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2.
ACS Nano ; 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588189

RESUMO

Magnetic van der Waals (vdW) materials possess versatile spin configurations stabilized in reduced dimensions. One magnetic order is the interlayer antiferromagnetism in A-type vdW antiferromagnet, which may be effectively modified by the magnetic field, stacking order, and thickness scaling. However, atomically revealing the interlayer spin orientation in the vdW antiferromagnet is highly challenging, because most of the material candidates exhibit an insulating ground state or instability in ambient conditions. Here, we report the layer-dependent interlayer antiferromagnetic spin reorientation in air-stable semiconductor CrSBr using magnetotransport characterization and first-principles calculations. We reveal an odd-even layer effect of interlayer spin reorientation, which originates from the competitions among interlayer exchange, magnetic anisotropy energy, and extra Zeeman energy of uncompensated magnetization. Furthermore, we quantitatively constructed the layer-dependent magnetic phase diagram with the help of a linear-chain model. Our work uncovers the layer-dependent interlayer antiferromagnetic spin reorientation engineered by magnetic field in the air-stable semiconductor.

3.
Chem Soc Rev ; 51(10): 4000-4022, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477783

RESUMO

Layered semiconductors, represented by transition metal dichalcogenides, have attached extensive attention due to their unique and tunable electrical and optical properties. In particular, lateral layered semiconductor multijunctions, including homojunctions, heterojunctions, hybrid junctions and superlattices, present a totally new degree of freedom in research on electronic devices beyond traditional materials and their structures, providing unique opportunities for the development of new structures and operation principle-based high performance devices. However, the advances in this field are limited by the precise synthesis of high-quality junctions and greatly hampered by ambiguous device performance limits. Herein, we review the recent key breakthroughs in the design, synthesis, electronic structure and property modulation of lateral semiconductor multijunctions and focus on their application-specific devices. Specifically, the synthesis methods based on different principles, such as chemical and external source-induced methods, are introduced stepwise for the controllable fabrication of semiconductor multijunctions as the basics of device application. Subsequently, their structure and property modulation are discussed, including control of their electronic structure, exciton dynamics and optical properties before the fabrication of lateral layered semiconductor multijunction devices. Precise property control will potentially result in outstanding device performances, including high-quality diodes and FETs, scalable logic and analog circuits, highly efficient optoelectronic devices, and unique electrochemical devices. Lastly, we focus on several of the most essential but unresolved debates in this field, such as the true advantages of few-layer vs. monolayer multijunctions, how sharp the interface should be for specific functional devices, and the superiority of lateral multijunctions over vertical multijunctions, highlighting the next-phase strategy to enhance the performance potential of lateral multijunction devices.

4.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 396-402, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288672

RESUMO

Parametric nonlinear optical processes are at the heart of nonlinear optics underpinning the central role in the generation of entangled photons as well as the realization of coherent optical sources. Exciton-polaritons are capable to sustain parametric scattering at extremely low threshold, offering a readily accessible platform to study bosonic fluids. Recently, two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted great attention in strong light-matter interactions due to robust excitonic transitions and unique spin-valley degrees of freedom. However, further progress is hindered by the lack of realizations of strong nonlinear effects in TMD polaritons. Here, we demonstrate a realization of nonlinear optical parametric polaritons in a WS2 monolayer microcavity pumped at the inflection point and triggered in the ground state. We observed the formation of a phase-matched idler state and nonlinear amplification that preserves the valley population and survives up to room temperature. Our results open a new door towards the realization of the future for all-optical valley polariton nonlinear devices.

5.
Adv Mater ; 34(7): e2107400, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713935

RESUMO

Solar evaporation, which enables water purification without consuming fossil fuels, has been considered the most promising strategy to address global scarcity of drinkable water. However, the suboptimal structure and composition designs still result in a trade-off between photothermal conversion, water transport, and tolerance to harsh environments. Here, an ultrastable amorphous Ta2 O5 /C nanocomposite is designed with a hollow multishelled structure (HoMS) for solar evaporation. This HoMS results in highly efficient photoabsorption and photothermal conversion, as well as a decrease of the actual water evaporation enthalpy. A superfast evaporation speed of 4.02 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved. More importantly, a World Health Organization standard drinkable water can be achieved from seawater, heavy-metal- and bacteria-containing water, and even from extremely acidic/alkaline or radioactive water sources. Notably, the concentration of pseudovirus SC2-P can be decreased by 6 orders of magnitude after evaporation.

6.
Mater Horiz ; 8(6): 1700-1710, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846500

RESUMO

Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a unique active plasmonic material due to its intrinsic metal-insulator transition, remaining less explored. Herein, we pioneer a method to tailor the VO2 surface plasmon by manipulating its atomic defects and establish a universal quantitative understanding based on seven representative defective VO2 systems. Record high tunability is achieved for the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) energy (0.66-1.16 eV) and transition temperature range (40-100 °C). The Drude model and density functional theory reveal that the charge of cations plays a dominant role in the numbers of valence electrons to determine the free electron concentration. We further demonstrate their superior performances in extensive unconventional plasmonic applications including energy-saving smart windows, wearable camouflage devices, and encryption inks.

7.
Sci Adv ; 7(46): eabj6627, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757800

RESUMO

Ultrafast all-optical switches and integrated circuits call for giant optical nonlinearity to minimize energy consumption and footprint. Exciton polaritons underpin intrinsic strong nonlinear interactions and high-speed propagation in solids, thus affording an intriguing platform for all-optical devices. However, semiconductors sustaining stable exciton polaritons at room temperature usually exhibit restricted nonlinearity and/or propagation properties. Delocalized and strongly interacting Wannier-Mott excitons in metal halide perovskites highlight their advantages in integrated nonlinear optical devices. Here, we report all-optical switching by using propagating and strongly interacting exciton-polariton fluids in self-assembled CsPbBr3 microwires. Strong polariton-polariton interactions and extended polariton fluids with a propagation length of around 25 µm have been reached. All-optical switching on/off of polariton propagation can be realized in picosecond time scale by locally blue-shifting the dispersion with interacting polaritons. The all-optical switching, together with the scalable self-assembly method, highlights promising applications of solution-processed perovskites toward integrated photonics operating in strong coupling regime.

8.
Sci Adv ; 7(45): eabj8905, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731010

RESUMO

Topology is central to understanding and engineering materials that display robust physical phenomena immune to imperfections. Different topological phases of matter are characterized by topological invariants. In energy-conserving (Hermitian) systems, these invariants are determined by the winding of eigenstates in momentum space. In non-Hermitian systems, a topological invariant is predicted to emerge from the winding of the complex eigenenergies. Here, we directly measure the non-Hermitian topological invariant arising from exceptional points in the momentum-resolved spectrum of exciton polaritons. These are hybrid light-matter quasiparticles formed by photons strongly coupled to electron-hole pairs (excitons) in a halide perovskite semiconductor at room temperature. We experimentally map out both the real (energy) and imaginary (linewidth) parts of the spectrum near the exceptional points and extract the novel topological invariant­fractional spectral winding. Our work represents an essential step toward realization of non-Hermitian topological phases in a condensed matter system.

10.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(12): 1349-1354, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675412

RESUMO

The engineering of the energy dispersion of polaritons in microcavities through nanofabrication or through the exploitation of intrinsic material and cavity anisotropies has demonstrated many intriguing effects related to topology and emergent gauge fields such as the anomalous quantum Hall and Rashba effects. Here we show how we can obtain different Berry curvature distributions of polariton bands in a strongly coupled organic-inorganic two-dimensional perovskite single-crystal microcavity. The spatial anisotropy of the perovskite crystal combined with photonic spin-orbit coupling produce two Hamilton diabolical points in the dispersion. An external magnetic field breaks time-reversal symmetry owing to the exciton Zeeman splitting and lifts the degeneracy of the diabolical points. As a result, the bands possess non-zero integral Berry curvatures, which we directly measure by state tomography. In addition to the determination of the different Berry curvatures of the multimode microcavity dispersions, we can also modify the Berry curvature distribution, the so-called band geometry, within each band by tuning external parameters, such as temperature, magnetic field and sample thickness.

11.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(12): 1337-1341, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697489

RESUMO

Magnon-mediated angular-momentum flow in antiferromagnets may become a design element for energy-efficient, low-dissipation and high-speed spintronic devices1,2. Owing to their low energy dissipation, antiferromagnetic magnons can propagate over micrometre distances3. However, direct observation of their high-speed propagation has been elusive due to the lack of sufficiently fast probes2. Here we measure the antiferromagnetic magnon propagation in the time domain at the nanoscale (≤50 nm) with optical-driven terahertz emission. In non-magnetic-Bi2Te3/antiferromagnetic-insulator-NiO/ferromagnetic-Co trilayers, we observe a magnon velocity of ~650 km s-1 in the NiO layer. This velocity far exceeds previous estimations of the maximum magnon group velocity of ~40 km s-1, which were based on the magnon dispersion measurements of NiO using inelastic neutron scattering4,5. Our theory suggests that for magnon propagation at the nanoscale, a finite damping makes the dispersion anomalous for small magnon wavenumbers and yields a superluminal-like magnon velocity. Given the generality of finite dissipation in materials, our results strengthen the prospects of ultrafast nanodevices using antiferromagnetic magnons.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(9): 097401, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506201

RESUMO

We report the direct observation of strong coupling between magnons and phonons in a two-dimensional antiferromagnetic semiconductor FePS_{3}, via magneto-Raman spectroscopy at magnetic fields up to 30 Tesla. A Raman-active magnon at 121 cm^{-1} is identified through Zeeman splitting in an applied magnetic field. At a field-driven resonance with a nearby phonon mode, a hybridized magnon-phonon quasiparticle is formed due to strong coupling between the two modes. We develop a microscopic model of the strong coupling in the two-dimensional magnetic lattice, which enables us to elucidate the nature of the emergent quasiparticle. Our polarized Raman results directly show that the magnons transfer their spin angular momentum to the phonons and generate phonon spin through the strong coupling.

13.
Nano Lett ; 21(16): 6773-6780, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382814

RESUMO

Polarity often refers to the charge carrier type of a semiconductor or the charging state of a functional group, generally dominating their functionality and performance. Herein we uncover a spontaneous and stochastic polarity-flipping phenomenon in monolayer WSe2, which randomly switches between the n-type and p-type states and is essentially triggered by fluctuating carrier flows from or to the adjacent WS2 monolayer. We have traced such fluctuating carrier flows by interfacial photocurrent measurements in a zero-bias two-terminal device. Such polarity flipping results in switching between the negative and positive correlations between the emission intensities of WS2 and WSe2 in the heterobilayer, which is further well-controlled by the electrostatic gate-tuning experiments in a capacitor-structure device. Our work not only demonstrates giant and intermittent carrier flows through long-range coupling in 2D heterostructures and a consequent spontaneous polarity flipping phenomenon but also provides a two-emitter system with a switchable correlation sign that could project future applications in optical logic devices.

14.
Nat Mater ; 20(10): 1315-1324, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211156

RESUMO

Lead-halide perovskites are generally excellent light emitters and can have larger exciton binding energies than thermal energy at room temperature, exhibiting great promise for room-temperature exciton-polaritonics. Rapid progress has been made recently, although challenges and mysteries remain in lead-halide perovskite semiconductors to push polaritons to room-temperature operation. In this Perspective, we discuss fundamental aspects of perovskite semiconductors for exciton-polaritons and review the recent rapid experimental advances using lead-halide perovskites for room-temperature polaritonics, including the experimental realization of strong light-matter interaction using various types of microcavities as well as reaching the polariton condensation regime in planar microcavities and lattices.

15.
Sci Adv ; 7(30)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301603

RESUMO

Photoluminescence (PL) from excitons serves as a powerful tool to characterize the optoelectronic property and band structure of semiconductors, especially for atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials. However, PL quenches quickly when the thickness of TMD materials increases from monolayer to a few layers, due to the change from direct to indirect band transition. Here, we show that PL can be recovered by engineering multilayer heterostructures, with the band transition reserved to be a direct type. We report emission from layer-engineered interlayer excitons from these multilayer heterostructures. Moreover, as desired for valleytronics devices, the lifetime, valley polarization, and valley lifetime of the generated interlayer excitons can all be substantially improved as compared with that in the monolayer-monolayer heterostructure. Our results pave the way for controlling the properties of interlayer excitons by layer engineering.

16.
Adv Mater ; 33(36): e2101618, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302389

RESUMO

Phonons with chirality determine the optical helicity of inelastic light scattering processes due to their nonzero angular momentum. Here it is shown that 2D magnetic CrBr3 hosts chiral phonons at the Brillouin-zone center. These chiral phonons are linear combinations of the doubly-degenerate Eg phonons, and the phonon eigenmodes exhibit clockwise and counterclockwise rotational vibrations corresponding to angular momenta of l = ± 1. Such Eg chiral phonons completely switch the polarization of incident circularly polarized light. On the other hand, the non-degenerate non-chiral Ag phonons display a giant magneto-optical effect under an external out-of-plane magnetic field, rotating the plane of polarization of the scattered linearly polarized light. The corresponding degree of polarization of the scattered light changes from 91% to -68% as the magnetic field strength increases from 0 to 5 T. In contrast, the chiral Eg modes display no field dependence. The results lay a foundation for the study of phonon chirality and magneto-optical phenomena in 2D magnetic materials, as well as their related applications, such as the phonon Hall effect, topological photonics, and Raman lasing.

17.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 74, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138284

RESUMO

Semiconducting piezoelectric α-In2Se3 and 3R MoS2 have attracted tremendous attention due to their unique electronic properties. Artificial van der Waals (vdWs) heterostructures constructed with α-In2Se3 and 3R MoS2 flakes have shown promising applications in optoelectronics and photocatalysis. Here, we present the first flexible α-In2Se3/3R MoS2 vdWs p-n heterojunction devices for photodetection from the visible to near infrared region. These heterojunction devices exhibit an ultrahigh photoresponsivity of 2.9 × 103 A W-1 and a substantial specific detectivity of 6.2 × 1010 Jones under a compressive strain of - 0.26%. The photocurrent can be increased by 64% under a tensile strain of + 0.35%, due to the heterojunction energy band modulation by piezoelectric polarization charges at the heterojunction interface. This work demonstrates a feasible approach to enhancement of α-In2Se3/3R MoS2 photoelectric response through an appropriate mechanical stimulus.

18.
Nano Lett ; 21(10): 4461-4468, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970625

RESUMO

Moiré superlattices of van der Waals structures offer a powerful platform for engineering band structure and quantum states. For instance, Moiré superlattices in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene, ABC trilayer graphene have been shown to harbor correlated insulating and superconducting states, while in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) twisted bilayers, Moiré excitons have been identified. Here we show that the effects of a Moiré superlattice on the band structure are general: In TMD twisted bilayers, excitons and exciton complexes can be trapped in the superlattice in a manner analogous to ultracold bosonic or Fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Using twisted MoSe2 homobilayers as a model system, we present evidence for Moiré trions. Our results thus open possibilities for designer van der Waals structures hosting arrays of Fermionic or bosonic quasiparticles, which can be used to realize tunable many-body states crucial for quantum simulation and quantum information processing.

19.
Sci Adv ; 7(21)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020955

RESUMO

Strong light-matter interaction enriches topological photonics by dressing light with matter, which provides the possibility to realize active nonlinear topological devices with immunity to defects. Topological exciton polaritons-half-light, half-matter quasiparticles with giant optical nonlinearity-represent a unique platform for active topological photonics. Previous demonstrations of exciton polariton topological insulators demand cryogenic temperatures, and their topological properties are usually fixed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a room temperature exciton polariton topological insulator in a perovskite zigzag lattice. Polarization serves as a degree of freedom to switch between distinct topological phases, and the topologically nontrivial polariton edge states persist in the presence of onsite energy perturbations, showing strong immunity to disorder. We further demonstrate exciton polariton condensation into the topological edge states under optical pumping. These results provide an ideal platform for realizing active topological polaritonic devices working at ambient conditions, which can find important applications in topological lasers, optical modulation, and switching.

20.
ACS Nano ; 15(5): 8397-8406, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881826

RESUMO

Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) alloys have emerged as a unique material system for promising applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and spintronics due to their tunable electronic structures, effective masses of carriers, and valley polarization with various alloy compositions. Although spin-orbit engineering has been extensively studied in monolayer TMD alloys, the valley Zeeman effect in these alloys still remains largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate the enhanced valley magnetic response in Mo0.5W0.5Se2 alloy monolayers and Mo0.5W0.5Se2/WS2 heterostructures probed by magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy. The large g factors of negatively charged excitons (trions) of Mo0.5W0.5Se2 have been extracted for both pure Mo0.5W0.5Se2 monolayers and Mo0.5W0.5Se2/WS2 heterostructures, which are attributed to the significant impact of doping-induced strong many-body Coulomb interactions on trion emissions under an out-of-plane magnetic field. Moreover, compared with the monolayer Mo0.5W0.5Se2, the slightly reduced valley Zeeman splitting in Mo0.5W0.5Se2/WS2 is a consequence of the weakened exchange interaction arising from p-doping in Mo0.5W0.5Se2 via interlayer charge transfer between Mo0.5W0.5Se2 and WS2. Such interlayer charge transfer further evidences the formation of type-II band alignment, in agreement with the density functional theory calculations. Our findings give insights into the spin-valley and interlayer coupling effects in monolayer TMD alloys and their heterostructures, which are essential to develop valleytronic applications based on the emerging family of TMD alloys.

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