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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 463, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plants, each ribosomal protein (RP) is encoded by a small gene family but it is largely unknown whether the family members are functionally diversified. There are two RPL23a paralogous genes (RPL23aA and RPL23aB) encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Knock-down of RPL23aA using RNAi impeded growth and led to morphological abnormalities, whereas knock-out of RPL23aB had no observable phenotype, thus these two RPL23a paralogous proteins have been used as examples of ribosomal protein paralogues with functional divergence in many published papers. RESULTS: In this study, we characterized T-DNA insertion mutants of RPL23aA and RPL23aB. A rare non-allelic non-complementation phenomenon was found in the F1 progeny of the rpl23aa X rpl23ab cross, which revealed a dosage effect of these two genes. Both RPL23aA and RPL23aB were found to be expressed almost in all examined tissues as revealed by GUS reporter analysis. Expression of RPL23aB driven by the RPL23aA promoter can rescue the phenotype of rpl23aa, indicating these two proteins are actually equivalent in function. Interestingly, based on the publicly available RNA-seq data, we found that these two RPL23a paralogues were expressed in a concerted manner and the expression level of RPL23aA was much higher than that of RPL23aB at different developmental stages and in different tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the two RPL23a paralogous proteins are functionally equivalent but the two genes are not. RPL23aA plays a predominant role due to its higher expression levels. RPL23aB plays a lesser role due to its lower expression. The presence of paralogous genes for the RPL23a protein in plants might be necessary to maintain its adequate dosage.

3.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 227, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of 68Gallium-PSMA positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (68Ga-PSMA PET/CT) for lymph node (LN) staging in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) by a meta-analysis of diagnostic tests. METHODS: We systematically retrieved articles from Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, PubMed. The time limit is from the creation of the database until June 2019, and Stata 15 was used for calculation and statistical analyses. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR, NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) be used to evaluate the diagnostic value. A total of 10 studies were included in our meta-analysis, which included 701 individuals. The results of each consolidated summary are as follows: sensitivity of 0.84 (95% CI 0.55-0.95), specificity of 0.95 (95% CI 0.87-0.98), PLR and NLR was 17.19 (95% CI 6.27, 47.17) and 0.17 (95% CI 0.05-0.56), respectively. DOR of 100 (95% CI 18-545), AUC of 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT has a high overall diagnostic value for LN staging in patients with moderate and high-risk PCa. But our conclusions still require a larger sample size, multi-center prospective randomized controlled trial to verify.

4.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 198: 106181, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The loss of dopaminergic cells and excessive iron deposition in some deep brain nuclei are associated with the pathophysiology of PD, and different clinical subtypes may indicate different pathological processes. This study was designed to investigate the relationships between regional iron in the cardinal subcortical nuclei and different clinical subtypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine Arkinetic/Rigid-dominant Parkinson's disease (PDAR) patients, eight Tremor-dominant (PDTD)patients and 10 matched healthy controls were recruited for this study. The iron content in 8 cardinal subcortical nuclei was measured through SWI sequence scanning (3.0 T), and different patterns of iron deposition were analyzed not only between the PD patients and HC groups but also between the different clinical subtypes. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, the iron content in the substantia nigra pars compacta(SNc), substantia nigra pars reticulata(SNr) from both the severe and milder side in PD groups were significantly increased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.02 for SNc; both P < 0.01 for SNr), and the iron content in the GP of both the severe and milder side of the PDAR patients was significantly increased compared with the PDTD patients (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively) CONCLUSION: SWI is a very good technique for the in vivo assessment of subcortical nucleus iron content, and abnormal deposition of iron in the SNc and SNr is an obvious characteristic in PD patients. Furthermore, our data indicates that PDAR patients have higher iron content in the GP than PDTD patients and HCs, indicating that abnormal iron deposition in GP is related to the phenotype of Akinetic/Rigid in PD patients.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23385-23392, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907936

RESUMO

Understanding hydrogen-bond interactions in self-assembled lattice materials is crucial for preparing such materials, but the role of hydrogen bonds (H bonds) remains unclear. To gain insight into H-bond interactions at the materials' intrinsic spatial scale, we investigated ultrafast H-bond dynamics between water and biomimetic self-assembled lattice materials (composed of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ß-cyclodextrin) in a spatially resolved manner. To accomplish this, we developed an infrared pump, vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) probe hyperspectral microscope. With this hyperspectral imaging method, we were able to observe that the primary and secondary OH groups of ß-cyclodextrin exhibit markedly different dynamics, suggesting distinct H-bond environments, despite being separated by only a few angstroms. We also observed another ultrafast dynamic reflecting a weakening and restoring of H bonds between bound water and the secondary OH of ß-cyclodextrin, which exhibited spatial uniformity within self-assembled domains, but heterogeneity between domains. The restoration dynamics further suggest heterogeneous hydration among the self-assembly domains. The ultrafast nature and meso- and microscopic ordering of H-bond dynamics could contribute to the flexibility and crystallinity of the material--two critically important factors for crystalline lattice self-assemblies--shedding light on engineering intermolecular interactions for self-assembled lattice materials.

6.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 204, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993787

RESUMO

Tumor angiogenesis is necessary for the continued survival and development of tumor cells, and plays an important role in their growth, invasion, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment-composed of tumor cells, surrounding cells, and secreted cytokines-provides a conducive environment for the growth and survival of tumors. Different components of the tumor microenvironment can regulate tumor development. In this review, we have discussed the regulatory role of the microenvironment in tumor angiogenesis. High expression of angiogenic factors and inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment, as well as hypoxia, are presumed to be the reasons for poor therapeutic efficacy of current anti-angiogenic drugs. A combination of anti-angiogenic drugs and antitumor inflammatory drugs or hypoxia inhibitors might improve the therapeutic outcome.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 917, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancer is necessary for improving precision medicine. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important regulatory role in tumor initiation and progression. The lncRNA LOC284454 is distinctly expressed in various head and neck cancers (HNCs), as demonstrated by our previous bioinformatics analysis. However, the expression levels and functions of LOC284454 in cancer are still unclear. METHODS: We investigated the dysregulation of lncRNAs in HNCs using the GEO database and found that LOC284454 was highly expressed in HNCs. Serum samples from 212 patients with HNCs and 121 normal controls were included in this biomarker study. We measured the expression of LOC284454 in the sera of HNC patients and normal controls using RT-qPCR. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis is an important statistical method that is widely used in clinical diagnosis and disease screening. ROC was used to analyze the clinical value of LOC284454 in the early diagnosis of HNCs. RESULTS: LOC284454 was significantly upregulated in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, oral cancer, and thyroid cancer. LOC284454 upregulation had good clinical diagnostic value in these cancers, as evaluated by area under the ROC curve values of 0.931, 0.698, and 0.834, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LOC284454 may be a valuable serum biomarker for HNCs facilitating the early diagnosis of malignant cancers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the involvement of LOC284454 in HNCs. This study provides the first evidence that LOC284454 may be a serum biomarker for HNCs.

8.
Chem ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984643

RESUMO

Chemical reactions on indoor surfaces play an important role in air quality in indoor environments, where humans spend 90% of their time. We focus on the challenges of understanding the complex chemistry that takes place on indoor surfaces and identify crucial steps necessary to gain a molecular-level understanding of environmental indoor surface chemistry: (1) elucidate key surface reaction mechanisms and kinetics important to indoor air chemistry, (2) define a range of relevant and representative surfaces to probe, and (3) define the drivers of surface reactivity, particularly with respect to the surface composition, light, and temperature. Within the drivers of surface composition are the roles of adsorbed/absorbed water associated with indoor surfaces and the prevalence, inhomogeneity, and properties of secondary organic films that can impact surface reactivity. By combining laboratory studies, field measurements, and modeling we can gain insights into the molecular processes necessary to further our understanding of the indoor environment.

9.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967425

RESUMO

A novel synthetic method for flavonol from 2'-hydroxyl acetophenone and benzaldehyde promoted by pyrrolidine under an aerobic condition in water is established. This protocol was supported by efficient synthesis of 44 common examples and three natural products. The α, ß-unsaturated iminium ion (enimine ion E) was proved to be the key intermediate in the reaction. H218O and 18O2 isotope tracking experiments demonstrated that both water and the aerobic atmosphere were necessary to ensure the transformation. The selectivity for flavonol or aurone was originated from solvent-triggered intermediates, which were determined by UV-visible spectra from isolated enimine. The phenol-iminium E-A is dominant in water and the ketoenamine intermediate E-B is prevalent in acetonitrile. In the presence of pyrrolidine and oxygen, E-A leads to flavonol through E-I, a zwitterionic-like phenoloxyl-iminium ion, following the key steps of cyclization and a [2 + 2] oxidation; E-B proceeds through path II, a radical process induced by photolysis of E-B with both pyrrolidine and oxygen, to afford aurone. Preliminary mechanistic studies are reported.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4810, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968061

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy is a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for treating multiple refractory blood cancers, but further advances are required for solid tumor CAR therapy. One challenge is identifying a safe and effective tumor antigen. Here, we devise a strategy for targeting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, one of the deadliest malignancies). We report that T and NK cells transduced with a CAR that recognizes the surface marker, CD147, also known as Basigin, can effectively kill various malignant HCC cell lines in vitro, and HCC tumors in xenograft and patient-derived xenograft mouse models. To minimize any on-target/off-tumor toxicity, we use logic-gated (log) GPC3-synNotch-inducible CD147-CAR to target HCC. LogCD147-CAR selectively kills dual antigen (GPC3+CD147+), but not single antigen (GPC3-CD147+) positive HCC cells and does not cause severe on-target/off-tumor toxicity in a human CD147 transgenic mouse model. In conclusion, these findings support the therapeutic potential of CD147-CAR-modified immune cells for HCC patients.

11.
Bioresour Technol ; 318: 124041, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889122

RESUMO

To reduce the environment pollution from the extensive use of tylosin (TYL), in this study, an antibiotic adaptive strategy was used to enhance the TYL tolerance of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for the treatment of TYL wastewater. The results showed that the granulation process was enhanced after 30 days of operation. The TYL-tolerant AGS gradually formed and maintained a diameter of 1.2 mm, with the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of 6810 mg⋅L-1 and sludge volume index (SVI) of 26 mL⋅g-1. Meanwhile, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+-N, and total N removal effiencies could reach up to 92.9%, 91.7%, 88.5%, respectively. The average TYL removal rate was 85.5% with the effuent TYL of 1.45 mg⋅L-1. In addition, the microbial communities shifted significantly that Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated the phylm, and the Macellibacteroides was the major genus which might possess the anitibiotic resistance genes of TYL.

12.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998179

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to ethanol is associated with enhanced leakiness in the brain microvessel endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As previous studies suggested Wnt/ß-catenin signaling could improve the BBB phenotype of brain endothelial cells, we examined the extent to which Wnt signaling is altered following ethanol exposure, using both a cell culture model of the BBB and mice exposed to ethanol, and the ability of Wnt activation to reverse the permeability effects of ethanol. The human brain endothelial cells, hCMEC/D3, were exposed to ethanol (17-200 mM) for various periods of time (0-96 hours) and Wnt signaling, as well as expression of downstream genes influencing BBB integrity in the cell monolayers were monitored. Determination of Wnt signaling in both brain homogenates and brain microvessels from mice exposed to ethanol was also performed. The effects of ethanol on the permeability of the hCMEC/D3 monolayers were examined using both small molecular weight (sodium fluorescein) and large molecular weight (IRdye 800CW PEG) fluorescent markers. Exposure of hCMEC/D3 to ethanol (50 mM) caused a downregulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, a reduction of tight junction protein expression and upregulation of plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (PLVAP). A similar reduction in Wnt/ß-catenin activity in both cortical brain homogenates and isolated cortical cerebral microvessels were observed in mice. Other areas such as cerebellum and striatum displayed as much as 3-6 fold increases in Dkk-1, an endogenous Wnt inhibitor. Ethanol exposure caused significant changes in both sodium fluorescein and IRdye 800CW PEG permeability (2-fold compared to control). The ethanol-induced increases in permeability were attenuated by treatment with known Wnt activators (i.e. LiCl or Wnt3a). Additional screens of CNS active agents with possible Wnt activity indicated fluoxetine could also prevent the permeability effects of ethanol. These studies suggest that ethanol-induced changes in brain microvessel permeability can be reversed through activation of Wnt signaling.

13.
J Phys Chem B ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960606

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosols can exist as supersaturated (metastable) liquid or glassy states, with physical and chemical properties that are distinct from the solid or liquid phases. These unique properties of aerosols have substantial implications on climate and health effects. Direct investigations on metastable aerosols remain a challenge because any interfacial contact can cause heterogeneous nucleation. In this study, in-situ Raman spectroscopic and Mie scattering imaging analysis is applied to metastable aerosols in the absence of physical contact using an environment-controlled electrodynamic balance (EDB). This has allowed a detailed study of the O-H stretching regions of the Raman spectrum, revealing evidence for the rearrangement of hydrogen bonding structures of levitated aqueous citric acid (CA) and aqueous sucrose droplets at metastable liquid states. We found that carboxyl groups in a CA droplet yields distinctive dynamics of strong and weak hydrogen bonds whereas hydroxyl groups in a sucrose droplet show correlated strong and weak interactions. Such effects are particularly important in supersaturated solution. These results indicate that metastable liquid aerosols from different sources may exhibit distinct physical and chemical behavior.

14.
Anesthesiology ; 133(4): 905-918, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis is implicated in the onset of ventilator-induced lung injury. Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is associated with cell apoptosis. The hypothesis was that DAPK1 participates in ventilator-induced lung injury through promoting alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis. METHODS: Apoptosis of mouse alveolar epithelial cell was induced by cyclic stretch. DAPK1 expression was altered (knockdown or overexpressed) in vitro by using a small interfering RNA or a plasmid, respectively. C57/BL6 male mice (n = 6) received high tidal volume ventilation to establish a lung injury model. Adeno-associated virus transfection of short hairpin RNA and DAPK1 inhibitor repressed DAPK1 expression and activation in lungs, respectively. The primary outcomes were alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis and lung injury. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 24-h cyclic stretch group showed significantly higher alveolar epithelial cell apoptotic percentage (45 ± 4% fold vs. 6 ± 1% fold; P < 0.0001) and relative DAPK1 expression, and this group also demonstrated a reduced apoptotic percentage after DAPK1 knockdown (27 ± 5% fold vs. 53 ± 8% fold; P < 0.0001). A promoted apoptotic percentage in DAPK1 overexpression was observed without stretching (49 ± 6% fold vs. 14 ± 3% fold; P < 0.0001). Alterations in B-cell lymphoma 2 and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X are associated with DAPK1 expression. The mice subjected to high tidal volume had higher DAPK1 expression and alveolar epithelial cell apoptotic percentage in lungs compared with the low tidal volume group (43 ± 6% fold vs. 4 ± 2% fold; P < 0.0001). Inhibition of DAPK1 through adeno-associated virus infection or DAPK1 inhibitor treatment appeared to be protective against lung injury with reduced lung injury score, resolved pulmonary inflammation, and repressed alveolar epithelial cell apoptotic percentage (47 ± 4% fold and 48 ± 6% fold; 35 ± 5% fold and 34 ± 4% fold; P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: DAPK1 promotes the onset of ventilator-induced lung injury by triggering alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis through intrinsic apoptosis pathway in mice.

15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 249: 116858, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933687

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic antibacterial materials chitosan@silver/sepiolite (CTs@Ag/Sep) was prepared by grafting organometallic chelate of chitosan and silver on sepiolite. The prepared samples were characterized, and their antibacterial properties were detected. The carrier sepiolite was beneficial for the thermal stability of the composite material. The utilization of silver was enhanced and its amount of usage could be obviously reduced by introduction of nontoxic chitosan which was benefical for the formation of highly dispersed silver nanoparticles on the CTs@Ag/Sep by the interaction between the silver ion and the plentiful amino and hydroxyl groups on the chitosan, thus improved the antibacterial activities and stability. The average width of the inhibition zone of CTs@Ag/Sep against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Aspergillus niger were 51.8, 31.8, and 44.7 mm, respectively. The cytotoxicity of CTs@Ag/Sep was further evaluated with A549 cells, and the results indicated that it exhibited low cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells.

16.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106355, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892907

RESUMO

The gamma dose rate caused by airborne radionuclides is a major concern in the mitigation of nuclear accidents. Unfortunately, there is no fast method for calculating the three-dimensional (3D) gamma dose rate field near the source, because the corresponding airborne radionuclide distribution is usually calculated on non-equispaced grids and existing fast methods are only suitable for equispaced grids. This paper presents a method that accurately calculates the 3D dose rate field on non-equispaced grids, accelerating the computation by around two orders of magnitude. This method splits the time-consuming 3D integral in the dose rate model into a large convolution with a regularized smooth function and a small correction term. A nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NFFT) is used to rapidly calculate the convolution, which significantly enhances the computational speed. Our approach is applied to different grids and is compared with the FFT-based convolution method in two complex air dispersion simulations and a field experiment. The results show that the proposed method is in good agreement with the original 3D integral method and avoids grid-dependent interpolation errors in the FFT-based convolution method. This method enables a coupled analysis of wind, radioactivity, and dose rate on arbitrary grids, which is important for simplifying the emergency response in the case of small modular reactors.


Assuntos
Raios gama , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos , Algoritmos , Análise de Fourier , Radioisótopos/análise
17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive type of cancer with poor prognosis and outcomes. This study aimed to investigate clinicopathological features, molecular characteristics, and treatments among Chinese patients diagnosed with IBC. METHODS: We collected data of 95 patients with IBC who were treated by members of the Chinese Society of Breast Surgery, from January 2017 to December 2018. The data, including demographic characteristics, pathological findings, surgical methods, systemic treatment plans, and follow-up, were obtained using a uniform electronic questionnaire. The clinicopathological features of different molecular types in patients without distant metastases were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis (H) test followed by post hoc analyses. RESULTS: Lymph node metastasis was noted in 75.8% of all patients, while distant metastasis was noted in 21.4%. Pathological findings indicated invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas in 86.8% and 5.3% of cases, respectively. Hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) (41.5%) and HR-/HER2+ (20.1%) were the most common biologic subtypes, followed by HR+/HER2+ (19.1%) and HR-/HER2- (19.1%). Stage III IBC was treated via pre-operative neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 87.7% of the cases, predominantly using anthracycline and taxanes. A total of 91.9% of patients underwent surgical treatment. Among them, 77.0% of the patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, 8.1% of whom also underwent immediate breast reconstruction. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that the efficacy of chemotherapy significantly differed among those with HR+/HER2- and HR-/HER2- tumors (adjusted P = 0.008), and Ki-67 expression significantly differed in HR-/HER2+ and HR+/HER2+ molecular subtypes (adjusted P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Our study provides novel insight into clinicopathological characteristics and treatment status among patients with IBC in China, and might provide a direction and basis for further studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: chictr.org.cn, No. ChiCTR1900027179; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=45030.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926224

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Currently available PDE2 inhibitors have poor brain penetration that limits their therapeutic utility in the treatment of depression. Hcyb1 is a novel selective PDE2 inhibitor that was introduced more lipophilic groups with polar functionality to the scaffold pyrazolopyrimidinone to improve the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Our previous study suggested that Hcyb1 increased the neuronal cell viability and exhibited antidepressant-like effects, which were parallel to the currently available PDE2 inhibitor Bay 60-7550. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated whether Hcyb1 protected HT-22 cells against corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity and produced antidepressant-like effects in behavioral tests in stressed mice. METHODS: The neuroprotective effects of Hcyb1 against corticosterone-induced cell lesion were examined by cell viability (MTS) assay. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis were used to determine the levels of cAMP or cGMP and expression of pCREB or BDNF, respectively, in the corticosterone-treated HT-22 cells. The antidepressant-like effects of Hcyb1 were determined in the tail suspension and novelty suppressed feeding tests in stressed mice. RESULTS: In the cell-based assay, Hcyb1 significantly increased cell viability of HT-22 cells against corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Hcyb1 also rescued corticosterone-induced decreases in both cGMP and cAMP levels, pCREB/CREB and BDNF expression. These protective effects of Hcyb1 were prevented by pretreatment with either the PKA inhibitor H89 or the PKG inhibitor KT5823. Moreover, Hcyb1 reversed acute stress-induced increases in immobility time and the latency to feed in the tail suspension and novelty suppressed feeding tests, respectively, which were prevented by pretreatment with H89 or KT5823. CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence that the neuroprotective effects of Hcyb1 are mediated by PDE2-dependent cAMP/cGMP signaling.

19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e919970, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study explored the risk factors for renal atrophy after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and provides a reference for clinical prevention of renal atrophy after PCNL. MATERIAL AND METHODS According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the clinical data of 816 patients who underwent PCNL in our hospital from May 2013 to February 2018 were retrospectively collected. Depending on whether the patient had kidney atrophy, they were divided into a renal atrophy group and a non-renal atrophy group. We collected and analyzed data on patient sex, age, kidney location, duration of disease, stone size, hydronephrosis, renal calculus position (renal ureteral junction or multiple pyelonephritis-associated stones), operation time, intraoperative blood loss, perfusion pressure, and pyonephrosis. The indicators with statistically significant differences were selected and multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the risk factors for renal atrophy. RESULTS Among 816 patients, 49 had renal atrophy and the incidence rate was 6.01%. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent risk factors for renal atrophy after PCNL were: duration of the disease longer than 12 months (OR=4.216, P=0.003, 95% CI: 1.714, 7.354), perfusion pressure >30 mmHg (OR=3.895, P=0.001, 95% CI: 1.685, 8.912), moderate and severe hydronephrosis (OR=5.122, P<0.001, 95% CI: 1.847, 9.863), stones located at the junction of the renal pelvis (OR=3.787, P=0.001, 95% CI: 1.462, 7.654), stones located in multiple calyces (OR=4.531, P=0.014, 95% CI: 1.764, 8.196), and pyonephrosis (OR=10.143, P<0.001, 95% CI: 2.214, 16.248). CONCLUSIONS The main risk factors for renal atrophy after PCNL are: course of disease more than 12 months, moderate and severe hydronephrosis, pyonephrosis, multiple calyceal stones, stones at the junction of the renal pelvis, and intraoperative high perfusion pressure.

20.
Cancer Lett ; 492: 11-20, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745581

RESUMO

Metastasis is a critical cause of treatment failure and death in patients with advanced malignancies. Tumor cells can leave the primary site and enter the bloodstream; these circulating tumor cells then colonize target organs by overcoming blood shear stress, evading immune surveillance, and silencing the offensive capabilities of immune cells, eventually forming metastatic foci. From leaving the primary focus to the completion of distant metastasis, malignant tumor cells are supported and/or antagonized by certain immune cells. In particular, it has been found that myeloid granulocytes play an important role in this process. This review therefore aims to comprehensively describe the significance of neutrophils in solid tumor metastasis in terms of their supporting role in initiating the invasion and migration of tumor cells and assisting the colonization of circulating tumor cells in distant target organs, with the hope of providing insight into and ideas for anti-tumor metastasis treatment of tumor patients.

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