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1.
Can J Cardiol ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Z scores are the method of choice to report dimensions in pediatric echocardiography. Z scores based on body surface area (BSA) have been shown to cause systematic biases in overweight and obese children. Using aortic valve (AoV) diameters as a paradigm, the aims of this study were to assess the magnitude of Z score underestimation in children with increased body mass index Z score (BMI-Z) and to determine if a predicting model with height and weight as independent predictors would minimize this bias. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study, 15,006 normal echocardiograms in healthy children 1-18 years old were analyzed. Residual associations with body size were assessed for previously published Z score. BSA-based and alternative prediction models based on height and weight were developed and validated in separate training and validation samples. RESULTS: Existing BSA-based Z scores incompletely adjusted for weight, BSA and BMI-Z and led to an underestimation of >0.8 Z score units in subjects with higher BMI-Z, compared to lean subjects. BSA-based models led to overestimation of predicted AoV diameters with increasing weight or BMI-Z. Models using height and weight as independent predictors improved adjustment with body size, including in children with higher BMI-Z. CONCLUSIONS: BSA-based models result in underestimation of Z scores in patients with high BMI-Z. Prediction models using height and weight as independent predictors minimize residual associations with body size and generate well-fitted predicted values that could apply to all children, including those with low or high BMI-Z.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 714340, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34305953

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of complex metabolic disorders syndrome, which refers to the pathological state of metabolism disorder of protein, fat, carbohydrate and other substances in human body. The kidney is an important organ of metabolism, and various metabolic disorders can lead to the abnormalities in the structure and function of the kidney. The recognition of pathogenesis and treatment measures of renal damage in MS is a very important part for the renal function preserve. Inflammatory response caused by various metabolic factors is a protective mechanism of the body, but persistent inflammation will become a harmful factor and aggravate kidney damage. Inflammasomes are sensors of the innate immune system that play crucial roles in initiating inflammation in response to acute infections and chronic diseases. They are multiprotein complex composed of cytoplasmic sensors (mainly NLR family members), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC or PYCARD) and pro-caspase-1. After receiving exogenous and endogenous stimuli, the sensors begin to assemble inflammasome and then promote the release of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-18, resulting in a special way of cell death named pyroptosis. In the kidney, NLRP3 inflammasome can be activated by a variety of pathways, which eventually leads to inflammatory infiltration, renal intrinsic cell damage and renal function decline. This paper reviews the function and specific regulatory mechanism of inflammasome in kidney damage caused by various metabolic disorders, which will provide a new therapeutic perspective and targets for kidney diseases.

3.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312955

RESUMO

AIMS: Alternaria longipes is a causal agent of brown spot of tobacco, which remains a serious threat to tobacco production. Herein, we established a detection method for A. longipes in tobacco samples based on the principle of time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, in order to fulfil the requirement of rapid, sensitive and accurate detection in situ. METHODS AND RESULTS: Monoclonal antibody against A. longipes was generated, and its purity and titration were assessed using western blot and ELISA. The size of europium (III) nanospheres was measured to confirm successful antibody conjugation. The method described here can detect A. longipes protein lysates as low as 0.78 ng ml-1 , with recovery rates ranging from 85.96% to 99.67% in spiked tobacco. The specificity was also confirmed using a panel of microorganisms. CONCLUSIONS: The fluorescent strips allow rapid and sensitive onsite detection of A. longipes in tobacco samples, with high accuracy, specificity, and repeatability. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This novel detection method provides convenience of using crude samples without complex procedures, and therefore allows rapid onsite detection by end users and quick responses towards A. longipes, which is critical for disease control and elimination of phytopathogens.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(28)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244441

RESUMO

Ultrasonic hearing and vocalization are the physiological mechanisms controlling echolocation used in hunting and navigation by microbats and bottleneck dolphins and for social communication by mice and rats. The molecular and cellular basis for ultrasonic hearing is as yet unknown. Here, we show that knockout of the mechanosensitive ion channel PIEZO2 in cochlea disrupts ultrasonic- but not low-frequency hearing in mice, as shown by audiometry and acoustically associative freezing behavior. Deletion of Piezo2 in outer hair cells (OHCs) specifically abolishes associative learning in mice during hearing exposure at ultrasonic frequencies. Ex vivo cochlear Ca2+ imaging has revealed that ultrasonic transduction requires both PIEZO2 and the hair-cell mechanotransduction channel. The present study demonstrates that OHCs serve as effector cells, combining with PIEZO2 as an essential molecule for ultrasonic hearing in mice.

6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0088121, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288705

RESUMO

The ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) enzyme found in plants, algae, and an array of autotrophic bacteria is also encoded by a subset of methanotrophs, but its role in these microbes has largely remained elusive. In this study, we identified that CO2 was requisite for RubisCO-encoding Methylococcus capsulatus Bath growth in a bioreactor with continuous influent and effluent gas flow. RNA sequencing identified active transcription of several carboxylating enzymes, including key enzymes of the Calvin and serine cycles, that could mediate CO2 assimilation during cultivation with both CH4 and CO2 as carbon sources. Marker-exchange mutagenesis of M. capsulatus Bath genes encoding key enzymes of potential CO2-assimilating metabolic pathways indicated that a complete serine cycle is not required while RubisCO is essential for growth of this bacterium. 13CO2 tracer analysis showed that CH4 and CO2 enter overlapping anaplerotic pathways and implicated RubisCO as the primary enzyme mediating CO2 assimilation in M. capsulatus Bath. Notably, we quantified the relative abundance of 3-phosphoglycerate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate 13C isotopes, which supported that RubisCO-produced 3-phosphoglycerate is primarily converted to ribulose-1-5-bisphosphate via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in M. capsulatus Bath. Collectively, our data establish that RubisCO and CO2 play essential roles in M. capsulatus Bath metabolism. This study expands the known capacity of methanotrophs to fix CO2 via RubisCO, which may play a more pivotal role in the Earth's biogeochemical carbon cycling and greenhouse gas regulation than previously recognized. Further, M. capsulatus Bath and other CO2-assimilating methanotrophs represent excellent candidates for use in the bioconversion of biogas waste streams that consist of both CH4 and CO2. Importance The importance of RubisCO and CO2 in M. capsulatus Bath metabolism is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that both CO2 and RubisCO are essential for M. capsulatus Bath growth. 13CO2 tracing experiments supported that RubisCO mediates CO2 fixation and a non-canonical Calvin cycle is active in this organism. Our study provides insights into the expanding knowledge of methanotroph metabolism and implicates dual CH4/CO2-utilizing bacteria as more important players in the biogeochemical carbon cycle than previously appreciated. In addition, M. capsulatusand other methanotrophs with CO2 assimilation capacity represent candidate organisms for the development of biotechnologies to mitigate the two most abundant greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2.

7.
Shock ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mechanical stretch induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis participates in the onset of ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). In this study, we explored whether death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) mediated cyclic stretch (CS) induced AEC apoptosis and VILI though P53 pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AEC apoptosis was induced by CS using the FX-5000T Flexercell Tension Plus system. C57BL/6 mouse received high tidal volume ventilation to build VILI model. DAPK1 inhibitor, P53 inhibitor or DAPK1 plasmid was used to regulate the expression of DAPK1 and P53, respectively. Flow cytometery was performed to assay cell apoptosis and the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP); Immunoblotting was adopted to analyse related protein expression; The binding of related proteins was detected by coimmunoprecipitation; AEC apoptosis in vivo was determined by immunohistochemistry assay. RESULTS: CS promoted AEC apoptosis, increased DAPK1 and P53 expression and induced the binding of DAPK1 and P53; inhibition of DAPK1 or P53 reduced CS induced AEC apoptosis, suppressed the expression of Bax, increased Bcl-2 level and stabilized MMP; AEC apoptosis and the level of P53 were both increased after overexpressing of DAPK1. Moreover, DAPK1 plasmid transfection also promoted the expression of Bax and the change of MMP, but decreased the level of Bcl-2. Inhibition of DAPK1 or P53 in vivo alleviated high tidal volume ventilation induced AEC apoptosis and lung injury. CONCLUSIONS: DAPK1 contributes to AEC apoptosis and the onset of VILI though P53 and its intrinsic pro-apoptotic pathway. Inhibition of DAPK1 or P53 alleviates high tidal volume ventilation induced lung injury and AEC apoptosis.

8.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 912-921, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236293

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Valeriana jatamansi Jones [syn. V. wallichii DC, (Valerianaceae)] (VJJ) is used to treat depression. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of total iridoids of VJJ extract (TIV) on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VJJ roots and rhizomes were extracted with 70% ethanol. CUMS rats were treated daily with fluoxetine (2.6 mg/kg, i.g.) or TIV (5.7, 11.4, and 22.8 mg/kg, i.g.) for 14 days. Male Kun Ming mice on normal chow and 0.5% CMC-Na solution were used as a control. Behavioural tests included the tail suspension (TST) and sucrose preference tests (SPT). Evans blue staining was used to evaluate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Western blotting was used to measure zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin expression. 16S rRNA sequencing was used to analyse intestinal flora abundance. Tax4Fun was used to predict KEGG metabolic pathways. RESULTS: TIV treatment reduced TST time (117.35 ± 8.23 or 108.95 ± 6.76 vs. 144.45 ± 10.30 s), increased SPT (55.83 ± 7.24 or 53.12 ± 13.85 vs. 38.98 ± 5.43%), increased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes (86.99 ± 0.03 vs. 60.88 ± 0.19%) and genus Lactobacillus (75.20 ± 0.19 vs. 62.10 ± 0.13%), reduced the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes (6.69 ± 0.06 or 11.50 ± 0.09 vs. 25.07 ± 0.20%). TIV increased carbohydrate metabolism (14.50 ± 3.00 × 10-3 or 14.60 ± 2.00 × 10-3 or 14.90 ± 2.00 × 10-3 vs.13.80 ± 4.00 × 10-3%), replication and repair functions (5.60 ± 1.00 × 10-3 or 5.60 ± 1.00 × 10-3 vs. 5.10 ± 4.00 × 10-3%), reduced the frequency of infectious disease (1.60 ± 2.00 × 10-4 or 1.90 ± 5.00 × 10-4 or 1.80 ± 3.00 × 10-4 vs. 2.20 ± 7.00 × 10-3%), BBB permeability (0.77 ± 0.30 vs. 1.81 ± 0.33 µg/g), and up-regulated the expression of ZO-1 (1.42-fold, 1.60-fold, 1.71-fold) and occludin (1.79-fold, 2.20-fold). CONCLUSIONS: TIV may modulate the intestinal flora, thereby inducing the expression of ZO-1 and occludin, protecting the BBB and exerting an antidepressant effect.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2100881, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319001

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant tumor of the kidneys. Approximately 70% of RCC cases are clear cell renal cell carcinoma with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutation and activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting VEGF have emerged as promising agents for RCC treatment. Apart from primary resistance, acquired resistance to TKIs after initial tumor regression is common in RCC. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibition, including PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, alone or in combination with TKIs has improved the overall survival of patients with RCC. Ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2) has been reported in many types of cancer and has been implicated in tumor progression. However, the role of RRM2 in TKIs resistance in RCC remains unclear. In this study, the authors have demonstrated that RRM2 is upregulated in sunitinib-resistant RCC cells and patient tissues. They also find that RRM2 stabilizes ANXA1 and activates the AKT pathway independent of its ribonucleotide reductase activity, promoting sunitinib resistance in RCC. Moreover, RRM2 regulated antitumor immune responses, and knockdown of RRM2 enhance the anti-tumor efficiency of PD-1 blockade in renal cancer. Collectively, these results suggest that aberrantly expressed RRM2 may be a promising therapeutic target for RCC.

10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111853, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237593

RESUMO

The degranulation of cardiac mast cells is associated with occurrence and development of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Dexmedetomidine has a cardioprotective effect from I/R injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine preconditioning induced cardioprotection is related to suppression of degranulation of cardiac mast cell. Both in vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed that hemodynamic disorder, arrhythmia, infarct size, histopathological score, and mast cell degranulation were dramatically increased in I/R injury groups compared with non-I/R groups, and mastocyte secretagogue compound 48/80 aggravated these damages, but it can be improved by dexmedetomidine preconditioning. Similarly, compound 48/80 increased levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and tryptase, cardiomyocytes apoptosis, and expression of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) in cardiac tissues induced by I/R injury, but it can be partially decreased by dexmedetomidine pretreatment. Compound 48/80 inhibited proliferation of H9C2(2-1) and RBL-2H3, exacerbated apoptosis of H9C2(2-1), and elevated levels of cTnI and tryptase, while both of which were abolished by dexmedetomidine pretreatment. Our data suggest that dexmedetomidine preconditioning alleviates the degranulation of mast cells and the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes caused by I/R injury, and inhibits the activation of inflammatory related factors HMGB1, TLR4, and NF-κB p65.

11.
J BUON ; 26(3): 802-811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268939

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To search the AKR1C3 and ß-catenin expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to explore the correlation between AKR1C3 and ß-catenin and radiation resistance. METHODS: Paraffin specimens from 61 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. These patients could not receive operation but received radical radiotherapy. The patients were divided into effective group and ineffective group with reference to RECIST evaluation criteria. The sites and intensity of AKR1C3 and ß-catenin protein expression were detected by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between AKR1C3 and ß-catenin and radiation resistance was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. The correlation between AKR1C3 and ß-catenin was analyzed by Spearman's correlation test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the AKR1C3 overall expression in the effective group and the ineffective group after radiotherapy. RESULTS: The nuclear expression in the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.033). The ß-catenin protein was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of tissues with NSCLC. The ß-catenin nuclear expression was different between the two groups, with statistical significance (p=0.008). AKR1C3 nuclear expression was positively correlated with ß-catenin nuclear expression (rs=0.382, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: High AKR1C3 nuclear expression in NSCLC is related to radiation resistance. The higher the AKR1C3 nucleus expression, the worse short-term curative effects after radiotherapy. High ß-catenin nuclear expression is related to radiation resistance, and the higher the ß-catenin nuclear expression, the worse the short-term curative effects after radiotherapy. The nuclear aggregation of AKR1C3 during radiation resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may have some synergistic relationship with nuclear aggregation of ß-catenin.

12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(13): 1535-1545, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250959

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by persistent and not fully reversible airflow restrictions, is currently one of the most widespread chronic lung diseases in the world. The most common symptoms of COPD are cough, expectoration, and exertional dyspnea. Although various strategies have been developed during the last few decades, current medical treatment for COPD only focuses on the relief of symptoms, and the reversal of lung function deterioration and improvement in patient's quality of life are very limited. Consequently, development of novel effective therapeutic strategies for COPD is urgently needed. Stem cells were known to differentiate into a variety of cell types and used to regenerate lung parenchyma and airway structures. Stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy that has the potential to restore the lung function and improve the quality of life in patients with COPD. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the clinical research on the treatment of COPD with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and aims to update the understanding of the role of MSCs in COPD treatment, which may be helpful for developing effective therapeutic strategies in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Transplante de Células-Tronco
13.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259305

RESUMO

Microneedles with insulin-loaded glucose-responsive particles are promising to control the blood glucose levels of diabetic patients. In particular, the long-term usage of these microneedles calls for biodegradable and cost-effective particles, which are still large challenges. In this paper, glucose-responsive 4-carboxy-3-fluorophenylboronic acid-grafted ε-polylysine (CFPBA-g-PL) was synthesized to meet these requirements. CFPBA-g-PL had low cytotoxicity, good hemocompatibility and no tissue reaction. The pharmacokinetics of CFPBA-g-PL were also studied. The self-assembled particles of CFPBA-g-PL were prepared via simple ultrasonic treatment. The insulin-loaded particles of CFPBA-g-PL (named INS/GRP-12.8) presented a glucose-responsive insulin delivery performance based on the disassembly-related mechanism in vitro. The INS/GRP-12.8-encapsulated microneedle patch with a uniform morphology and moderate skin penetration performance was prepared via a molding strategy. INS/GRP-12.8 lasted for more than 8 hours of normoglycemia on STZ-induced diabetic SD rats via subcutaneous injection and the INS/GRP-12.8-encapsulated microneedle patch also showed a blood-glucose-level-lowering performance in vivo via transdermal administration.

14.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113302, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293671

RESUMO

High salt seriously destroys the stable interactions among key functional species of activated sludge, which in turn limits the performance of high-salinity wastewater biological treatment. In this study, pelletized Aspergillus tubingensis (AT) was used as a protective backbone structure for activated sludge under high-salinity stress, and a superior salt-tolerant AT-based aerobic granular sludge (AT-AGS) was developed. Results showed that the COD and NH4+-N removal efficiencies of salt-domesticated AT-AGS were 11.83% and 7.18% higher than those of salt-domesticated flocculent activated sludge (FAS) at 50 gNaCl/L salinity. Compared to the salt-domesticated FAS, salt-domesticated AT-AGS showed stronger biomass retention capacity (with a MLVSS concentration of 7.92 g/L) and higher metabolic activity (with a dehydrogenase activity of 48.06 mgTF/gVSS·h). AT modified the extracellular polymeric substances pattern of microbes, and the total extracellular polysaccharide content of AT-AGS (80.7 mg/gVSS) was nearly twice than that of FAS (46.3 mg/gVSS) after salt-domestication, which demonstrated that extracellular polysaccharide played a key role in keeping the system stable. The high-throughput sequencing analysis illustrated that AT contributed to maintain the microbial richness and diversity of AT-AGS in high-salt environment, and Marinobacterium (with a relative abundance of 32.04%) became the most predominant genus in salt-tolerant AT-AGS. This study provided a novel insight into enhancing the robustness of activated sludge under high-salinity stress.

15.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 197, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217311

RESUMO

Intra-articular (IA) injection is an efficient treatment for osteoarthritis, which will minimize systemic side effects. However, the joint experiences rapid clearance of therapeutics after intra-articular injection. Delivering system modified through active targeting strategies to facilitate localization within specific joint tissues such as cartilage is hopeful to increase the therapeutic effects. In this study, we designed a nanoscaled amphiphilic and cartilage-targeting polymer-drug delivery system by using formononetin (FMN)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (denoted as PCFMN), which was prepared by PEGylation of FMN followed by coupling with cartilage-targeting peptide (CollBP). Our results showed that PCFMN was approximately regular spherical with an average diameter about 218 nm. The in vitro test using IL-1ß stimulated chondrocytes indicated that PCFMN was biocompatible and upregulated anabolic genes while simultaneously downregulated catabolic genes of the articular cartilage. The therapeutic effects in vivo indicated that PCFMN could effectively attenuate the progression of OA as evidenced by immunohistochemical staining and histological analysis. In addition, PCFMN showed higher intention time in joints and better anti-inflammatory effects than FMN, indicating the efficacy of cartilage targeting nanodrug on OA. This study may provide a reference for clinical OA therapy.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e25473, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myofascitis is a common disease in clinic. The main cause of the disease is aseptic inflammation of local muscles and connective tissues such as myofascial, which can be manifested as paralysis, distension, and other discomfort, local muscle stiffness, spasm or palpable strain-like nodules. Chinese medicine ascribes it to "bi disease" and "Arthralgia disease," while Western medicine believes that the disease is mainly due to local muscle and fascia edema and exudation caused by trauma or long-term strain, forcing nerves to jam and producing pain and other abnormal feelings. Although the disease is not life-threatening, the pain and distension caused by local inflammatory stimuli can affect the patient's daily life and sleep quality. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of fire needle vs routine acupuncture in the treatment of myofascitis. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTS) of fire needle vs routine acupuncture for myofascial inflammation will be comprehensively searched from inception to September 2020 on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China Biomedical Literature (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP (CQVIP), and Wanfang. Additionally, RCT registered sites, including http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov and http://www.chictr.org.cn, also will be the search. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to score the pain before and after treatment. The primary outcome will be to compare the difference in pain scores between the 2 interventions. Two independent authors filtered the literature in the above database, extracted the data, and cross-checked it. RESULTS: This study will offer a reasonable comprehensive evidence for the treatment of myofascitis with fire needle. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of this study will provide evidence to judge the effectiveness of fire needle on myofascitis. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202080034.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Moxibustão/métodos , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial/terapia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Pontos-Gatilho
17.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(12): e2004229, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165901

RESUMO

Powder to bulk processes, such as additive manufacturing and metal injection molding (MIM), have enabled great potential for complex metal designing and manufacturing. However, additive manufacturing process normally introduces a high residue stress and textures due to the locally intense temperature. MIM is an excellent batch manufacturing process; nevertheless, it is not suitable for rapid screening and development of new metal compositions and structures due to the slow sintering process. Herein, an ultrafast high-temperature sintering (UHS) process is reported that enables the rapid synthesis and sintering of bulk metals/alloys and intermetallic compounds. In this process, elemental powders are mixed and pressed into pellets, followed by UHS sintering in just seconds at a temperature between 1000 and 3000 °C. Three representative compositions, including pure metals, intermetallics, and multielement alloys, are demonstrated with a broad range of melting points. The UHS process for metal sintering is nonmaterials specific, in addition to being extremely rapid, which make it suitable for materials discovery. Furthermore, the sintering method does not apply pressure to the samples, making it compatible with 3D printing and other additive manufacturing processes of complex structures. This rapid sintering technique will greatly facilitate the development and manufacturing of metals and alloys.

18.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191589

RESUMO

Gossypol has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects against several human cancers. However, the anticancer effects of gossypol on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have not been investigated. Against this backdrop, the present study was designed to evaluate the anticancer effects of gossypol against NPC cells and to identify the signaling pathways involved through bioinformatic analysis. Gossypol-inhibited death of NPC cells is concentration-dependent. To explore the underlying mechanism for gossypol's antitumor effect, microarray of gossypol-treated and -untreated NPC cells was performed. A total of 836 differentially expressing genes (DEGs) were identified in gossypol-treated NPC cells, of which 461 genes were upregulated and 375 genes were downregulated. The cellular components, molecular functions, biological processes, and signal pathways, in which the DEGs were involved, were identified by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) predicted upstream transcription factors (TF) ETS2 and E2F1 that regulate DEGs. Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify a class of modules and genes related to DNA repair and cell cycle. TNFRSF10B, a receptor for death in NPC cells, was knocked down. The results suggested that the ability of NPC cells to resist gossypol killing was enhanced. In addition, to further investigate the possible molecular mechanisms, we constructed a transcriptional regulatory network of TNFRSF10B containing 109 miRNAs and 47 TFs. Taken together, our results demonstrated that gossypol triggered antitumor effects against NPC cells, indicating its applicability for the management of NPC.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3541, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112790

RESUMO

Technical advancements significantly improve earlier diagnosis of cervical cancer, but accurate diagnosis is still difficult due to various factors. We develop an artificial intelligence assistive diagnostic solution, AIATBS, to improve cervical liquid-based thin-layer cell smear diagnosis according to clinical TBS criteria. We train AIATBS with >81,000 retrospective samples. It integrates YOLOv3 for target detection, Xception and Patch-based models to boost target classification, and U-net for nucleus segmentation. We integrate XGBoost and a logical decision tree with these models to optimize the parameters given by the learning process, and we develop a complete cervical liquid-based cytology smear TBS diagnostic system which also includes a quality control solution. We validate the optimized system with >34,000 multicenter prospective samples and achieve better sensitivity compared to senior cytologists, yet retain high specificity while achieving a speed of <180s/slide. Our system is adaptive to sample preparation using different standards, staining protocols and scanners.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Aprendizado Profundo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/fisiopatologia
20.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 159: 80-90, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097926

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are essential regulators associated with many cardiac conditions, including myocardial infarction (MI). This study aimed to explore circRNA expression during MI development in an animal model and in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-treated cardiomyocytes. Microarray and real-time quantitative PCR showed that the circRNA PVT1 (circPVT1) was expressed at high levels in MI tissues and H/R-triggered cardiomyocytes. Loss-of-function assays were utilized for examining the influence of circPVT1 on cardiac function and cardiomyocyte properties. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography at 7 d after MI. Reduced circPVT1 expression significantly decreased MI-triggered myocardial infarct size by 60% and prevented MI-triggered reductions in fractional shortening (%FS) and ejection fraction (EF%). Results of LDH, CCK-8, EdU staining, colony formation assays, and flow cytometry showed that circPVT1 silencing restored cell viability and proliferation while decreased apoptosis. Mechanistic experiments indicated that microRNAs (miR)-125b and miR-200a associated with circPVT1. We demonstrated that circPVT1 functioned as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to sponge both miR-125b and miR-200a. Gain-of-function assays showed that miR-125b and miR-200a upregulation partially eliminated the effects of circPVT1 on cardiomyocyte properties. In addition, we found that the previously reported p53/TRAF6, SIRT7, Keap1/Nrf2, and PDCD4 pathways were regulated by the circPVT1/miR-125b/miR-200a axis. In conclusion, our study suggests that circPVT1 protects the myocardium from MI and H/R injury by preventing miR-125b- and miR-200a-mediated apoptotic signaling.

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