis research development. The United States and China have a relatively high degree of support and attention to ferroptosis. Exploring oxidative stress, inducers/inhibitors, synergistic antitumor effect, relationships with other cell death types, GSH/GPX4 and iron metabolism imbalance related mechanisms of ferroptosis, and ferroptosis in the nervous system disease, ischemia-reperfusion injury, tumor, inflammation, and age-related diseases are the hot research directions. Conclusion: Ferroptosis has been a research hotspot in the field of biomedicine in recent years and has attracted the attention of scholars all over the world. The occurrence mechanism of ferroptosis and its application in neurological diseases, ischemia and reperfusion injury, tumors, inflammation, and aging are the hot directions of current research. In the future, ferroptosis can be appropriately considered for strengthening new approaches, new diseases, new inductors, new inhibitors, clinical transformation, and traditional medicine research.

10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 271: 118386, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364585

RESUMO

A series of fluorescent nanocomplexes of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/Terbium (Tb)- Europium (Eu) were successfully synthesized without introducing a second ligand. By adjusting the concentration of the coordinated ions, these nanocomplexes exhibit favorably visibly tunable luminescence properties with colors being able to change from green to red. The XPS analysis demonstrates the formation Tb(III)-O2- and Eu(III)-O2- between OH and COO- in CMC and Tb3+ or Eu3+ ions, which is advantage for light absorption by UV-Vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The ligand CMC plays a role in coordinating with terbium and europium ions, but also serves as an energy donor to these metal ions by antenna effect. Moreover, the energy transfer also occurred from terbium ions to europium ions in CMC matrix, which is responsible for the tunable luminescence properties of these complexes.

11.
Ophthalmology ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a multimodal artificial intelligence algorithm, FusionNet, using the pattern deviation probability plots from visual field (VF) reports and circular peripapillary OCT scans to detect glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two thousand four hundred sixty-three pairs of VF and OCT images from 1083 patients. METHODS: FusionNet based on bimodal input of VF and OCT paired data was developed to detect GON. Visual field data were collected using the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA). OCT images were collected from 3 types of devices (DRI-OCT, Cirrus OCT, and Spectralis). Two thousand four hundred sixty-three pairs of VF and OCT images were divided into 4 datasets: 1567 for training (HFA and DRI-OCT), 441 for primary validation (HFA and DRI-OCT), 255 for the internal test (HFA and Cirrus OCT), and 200 for the external test set (HFA and Spectralis). GON was defined as retinal nerve fiber layer thinning with corresponding VF defects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnostic performance of FusionNet compared with that of VFNet (with VF data as input) and OCTNet (with OCT data as input). RESULTS: FusionNet achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.950 (0.931-0.968) and outperformed VFNet (AUC, 0.868 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.834-0.902]), OCTNet (AUC, 0.809 [95% CI, 0.768-0.850]), and 2 glaucomatologists (glaucomatologist 1: AUC, 0.882 [95% CI, 0.847-0.917]; glaucomatologist 2: AUC, 0.883 [95% CI, 0.849-0.918]) in the primary validation set. In the internal and external test sets, the performances of FusionNet were also superior to VFNet and OCTNet (FusionNet vs VFNet vs OCTNet: internal test set 0.917 vs 0.854 vs 0.811; external test set 0.873 vs 0.772 vs 0.785). No significant difference was found between the 2 glaucomatologists and FusionNet in the internal and external test sets, except for glaucomatologist 2 (AUC, 0.858 [95% CI, 0.805-0.912]) in the internal test set. CONCLUSIONS: FusionNet, developed using paired VF and OCT data, demonstrated superior performance to both VFNet and OCTNet in detecting GON, suggesting that multimodal machine learning models are valuable in detecting GON.

12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple risk variants for psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, how the risk variants confer risk of psychiatric disorders remains largely unknown. METHODS: We performed proteome-wide association studies to identify genes whose cis-regulated protein abundance change in the human brain were associated with psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: By integrating genome-wide associations of four common psychiatric disorders and two independent brain proteomes (n = 376 and n = 152, respectively) from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, we identified 61 genes (including 48 genes for schizophrenia, 12 genes for bipolar disorder, 5 genes for depression, and 2 genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) whose genetically regulated protein abundance levels were associated with risk of psychiatric disorders. Comparison with transcriptome-wide association studies identified 18 overlapping genes that showed significant associations with psychiatric disorders at both proteome-wide and transcriptome-wide levels, suggesting that genetic risk variants likely confer risk of psychiatric disorders by regulating messenger RNA expression and protein abundance of these genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study not only provides new insights into the genetic component of protein abundance in psychiatric disorders but also highlights several high-confidence risk proteins (including CNNM2 and CTNND1) for schizophrenia and depression. These high-confidence risk proteins represent promising therapeutic targets for future drug development.

14.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 177, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 200 schizophrenia risk loci have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, the majority of risk loci were identified in populations of European ancestry (EUR), potentially missing important biological insights. It is important to perform 5 GWASs in non-European populations. METHODS: To identify novel schizophrenia risk loci, we conducted a GWAS in Han Chinese population (3493 cases and 4709 controls). We then performed a large-scale meta-analysis (a total of 143,438 subjects) through combining our results with previous GWASs conducted in EAS and EUR. In addition, we also carried out comprehensive post-GWAS analysis, including heritability partitioning, enrichment of schizophrenia associations in tissues and cell types, trancscriptome-wide association study (TWAS), expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and differential expression analysis. RESULTS: We identified two new schizophrenia risk loci, including associations in SHISA9 (rs7192086, P = 4.92 × 10-08) and PES1 (rs57016637, P = 2.33 × 10-11) in Han Chinese population. A fixed-effect meta-analysis (a total of 143,438 subjects) with summary statistics from EAS and EUR identifies 15 novel genome-wide significant risk loci. Heritability partitioning with linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) reveals a significant enrichment of schizophrenia heritability in conserved genomic regions, promoters, and enhancers. Tissue and cell-type enrichment analyses show that schizophrenia associations are significantly enriched in human brain tissues and several types of neurons, including cerebellum neurons, telencephalon inhibitory, and excitatory neurons. Polygenic risk score profiling reveals that GWAS summary statistics from trans-ancestry meta-analysis (EAS + EUR) improves prediction performance in predicting the case/control status of our sample. Finally, transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) identifies risk genes whose cis-regulated expression change may have a role in schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies 17 novel schizophrenia risk loci and highlights the importance and necessity of conducting genetic study in different populations. These findings not only provide new insights into genetic etiology of schizophrenia, but also facilitate to delineate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and develop new therapeutic targets.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(31)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312235

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by aorta dilation due to wall degeneration, which mostly occurs in elderly males. Vascular aging is implicated in degenerative vascular pathologies, including AAA. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, by hydrolyzing cyclic nucleotides, play critical roles in regulating vascular structure remodeling and function. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C (PDE1C) expression is induced in dedifferentiated and aging vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), while little is known about the role of PDE1C in aneurysm. We observed that PDE1C was not expressed in normal aorta but highly induced in SMC-like cells in human and murine AAA. In mouse AAA models induced by Angiotensin II or periaortic elastase, PDE1C deficiency significantly decreased AAA incidence, aortic dilation, and elastin degradation, which supported a causative role of PDE1C in AAA development in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of PDE1C also significantly suppressed preestablished AAA. We showed that PDE1C depletion antagonized SMC senescence in vitro and/or in vivo, as assessed by multiple senescence biomarkers, including senescence-associated ß-galactosidase activity, γ-H2AX foci number, and p21 protein level. Interestingly, the role of PDE1C in SMC senescence in vitro and in vivo was dependent on Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Mechanistic studies further showed that cAMP derived from PDE1C inhibition stimulated SIRT1 activation, likely through a direct interaction between cAMP and SIRT1, which leads to subsequent up-regulation of SIRT1 expression. Our findings provide evidence that PDE1C elevation links SMC senescence to AAA development in both experimental animal models and human AAA, suggesting therapeutical significance of PDE1C as a potential target against aortic aneurysms.

16.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(13): 3026-3038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220331

RESUMO

Purpose: The study aimed to predict and explore the possible clinical value and mechanism of genetic markers in adrenal cortical carcinoma using a bioinformatics analysis method. Methods: The RNA-seqs and miRNAs data were downloaded from TCGA database to identify the differentially expressed genes and differentially expressed miRNAs. The hub-genes were screened by building protein-protein interaction sub-networks with 12 topological analysis methods. We conducted the receiver operating characteristic curve to elevate the diagnostic value of hub-genes in distinguishing the death and alive groups. The survival analysis of hub-genes and key miRNAs were conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves. Furthermore, most significant small molecules were identified as therapeutic candidates for adrenal cortical carcinoma by the CMap analysis. Results: Compared to survival group, we found 475 up-regulated genes and 354 genes and the key pathways leading to the death of different ACC individual patients. Then we used 12 topological analysis methods to found the most possible 22 hub-genes. Among these hub-genes, nine hub-genes (C3, CXCL5, CX3CR1, GRM8, HCAR2, HTR1B, SUCNR1, PTGER3 and SSTR1) could be used to distinguish the death and survival groups for patients. We also revealed that mRNA expressions of 12 genes (C3, CXCL8, CX3CR1, GNAT3, GNGT1, GRM8, HCAR2, HTR1B, HTR1D, PTGER3, SSTR1 and SUCNR1) and four key miRNAs (hsa-mir-330, hsa-mir-489, hsa-mir-508 and hsa-mir-513b) were related to survival. Three most small molecules were identified (H-9, AZ-628 and phensuximide) as potential therapeutic drugs for adrenal cortical carcinoma. Conclusion: The hub-genes expression was significant useful in adrenal cortical carcinoma, provide new diagnostic, prognosis and therapeutic approaches for adrenal cortical carcinoma. Furthermore, we also explore the possible miRNAs involved in regulation of hub-genes.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6679082, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195278

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of single-dose Ougan (Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima) juice application on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib in vivo. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the Ougan juice and control groups (n = 6 each). The rats were given a single dose of 1 mL/100 g Ougan juice or 1 mL/100 g normal saline (NS) by intragastric administration, followed by a single oral administration of 20 mg/kg erlotinib. The plasma concentration of erlotinib in rats was determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Erlotinib-d6 was used as the internal standard for chromatographic analysis on the UPLC BEH C18 analysis column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 µm). The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid eluting by gradient. Different pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of erlotinib were calculated. The Ougan juice promoted the absorption of erlotinib and reduced the clearance of the drug. The area under the curve of erlotinib in the single-dose Ougan juice pretreatment group was approximately 1.87 times higher, and the maximum blood concentration (Cmax) was approximately 1.34 times higher than that in the control group. The mean residence time of erlotinib in the Ougan juice group was larger, and the clearance rate was smaller than those in the control group; the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Ougan juice affected the PK spectrum of erlotinib in rats by improving the bioavailability of the drug and significantly increasing its plasma concentration.

18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(26): 4221-4235, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15) is an important member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family, the largest deubiquitinase subfamily, whose expression is dysregulated in many types of cancer. However, the biological function and the underlying mechanisms of USP15 in gastric cancer (GC) progression have not been elucidated. AIM: To explore the biological role and underlying mechanisms of USP15 in GC progression. METHODS: Bioinformatics databases and western blot analysis were utilized to determine the expression of USP15 in GC. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the correlation between USP15 expression and clinicopathological characteristics of patients with GC. A loss- and gain-of-function experiment was used to investigate the biological effects of USP15 on GC carcinogenesis. RNA sequencing, immunofluorescence, and western blotting were performed to explore the potential mechanism by which USP15 exerts its oncogenic functions. RESULTS: USP15 was up-regulated in GC tissue and cell lines. The expression level of USP15 was positively correlated with clinical characteristics (tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node involvement, tumor-node-metastasis stage, perineural invasion, and vascular invasion), and was related to poor prognosis. USP15 knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of GC in vitro, while overexpression of USP15 promoted these processes. Knockdown of USP15 inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, RNA sequencing analysis showed that USP15 regulated the Wnt signaling pathway in GC. Western blotting confirmed that USP15 silencing led to significant down-regulation of ß-catenin and Wnt/ß-catenin downstream genes (c-myc and cyclin D1), while overexpression of USP15 yielded an opposite result and USP15 mutation had no change. Immunofluorescence indicated that USP15 promoted nuclear translocation of ß-catenin, suggesting activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, which may be the critical mechanism promoting GC progression. Finally, rescue experiments showed that the effect of USP15 on gastric cancer progression was dependent on Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. CONCLUSION: USP15 promotes cell proliferation, invasion and EMT progression of GC via regulating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, which suggests that USP15 is a novel potential therapeutic target for GC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
19.
Autophagy ; : 1-19, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282994

RESUMO

MLKL (mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase) is a well-known core component of necrosome that executes necroptotic cell death upon phosphorylation by RIPK3 (receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3). Recent studies also implicate a role of MLKL in endosomal trafficking, which is not always dependent on RIPK3. Using mouse Neuro-2a and L929 as well as human HEK293 and HT29 cells, we show here that MLKL is phosphorylated in response to serum and amino acid deprivation from the culture medium, in a manner that depends on CAMK2/CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II) but not RIPK3. The starvation-induced increase in MLKL phosphorylation was accompanied by decreases in levels of lipidated MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; LC3-II) and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1), markers of autophagosomes. These changes were prevented by disrupting either MLKL or CAMK2 by pharmacology and genetic manipulations. Moreover, disrupting MLKL or CAMK2 also inhibited the incorporation of LC3-II into autolysosomes, demonstrating a role of the CAMK2-MLKL pathway in facilitating autophagic flux during short-term starvation, in contrast to necroptosis which suppressed autophagic flux. Furthermore, unlike the necroptotic pathway, the starvation-evoked CAMK2-mediated MLKL phosphorylation protected cells from starvation-induced death. We propose that upon nutrient deprivation, MLKL is activated by CAMK2, which in turn facilitates membrane scission needed for autophagosome maturation, allowing the proper fusion of the autophagosome with lysosome and the subsequent substance degradation. This novel function is independent of RIPK3 and is not involved in necroptosis, implicating new roles for this pseudokinase in cell survival, signaling and metabolism.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(38): 20786-20794, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159675

RESUMO

As a typical class of man-made nanoreactors, metal-loaded hollow carbon nanostructures (MHC nanoreactors) exhibit competitive potentials in the heterogeneous catalysis due to their tailorable microenvironment effects, in which the void-confinement effect is one of the most fundamental functions in boosting the catalytic performance. Herein this paper, Ru-loaded hollow carbon spheres are employed as nanoreactors with a crucial biomass hydrogenation process, levulinic acid (LA) hydrogenation into γ-valerolactone, as the probe reaction to further recognize the forming mechanism of this pivotal effect. We demonstrated that the void-confinement effect of the selected MHC nanoreactors is essentially driven by an integrating action of electronic metal-support interaction, reactant enrichment and diffusion, which are mainly ascribed to peculiar properties of hollow nanoreactors both in electronic and structural aspects, respectively. This work offers a distinct case for interpreting the catalytic behaviour of MHC nanoreactors, which could potentially promise broader insights into the microenvironment engineering strategies of hollow nanostructures.

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