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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 99, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383142

RESUMO

The combination of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with chemotherapy significantly improves clinical benefit of cancer treatment. Since chemotherapy is often associated with adverse events, concomitant treatment with drugs managing side effects of chemotherapy is frequently used in the combination therapy. However, whether these ancillary drugs could impede immunotherapy remains unknown. Here, we showed that ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the key ingredient of drugs approved for the treatment of chemotherapy-caused nausea, reduced the therapeutic effect of PD-1 blockade. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) also impeded antitumor immunity, indicating an immunosuppressive role of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). Consistently, high levels of AEA in the sera were associated with poor overall survival in cancer patients. We further found that cannabinoids impaired the function of tumor-specific T cells through CNR2. Using a knock-in mouse model expressing a FLAG-tagged Cnr2 gene, we discovered that CNR2 binds to JAK1 and inhibits the downstream STAT signaling in T cells. Taken together, our results unveiled a novel mechanism of the ECS-mediated suppression on T-cell immunity against cancer, and suggest that cannabis and cannabinoid drugs should be avoided during immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Cannabis , Imunossupressores , Neoplasias , Linfócitos T , Animais , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Janus Quinases , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Fatores de Transcrição STAT , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 89, 2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-amino-loop-extension (TALE) superfamily genes are widely present in plants and function directly in plant growth and development and abiotic stress response. Although TALE genes have been studied in many plant species, members of the TALE family have not been identified in wheat. RESULTS: In this study, we identified 70 wheat TALE protein candidate genes divided into two subfamilies, KNOX (KNOTTED-like homeodomain) and BEL1-like (BLH/BELL homeodomain). Genes in the same subfamily or branch in the phylogenetic tree are similar in structure, and their encoded proteins have similar motifs and conserved structures. Wheat TALE genes are unevenly distributed on 21 chromosomes and expanded on the fourth chromosome. Through gene duplication analysis, 53 pairs of wheat TALE genes were determined to result from segmental duplication events, and five pairs were caused by tandem duplication events. The Ka/Ks between TALE gene pairs indicates a strong purification and selection effect. There are multiple cis-elements in the 2000 bp promoter sequence that respond to hormones and abiotic stress, indicating that most wheat TALE genes are involved in the growth, development, and stress response of wheat. We also studied the expression profiles of wheat TALE genes in different developmental stages and tissues and under different stress treatments. We detected the expression levels of four TALE genes by qRT-PCR, and selected TaKNOX11-A for further downstream analysis. TaKNOX11-A enhanced the drought and salt tolerances of Arabidopsis thaliana. TaKNOX11-A overexpressing plants had decreased malondialdehyde content and increased proline content, allowing for more effective adaptation of plants to unfavorable environments. CONCLUSIONS: We identified TALE superfamily members in wheat and conducted a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. The discovery of the potential role of TaKNOX11-A in drought resistance and salt tolerance provides a basis for follow-up studies of wheat TALE family members, and also provides new genetic resources for improving the stress resistance of wheat.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Triticum , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética
3.
Cell Res ; 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165422

RESUMO

Personalized immunotherapy targeting tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) could generate efficient and safe antitumor immune response without damaging normal tissues. Although neoantigen vaccines have shown therapeutic effect in clinic trials, precise prediction of neoantigens from tumor mutations is still challenging. The host antitumor immune response selects and activates T cells recognizing tumor antigens. Hence, T cells engineered with T-cell receptors (TCRs) from these naturally occurring tumor antigen-specific T (Tas) cells in a patient will target personal TSAs in his/her tumor. To establish such a personalized TCR-T cell therapy, we comprehensively characterized T cells in tumor and its adjacent tissues by single-cell mRNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), TCR sequencing (TCR-seq) and in vitro neoantigen stimulation. Compared to bystander T cells circulating among tissues, Tas cells were characterized by tumor enrichment, tumor-specific clonal expansion and neoantigen specificity. We found that CXCL13 is a unique marker for both CD4+ and CD8+ Tas cells. Importantly, TCR-T cells expressing TCRs from Tas cells showed significant therapeutic effects on autologous patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors. Intratumoral Tas cell levels measured by CXCL13 expression precisely predicted the response to immune checkpoint blockade, indicating a critical role of Tas cells in the antitumor immunity. We further identified CD200 and ENTPD1 as surface markers for CD4+ and CD8+ Tas cells respectively, which enabled the isolation of Tas cells from tumor by Fluorescence Activating Cell Sorter (FACS) sorting. Overall, our results suggest that TCR-T cells engineered with Tas TCRs are a promising agent for personalized immunotherapy, and intratumoral Tas cell levels determine the response to immunotherapy.

4.
Front Genet ; 12: 760225, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868239

RESUMO

Background: Ovarian cancer (OV) is a fatal gynecologic malignancy and has poor survival rate in women over the age of forty. In our study, we aimed to identify genes related to immune microenvironment regulations and explore genes associated with OV prognosis. Methods: The RNA-seq data of GDC TCGA Ovarian Cancer cohort of 376 patients was retrieved from website. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and ESTIMATE algorithm were applied to identify the key genes associated with the immune scores. The correlation between key genes and 22 immune cell types were estimated by using CIBERSORT algorithms. Results: WGCNA showed that the pink module was most correlated with the immune score. Seven of 14 key genes (FCRL3, IFNG, KCNA3, LY9, PLA2G2D, THEMIS, and TRAT1) were significantly associated with the OS of OV patients. Correlation analysis showed our key genes positively related to M1 macrophages, CD8 T cells, plasma cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells and activated memory CD4 T cells, and negatively related to naive CD4 T cells, M0 macrophages, activated dendritic cells (DCs) and memory B cells. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that lower abundances of neutrophils and higher abundances of M1 macrophages, plasma cells, T cells gamma delta (γδT) cells and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells predicted better OV prognosis. Conclusion: Forteen key genes related to the immune infiltrating of OV were identified, and seven of them were significantly related to prognosis. These key genes have potential roles in tumor infiltrating immune cells differentiation and proliferation. This study provided potential prognostic markers and immunotherapy targets for OV.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7918693, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790823

RESUMO

Autophagy plays an important role in cancer. Many studies have demonstrated that autophagy-related genes (ARGs) can act as a prognostic signature for some cancers, but little has been known in low-grade gliomas (LGG). In our study, we aimed to establish a prognostical model based on ARGs and find prognostic risk-related key genes in LGG. In the present study, a prognostic signature was constructed based on a total of 8 ARGs (MAPK8IP1, EEF2, GRID2, BIRC5, DLC1, NAMPT, GRID1, and TP73). It was revealed that the higher the risk score, the worse was the prognosis. Time-dependent ROC analysis showed that the risk score could precisely predict the prognosis of LGG patients. Additionally, four key genes (TGFß2, SERPING1, SERPINE1, and TIMP1) were identified and found significantly associated with OS of LGG patients. Besides, they were also discovered to be strongly related to six types of immune cells which infiltrated in LGG tumor. Taken together, the present study demonstrated the promising potential of the ARG risk score formula as an independent factor for LGG prediction. It also provided the autophagy-related signature of prognosis and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of LGG.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Glioma/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Citocinas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Expressão Gênica , Glioma/imunologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Prognóstico , Receptores de Glutamato/genética , Survivina/genética , Transcriptoma , Proteína Tumoral p73/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 689132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149730

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has become a standard treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, most patients with NSCLC do not benefit from these treatments. Abnormal vasculature is a hallmark of solid tumors and is involved in tumor immune escape. These abnormalities stem from the increase in the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, which is involved in the regulation of the function and migration of immune cells. Anti-angiogenic agents can normalize blood vessels, and thus transforming the tumor microenvironment from immunosuppressive to immune-supportive by increasing the infiltration and activation of immune cells. Therefore, the combination of immunotherapy with anti-angiogenesis is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Here, we outline the current understanding of the mechanisms of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF/VEGFR) signaling in tumor immune escape and progression, and summarize the preclinical studies and current clinical data of the combination of ICB and anti-angiogenic drugs in the treatment of advanced NSCLC.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunoterapia
8.
Aging Dis ; 12(2): 371-385, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815871

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is a potent neurotoxin known to cause long-lasting structural damage and progressive cognitive deficits in the brain. However, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed since current treatments only target symptoms of Mn exposure. Recent studies have suggested a potential role for multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) in the etiology of Mn-induced cognitive deficits. In this study, we evaluated the effect of direct intracerebral transplantation of NSCs on cognitive function of mice chronically exposed to MnCl2, and further explored the distribution of transplanted NSCs in brain tissues. NSCs were isolated and bilaterally injected into the hippocampal regions or lateral ventricles of Mn-exposed mice. The results showed that many transplanted cells migrated far away from the injection sites and survived in vivo in the Mn-exposed mouse brain, implying enhanced neurogenesis in the host brain. We found that NSCs transplanted into either the hippocampal regions or the lateral ventricles significantly improved spatial learning and memory function of the Mn-exposed mice in the Morris water maze. Immunofluorescence analyses indicated that some surviving NSCs differentiated into neurons or glial cells, which may have become functionally integrated into the impaired local circuits, providing a possible cellular basis for the improvement of cognitive function in NSC-transplanted mice. Taken together, our findings confirm the Mn-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the brain and underscore the potential of treating Mn exposure by NSC transplantation, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against this type of neurotoxicity.

9.
Cell ; 184(7): 1895-1913.e19, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657410

RESUMO

A dysfunctional immune response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet a detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 196 COVID-19 patients and controls and created a comprehensive immune landscape with 1.46 million cells. The large dataset enabled us to identify that different peripheral immune subtype changes are associated with distinct clinical features, including age, sex, severity, and disease stages of COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in diverse epithelial and immune cell types, accompanied by dramatic transcriptomic changes within virus-positive cells. Systemic upregulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis of and developing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Megacariócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CTLA-4 was the first immune checkpoint targeted for cancer therapy and the first target validated by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) after approval of the anti-CTLA-4 antibody, Ipilimumab. However, clinical response rates to anti-CTLA-4 antibodies are lower while the rates of immunotherapy-related adverse events (irAE) are higher than with anti-PD-1 antibodies. As a result, the effort to target CTLA-4 for cancer immunotherapy has stagnated. To reinvigorate CTLA-4-targeted immunotherapy, we and others have reported that rather than blocking CTLA-4 interaction with its cognate targets, CD80 and CD86, anti-CTLA-4 antibodies achieve their therapeutic responses through selective depletion of regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Accordingly, we have developed a new generation of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies with reduced irAE and enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity/phagocytosis (ADCC/ADCP). A major unresolved issue is how to select appropriate cancer types for future clinical development. METHODS: We generated a landscape of the immune tumor microenvironment from RNAseq and genomic data of 7279 independent cancer samples belonging to 22 cancer types from The Cancer Genomics Atlas (TCGA) database. Based primarily on genomic and RNAseq data from pre-treatment clinical samples of melanoma patients who were later identified as responders and nonresponders to the anti-CTLA-4 antibody Ipilimumab, we identified 5 ranking components of responsiveness to anti-CTLA-4, including CTLA-4 gene expression, ADCC potential, mutation burden, as well as gene enrichment and cellular composition that favor CTLA-4 responsiveness. The total ranking number was calculated by the sum of 5 independent partitioning values, each comprised of 1-3 components. RESULTS: Our analyses predict metastatic melanoma as the most responsive cancer, as expected. Surprisingly, non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is predicted to be highly responsive to anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Single-cell RNAseq analysis and flow cytometry of human NSCLC-infiltrating T cells supports the potential of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies to selectively deplete intratumoral Treg. CONCLUSIONS: Our in silico and experimental analyses suggest that non-small cell lung carcinoma will likely respond to a new generation of anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies. Our approach provides an objective ranking of the sensitivity of human cancers to anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. The comprehensive ranking of major cancer types provides a roadmap for clinical development of the next generation of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies.

11.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 36(3): 362-74, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25619389

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effects of piperlongumine (PL), an anticancer alkaloid from long pepper plants, on the primary myeloid leukemia cells from patients and the mechanisms of action. METHODS: Human BM samples were obtained from 9 patients with acute or chronic myeloid leukemias and 2 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) were isolated and cultured. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay, and apoptosis was examined with PI staining or flow cytometry. ROS levels in the cells were determined using DCFH-DA staining and flow cytometry. Expression of apoptotic and autophagic signaling proteins was analyzed using Western blotting. RESULTS: PL inhibited the viability of BMMNCs from the patients with myeloid leukemias (with IC50 less than 20 µmol/L), but not that of BMMNCs from a patient with MDS. Furthermore, PL (10 and 20 µmol/L) induced apoptosis of BMMNCs from the patients with myeloid leukemias in a dose-dependent manner. PL markedly increased ROS levels in BMMNCs from the patients with myeloid leukemias, whereas pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine abolished PL-induced ROS accumulation and effectively reduced PL-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, PL markedly increased the expression of the apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3) and autophagic proteins (Beclin-1 and LC3B), and phosphorylation of p38 and JNK in BMMNCs from the patients with myeloid leukemias, whereas pretreatment with the specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 or the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 partially reversed PL-induced ROS production, apoptotic/autophagic signaling activation and cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: Piperlongumine induces apoptotic and autophagic death of the primary myeloid leukemia cells from patients via activation of ROS-p38/JNK pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dioxolanos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/enzimologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/enzimologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Fosforilação , Cultura Primária de Células , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores
12.
Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan ; 45(3): 185-9, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25219269

RESUMO

Autism or autism spectrum disorders is the most common central nervous system developmental disorder in children. Until now, there is still no effective drug for autism. The latest breakthrough advance in autism study is the discovery of autism-related gene de novo mutation by the whole exon sequencing. Among multiple de novo gene mutations identified in autism, the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) is the most frequently mutated gene, suggesting that CHD8 is an important candidate gene for autism. CHD8 binds to various other proteins such as p53 and beta-catenin to regulate gene expression. The discovery of autism-candidate genes provides novel molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Mutação , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Éxons , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição
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