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1.
Front Surg ; 8: 726233, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760915

RESUMO

Background: Urolithiasis is the most common complication of horseshoe kidney (HK), which can be treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), flexible ureteroscopy (FURS), and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). When comparing treatments of ESWL and FURS, it is unclear which is more efficient and safe. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of FURS and SWL for the treatment of urolithiasis in HK patients. Methods: A systematic search of the Web of Science, PubMed, and EMBASE was performed in February 2021. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the risk of bias in each study. Results: Five studies published between 2008 and 2018 were synthesized in the present meta-analysis. The study revealed that FURS compared with SWL had greater initial and overall stone-free rates (SFRs). Risk ratios (RRs) were 2.46 (P < 0.00001) in initial SFRs, 1.36 (P = 0.02) in overall SFRs. No differences were found in the retreatment ratio, RRs were 0.49 (P = 0.43). In addition, no major complications were encountered, and all the complications were mild to moderate. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that FURS and SWL are effective and safe treatments for patients with HK with stones (<20 mm). Moreover, FURS has greater clearance rates and lower complication rates than SWL.

2.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To further determine the efficacy and safety of bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) on patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) after progression on abiraterone (ABI) or enzalutamide (ENZA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched the Pubmed, Web of Science and ClinicalTrials.gov up to June 2021. Literature review, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by 2 reviewers. Risk of bias was assessed according to the methodology of the European Association of Urology (EAU). A systematic review and pooled analysis were performed. The primary outcomes were PSA50 after BAT and AR-targeted therapy rechallenge, objective response rate (ORR) after BAT, and AEs after BAT. The definition of PSA50 was that participants achieving a PSA decline ≥50% according to Prostate Cancer Working Group (PCWG2) criteria. The ORR determined by determined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) included patients experienced partial response (PR) or complete response (CR). RESULTS: In a total of 74 unique records, 5 studies were eligible for inclusion. Participants who underwent BAT achieved PSA50 of 0.26 (95% CI [0.20, 0.32]) and objective response rate (ORR) of 0.32 (95% CI [0.21, 0.44]). Patients completed BAT proceeded to AR-target therapy (ABI or ENZA) achieved moderate response (PSA50 0.54, 95% CI [0.30, 0.76]). Based on our multiple subgroup analysis, type of post-BAT AR-target therapy had a strong impact on PSA50 of AR-target therapy rechallenge. Most of adverse events (AEs) were low grade. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that BAT could induce clinical responses in mCRPC patients after progression on ABI or ENZA, with an acceptable side effects profile. BAT could also be able to restore sensitivity to ABI and ENZA rechallenge in a subset of patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338347

RESUMO

Phosphatase and tensin homolog-long (PTEN-L) is a translational isoform of PTEN, which exists in both intracellular and extracellular locations. Previous studies demonstrated that PTEN-L could inhibit oncogenesis due to its lipid phosphatase activity. However, recent studies found that PTEN-L could promote the proliferation of some types of cancer cells. Moreover, as a protein phosphatase, PTEN-L can suppress mitophagy by counteracting PTEN-induced putative kinase protein 1 (PINK1)-Parkin-mediated ubiquitin phosphorylation, namely, PTEN-L is critical for exploring the mitophagy progression and the treatment of mitochondrial diseases. Accounting for the critical functions of PTEN-L, its antibody can be used for the treatment or prognosis of tumors and mitochondrial diseases. Currently, the commercial antibody of PTEN-L is not available. In our study, the recombinant PTEN-L protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and used as an antigen to immunize Japan's big-eared white rabbit for the preparation of polyclonal antibody. The PTEN-L protein can be captured by PTEN-L antibody specifically and effectively. Taken together, a PTEN_L antibody is a valuable tool for further exploring the function of PTEN-L in oncogenesis and mitochondrial diseases, and it would be a new choice for the prognosis or treatment of cancer and mitochondrial diseases.

4.
Urol Oncol ; 39(11): 754-763, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer could respond to steroid switch from prednisone (P) to dexamethasone (D) following progression on abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AA+P). OBJECTIVES: Conducting a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and prognostic factors of steroid switch. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, and American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting abstracts published up to October 2020. Literature review, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two reviewers. Risk of bias (RoB) and quality of evidence were assessed. A systematic review and pooled analysis were performed. RESULTS: Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. All of the included patients were progression on AA+P. Pooled rates of PSA50 and PSA30 on abiraterone acetate plus dexamethasone (AA+D) were 0.24 (95%CI [0.18,0.30]) and 0.42 (95%CI [0.36,0.48]), respectively. Subgroup analysis indicated more favorable PSA50 and PSA30 rates on AA+D when switching from P to D only based on PSA progression. Median time to PSA progression on AA+D ranged from 2.73 to 11.38 months. Definitions of progression free survival were variable. Reported median progression free survival on AA+D ranged from 2.52 to 11.8 months. Median overall survival on AA+D varied from 4.11 to 20.9 months. All patients tolerated well on AA+D, and no grade 3 to 4 adverse events were reported. Baseline characteristics of patients, previous treatment and its response, and genetic alterations might all play roles in the response in the response toward the AA+D regimen. CONCLUSIONS: The present systematic review suggested that steroid switch from P to D might be an effective and safe treatment strategy in a subset of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after PSA progression on AA+P.

5.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 1719-1731, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658847

RESUMO

Although it has always been believed that radiation has immunosuppressive effects, more and more preclinical and clinical trials have shown that the combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy has a potential synergistic effect to treat cancers including urological malignancies. When radiotherapy is combined with immunotherapy, improved prognosis has been observed in different urinary tumors. However, there is no standard treatment, such as the optimal dose/fractionation and the sequence of immunotherapy and radiotherapy. In this review, we discussed the effects of radiotherapy on the cancer immune system and emphasized the synergy of radiotherapy combined with immunotherapy. Although it has significantly improved the prognosis of tumors, there are still some unresolved questions about how to best use this combination in clinical practice. Ongoing trials will provide further information on the interaction of radiotherapy combined with immunotherapy, and are expected to guide clinical practice and improve clinical outcomes.

6.
Andrology ; 9(1): 221-232, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the neurovascular bundle (NVB) sparing could improve post-operative urinary continence and potency. Furthermore, concern remains regarding the impact of nerve-sparing (NS) radical cystectomy (RC) on oncological outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether in men undergoing NS RC could improve post-operative urinary continence and potency. The secondary objective was to assess whether NS RC could compromise the oncological control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science was performed in February 2020, yielding 1446 unique records. A total of 13 comparative cohort studies were included. Risk of bias in each study was assessed separately by two authors using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). RESULTS: Data from 921 participants in 12 studies were synthesized in the present meta-analysis. Meta-analysis revealed that NS compared with non-nerve sparing (NNS) results in improved post-operative potency, daytime continence, and nocturnal continence. RRs were 9.35 (P < .00001) in potency, 1.11 (P = .045) in daytime continence, and 1.33 (P = .002) in nocturnal continence, respectively. Furthermore, no differences were found in the included studies reporting oncological outcomes. RRs were 0.88 (P = .61) in local and/or distant recurrence between two groups. A sensitivity analysis of prospective studies indicated consistent results. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis indicates that NS RC can improve post-operative potency, and daytime and nocturnal urinary continence, without compromising oncological control, compared with NNS RC in men.

7.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 15(1): 63, 2017 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound molecular imaging is a novel diagnostic approach for tumors, whose key link is the construction of targeted ultrasound contrast agents. However, available targeted ultrasound contrast agents for molecular imaging of tumors are only achieving imaging in blood pool or one type tumor. No targeted ultrasound contrast agents have realized targeted ultrasound molecular imaging of tumor parenchymal cells in a variety of solid tumors so far. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is highly expressed on cell membranes of various malignant solid tumors, so it's a good target for ultrasound molecular imaging. Here, targeted nanobubbles carrying CAIX polypeptides for targeted binding to a variety of malignant tumors were constructed, and targeted binding ability and ultrasound imaging effect in different types of tumors were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean diameter of lipid targeted nanobubbles was (503.7 ± 78.47) nm, and the polypeptides evenly distributed on the surfaces of targeted nanobubbles, which possessed the advantages of homogenous particle size, high stability, and good safety. Targeted nanobubbles could gather around CAIX-positive cells (786-O and Hela cells), while they cannot gather around CAIX-negative cells (BxPC-3 cells) in vitro, and the affinity of targeted nanobubbles to CAIX-positive cells were significantly higher than that to CAIX-negative cells (P < 0.05). Peak intensity and duration time of targeted nanobubbles and blank nanobubbles were different in CAIX-positive transplanted tumor tissues in vivo (P < 0.05). Moreover, targeted nanobubbles in CAIX-positive transplanted tumor tissues produced higher peak intensity and longer duration time than those in CAIX-negative transplanted tumor tissues (P < 0.05). Finally, immunofluorescence not only confirmed targeted nanobubbles could pass through blood vessels to enter in tumor tissue spaces, but also clarified imaging differences of targeted nanobubbles in different types of transplanted tumor tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted nanobubbles carrying CAIX polypeptides can specifically enhance ultrasound imaging in CAIX-positive transplanted tumor tissues and could potentially be used in early diagnosis of a variety of solid tumors derived from various organs.


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica IX/análise , Carcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Nanocápsulas/química , Peptídeos/química , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho da Partícula
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 11: 3939-50, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27574424

RESUMO

In this study, the lipid targeted nanobubble carrying the A10-3.2 aptamer against prostate specific membrane antigen was fabricated, and its effect in the ultrasound imaging of prostate cancer was investigated. Materials including 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol, carboxyl-modified 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, and polyethyleneglycol-2000 were for mechanical oscillation, and nanobubbles were obtained through the centrifugal flotation method. After mice were injected with nanobubbles, abdominal color Doppler blood flow imaging significantly improved. Through left ventricular perfusion with normal saline to empty the circulating nanobubbles, nanobubbles still existed in tumor tissue sections, which demonstrated that nanobubbles could enter tissue spaces via the permeability and retention effect. Fluorinated A10-3.2 aptamers obtained by chemical synthesis had good specificity for PSMA-positive cells, and were linked with carboxyl-modified 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine lipid molecules from the outer shell of nanobubbles via amide reaction to construct targeted nanobubbles. Gel electrophoresis and immunofluorescence confirmed that targeted nanobubbles were fabricated successfully. Next, targeted nanobubbles could bind with PSMA-positive cells (C4-2 cells), while not with PSMA-negative cells (PC-3 cells), using in vitro binding experiments and flow cytometry at the cellular level. Finally, C4-2 and PC-3 xenografts in mice were used to observe changes in parameters of targeted and non-targeted nanobubbles in the contrast-enhanced ultrasound mode, and the distribution of Cy5.5-labeled targeted nanobubbles in fluorescent imaging of live small animals. Comparison of ultrasound indicators between targeted and non-targeted nanobubbles in C4-2 xenografts showed that they had similar peak times (P>0.05), while the peak intensity, half time of peak intensity, and area under the curve of ½ peak intensity were significantly different (P<0.05). In PC-3 xenografts, there were no differences in these four indicators. Fluorescent imaging indicated that targeted nanobubbles had an aggregation ability in C4-2 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, targeted nanobubbles carrying the anti-PSMA A10-3.2 aptamer have a targeted imaging effect in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Carbocianinas/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Usos Diagnósticos de Compostos Químicos , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II/genética , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Nanoestruturas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 11: 3585-96, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536100

RESUMO

Ultrasound (US)-targeted microbubble destruction has been widely used as an effective drug-delivery system. However, nanobubbles (NBs) have better stability and stronger penetration than microbubbles, and drug delivery assisted by US-targeted NB destruction (UTND) still needs to be investigated. Our aim was to investigate the effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on the inhibition of prostate cancer growth under UTND. Contrast-enhanced US imaging of transplanted PC3 prostate cancer in mice showed that under a combination of 1 W/cm(2) US power and a 100 Hz intermittent pulse with a "5 seconds on, 5 seconds off" mode, NBs with an average size of (485.7±33) nm were effectively destroyed within 15 minutes in the tumor location. PC3 cells and 20 tumor-bearing mice were divided into four groups: a DOX group, a DOX + NB group, a DOX + US group, and a DOX + NB + US group. The cell growth-inhibition rate and DOX concentration of xenografts in the DOX + NB + US group were highest. Based on another control group and these four groups, another 25 tumor-bearing mice were used to observe the treatment effect of nine DOX injections under UTND. The xenografts in the DOX + NB + US group decreased more obviously and had more cellular apoptosis than other groups. Finally, electron microscopy was used to estimate the cavitation effect of NBs under US irradiation in the control group, NB group, US group, and NB + US group. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that PC3 cells in the DOX + NB + US group had more holes and significantly increased cell-surface folds. Meanwhile, transmission electric microscopy confirmed that more lanthanum nitrate particles entered the parenchymal cells in xenografts in the NB + US group compared with the other groups. This study suggested that UTND technology could be an effective method to promote drugs to function in US-irradiated sites, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with a cavitation effect.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanocompostos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Contraste , Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica , Nanocompostos/química , Distribuição Tecidual , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
10.
J Asthma ; 53(9): 922-9, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that asthma patients are more susceptible to anxiety or depression and have more specifically elevated depressive symptomology. These psychological factors are associated with anatomical brain changes. However, little is known about alterations in spontaneous brain activity in asthma patients with depressive symptoms. Here we hypothesized that asthma patients exhibit an altered regional spontaneous brain activity, which may contribute to their increased susceptibility to depression and poor perception of asthma symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine spontaneous brain activity in female asthma patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). METHODS: Eleven asthmatics without depressive symptoms (ASs), 14 asthmatics with depressive symptoms (ADs), and 15 age- and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed rs-fMRI. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) value was calculated based on rs-fMRI to assess local signal synchrony strength and compared among the groups. Correlation analyses were conducted between both ReHo values and clinical parameters. RESULT: Compared with HCs, ASs showed a significantly increased ReHo in the right insula; whereas ADs showed a significantly decreased ReHo in the right insula, which positively correlated with nocturnal symptom score in the Asthma Control Test (r = 0.562, P = 0.036). No significant correlation was observed between the total ACT scores and right insula activities (r = 0.263, P = 0.364). CONCLUSION: Decreased ReHo in the right insula may play an important role in depressive symptoms and abnormal asthma symptom perception.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Asma/diagnóstico por imagem , Asma/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/complicações , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ventilação Pulmonar
11.
Gene ; 565(2): 282-7, 2015 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25871513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cumulative studies have shown that asthma is associated with depression but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether asthma with depression is characterized by unique pathophysiological pathways by analyzing the global gene expression patterns of CD4(+) T-cells from asthmatics with or without depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four groups of subjects (non-depressive asthmatics, depressive asthmatics, depression patients, and healthy controls) consisting of 6 participants in each group were studied. Peripheral CD4(+) T-cells were isolated and the global transcriptomic profiles were defined by using the Agilent SurePrint G3 Human GE 8x60K microarray. The differences in transcriptomic profiles between asthma with or without depression, depression patients and healthy controls were examined. Pathway enrichment analyses of differentially expressed genes were performed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Selected genes were verified and correlated to the clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 1448 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in any of the non-depressive asthma vs. healthy control, depressive asthma vs. healthy control, or depression vs. healthy control comparisons after correction for multiple comparisons. Among these, 156 were demonstrated as differentially expressed genes only in depressive asthma vs. healthy control. Twenty significant biological pathways were identified and were involved in inflammation, metabolism, immunity, tumor and cell cycle. Increased expression of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha) was confirmed in depressive asthmatics and it was inversely correlated with lung function (FEV1/FVC%). CONCLUSIONS: Asthmatics with depression exhibit unique pathophysiological pathways and this result may provide clues for specific molecular mechanisms underlying asthma with depression.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Depressão/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Depressão/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos
12.
J Asthma ; 51(9): 927-33, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24894744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have demonstrated that asthma patients with depression symptoms are more likely to have poor asthma control and worse asthma outcomes. However, the underlying mechanism of the relationship between asthma and depression is still unclear. The present study aimed to examine the cerebral anatomical changes in female asthma patients with and without depression. METHODS: Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a voxel-based morphometry technique, the primary effects of and the interaction between asthma and depression were analyzed. The cerebral gray matter volume (GMV) was compared between the groups. Correlation analyses between the GMV value of the brain regions and the clinical parameters were completed. RESULTS: The interaction effect of asthma and depression was found on the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the left middle temporal gyrus. Patients with both asthma and depression showed less GMV in the right STG, the bilateral precuneus, and the right superior frontal gyrus compared to patients with asthma only. The GMV of the right STG showed a decrement form among the asthma only group, healthy controls and asthma plus depression group. In patients with asthma and depression, the volume of the right STG was positively correlated with PD20 (r = 0.714, p = 0.047) and negatively correlated with the nocturnal awakening score in the Asthma Control Test (r = -0.061, p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Current findings provided convergent evidence to support the critical role of the right STG in the brain mechanism that mediates asthma and depression.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/patologia , Cérebro/anatomia & histologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/patologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Lobo Parietal , Testes de Função Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Lobo Temporal
13.
PLoS One ; 7(10): e48367, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23110234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No optimal housekeeping genes (HKGs) have been identified for CD4(+) T cells from non-depressive asthmatic and depressive asthmatic adults for normalizing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. The aim of present study was to select appropriate HKGs for gene expression analysis in purified CD4(+) T cells from these asthmatics. METHODS: Three groups of subjects (Non-depressive asthmatic, NDA, n = 10, Depressive asthmatic, DA, n = 11, and Healthy control, HC, n = 10 respectively) were studied. qPCR for 9 potential HKGs, namely RNA, 28S ribosomal 1 (RN28S1), ribosomal protein, large, P0 (RPLP0), actin, beta (ACTB), cyclophilin A (PPIA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glucuronidase, beta (GUSB) and ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), was performed. Then the data were analyzed with three different applications namely BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. RESULTS: The analysis of gene expression data identified B2M and RPLP0 as the most stable reference genes and showed that the level of PPIA was significantly different among subjects of three groups when the two best HKGs identified were applied. Post-hoc analysis by Student-Newman-Keuls correction shows that depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics exhibited lower expression level of PPIA than healthy controls (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: B2M and RPLP0 were identified as the most optimal HKGs in gene expression studies involving human blood CD4(+) T cells derived from normal, depressive asthmatics and non-depressive asthmatics. The suitability of using the PPIA gene as the HKG for such studies was questioned due to its low expression in asthmatics.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Depressão/genética , Genes Essenciais/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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