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2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182210

RESUMO

Interleukin 18 (IL-18) promotes inflammation and apoptosis in chondrocytes, thereby contributing to the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we investigated the effects of IL-18 treatment and inhibition in rat chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used RT-PCR and Western blotting to measure the mRNA and protein levels of the chondrocyte-specific genes Collagen II and Aggrecan as well as the protein levels of apoptosis-related (Bax, Bcl2, Caspase3/9), autophagy-related (Atg5, Atg7, Beclin1, LC3), and mTOR pathway-related genes (PI3K, Akt, mTOR). We observed a decrease in Collagen II and Aggrecan mRNA and protein levels, upregulation of chondrocyte apoptosis, downregulation of chondrocyte autophagy, and activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway upon IL-18 treatment. PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation and inhibition tests using rat 740Y-P (PI3K activator), SC79 (AKT activator), 3BDO (mTOR activator), or LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) revealed that activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway enhances chondrocyte-specific gene degradation induced by IL-18, while its inhibition has protective effects on chondrocytes. We also found that treatment with rapamycin (a selective mTOR inhibitor) also exerts chondro-protective effects that ameliorate OA by promoting autophagy. These results suggest that inhibition of the mTOR pathway could be exploited for therapeutic benefits in the treatment of OA.

3.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198776

RESUMO

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus in China (SARS-CoV-2) that began in December 2019 presents a significant and urgent threat to global health. This study was conducted to provide the international community with a deeper understanding of this new infectious disease. Epidemiological, clinical features, laboratory findings, radiological characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of 135 patients in northeast Chongqing were collected and analyzed in this study. A total of 135 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. The median age was 47 years (interquartile range, 36-55), and there was no significant gender difference (53.3% men). The majority of patients had contact with people from the Wuhan area. Forty-three (31.9%) patients had underlying disease, primarily hypertension (13 [9.6%]), diabetes (12 [8.9%]), cardiovascular disease (7 [5.2%]), and malignancy (4 [3.0%]). Common symptoms included fever (120 [88.9%]), cough (102 [76.5%]), and fatigue (44 [32.5%]). Chest computed tomography scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all the patients. All patients received antiviral therapy (135 [100%]) (Kaletra and interferon were both used), antibacterial therapy (59 [43.7%]), and corticosteroids (36 [26.7%]). In addition, many patients received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (124 [91.8%]). It is suggested that patients should receive Kaletra early and should be treated by a combination of Western and Chinese medicines. Compared to the mild cases, the severe ones had lower lymphocyte counts and higher plasma levels of Pt, APTT, d-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, PCT, ALB, C-reactive protein, and aspartate aminotransferase. This study demonstrates the clinic features and therapies of 135 COVID-19 patients. Kaletra and TCM played an important role in the treatment of the viral pneumonia. Further studies are required to explore the role of Kaletra and TCM in the treatment of COVID-19.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a common and serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. However, little is known about PVT in patients with cirrhosis and acute decompensation (AD). We investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of PVT in nonmalignant patients with cirrhosis and AD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 2 cohorts of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic liver disease who participated in the CATCH-LIFE study, established by the Chinese Chronic Liver Failure Consortium, from January 2015 through December 2016 (n=2600 patients) and July 2018 through January 2019 (n=1370 patients). We analyzed data on the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and risk factors of PVT from 2826 patients with cirrhosis, with and without AD. RESULTS: The prevalence of PVT in patients with cirrhosis and AD was 9.36%, which was significantly higher than in patients with cirrhosis without AD (5.24%) (P=.04). Among patients with cirrhosis and AD, 63.37% developed PVT recently (the first detected PVT with no indication of chronic PVT). Compared to patients without PVT, a significantly higher proportion of patients with PVT had variceal bleeding (47.33% vs 19.63%; P<.001) and patients with PVT had a significantly higher median serum level of D-dimer (2.07 vs 1.25; P<.001). Splenectomy and endoscopic sclerotherapy were independent risk factors for PVT in patients with cirrhosis and AD. The 1-year mortality rate did not differ significantly between patients with vs without PVT. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from 2826 patients with cirrhosis, a significantly higher proportion of those with AD had PVT than those without AD. PVT was associated with increased variceal bleeding, which would increase the risk for AD. Strategies are needed to prevent PVT in patients with cirrhosis, through regular screening, to reduce portal hypertension.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041719

RESUMO

Addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing media reveals certain MRSA strains to be highly susceptible to ß-lactams. We investigated the prevalence of this phenotype ("NaHCO3-responsiveness") to two ß-lactams among 58 clinical MRSA bloodstream isolates. Of note, ∼75% and ∼36% of isolates displayed the NaHCO3-responsiveness phenotype to cefazolin (CFZ) and oxacillin (OXA), respectively. Neither intrinsic ß-lactam minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in standard MHB nor population analyses profiles were predictive of this phenotype. Several genotypic markers (CC8; agr I and spa t008) were associated with NaHCO3-responsiveness for OXA.

6.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050494

RESUMO

New strategies against antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens are urgently needed but are not within reach. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of TSPphg, a novel phage lysin identified from extremophilic Thermus phage TSP4 by sequencing its whole genome. By breaking down the bacterial cells, TSPphg is able to cause bacteria destruction and has shown bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, especially antibiotic-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, in which the complete elimination and highest reduction in bacterial counts by greater than 6 logs were observed upon 50 µg/mL TSPphg treatment at 37 °C for 1 h. A murine skin infection model further confirmed the in vivo efficacy of TSPphg in removing a highly dangerous and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from skin damage and in accelerating wound closure. Together, our findings may offer a therapeutic alternative to help fight bacterial infections in the current age of mounting antibiotic resistance, and to shed light on bacteriophage-based strategies to develop novel anti-infectives.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(2): 1760-1777, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003758

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease, related to the overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS), inflammation, and chondrocyte apoptosis. Nesfatin-1 is an adipokine, which plays an important role in the development of OA, especially in obese people. In the present study, cartilage degradation and apoptosis observed in OA patients was evaluated. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of nesfatin-1, and its underlying in vitro and in vivo mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nesfatin-1 increased significantly the expression of collagen type II alpha 1 chain (Col2a1), and reduced the expression of MMPs, ADAMTS5, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, caspase-3, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-6, and chondrocyte apoptosis rate, which may be induced by IL-1ß in rat chondrocytes. Furthermore, nesfatin-1 treatment prevented cartilage degeneration in the rat OA model. It was found that nesfatin-1 suppressed the IL-1ß-induced activation of NF-κB, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the Bax/Bcl-2 signal pathway in chondrocytes. These results suggest that in vivo nesfatin-1 could play a protective role in the development of OA and can be potentially used for its treatment.

8.
J Org Chem ; 85(6): 4500-4506, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098469

RESUMO

A (diacetoxyiodo)benzene-mediated intramolecular cycloaddition of olefins to construct tricyclic morpholines is presented. A series of substituted tricyclic morpholines were obtained in one-step simple operation under mild conditions, and the NMR studies were employed to see the interaction of reactants. The studies on stereochemistry showed that transformation of Z-alkene was inhibited, which is interpreted by density functional theory calculations on Z- and E-transition state models, and only E-alkene resulted in an anticycloaddition product, which is testified by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Jin Yin-tan Hospital of Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.

10.
Eur J Radiol ; 124: 108849, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028066

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) with different slice thicknesses to T1-weighted turbo-echo (T1 TSE) for identification of sacroiliac joint structural lesions in patients suspected of spondyloarthritis (SpA) using CT as the gold standard. METHODS: 192 sacroiliac joints (including VIBE with both 1.2 mm and 3 mm slice thickness, T1 TSE) from 96 patients suspected of SpA were included. Joint space changes and sclerosis were evaluated for each joint. Erosions were assessed both at the level of the individual sacral and iliac bones and at the level of the entire joint for calculation of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. MRI and CT correlation was performed and inter-reader reliability was determined. Fat infiltration on MRI was scored. RESULTS: VIBE with a 1.2 mm slice thickness was the most sensitive and accurate for erosion detection at the bone level followed by 3 mm thickness VIBE and then T1 TSE (p < 0.05). At the whole-joint level, only the 1.2 mm slice thickness VIBE was superior to T1 TSE in sensitivity and accuracy (p > 0.05). For joint space changes, both VIBE sequences were superior to T1 TSE in sensitivity and accuracy (p < 0.05) and had more consistency with CT. T1 TSE was slightly more sensitive for detection of sclerosis (p < 0.05). The MR sequences did not differ in detection of fat infiltration. CONCLUSION: A VIBE sequence with 1.2 mm slice thickness and less than one-minute acquisition time was superior to T1 TSE for detection of sacroiliac joint space changes and erosions in patients with suspected SpA, while the utility of the 3 mm slice thickness VIBE remains questionable.

11.
J Org Chem ; 85(5): 3125-3133, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942790

RESUMO

Alkox-oxylactonization and dearomatization of 3'-hydroxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid simultaneously promoted by hypervalent iodine have been developed using stoichiometric PhI(OAc)2 or a catalytic amount of chiral aryl-λ3-iodane generated in situ. This reaction provides a concise method to synthesize diverse polycyclic cyclohexadienones as potential inhibitors of DNA polymerase under mild reaction conditions.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 386: 121991, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895997

RESUMO

One of the main challenges in cleaning crude oil-contaminated soil is the unknown adsorption mechanism between residual oil and soil. Herein, infrared spectrometer (IR) is used to detect the existence of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and pelargonamide on montmorillonite (MMT) surface. In addition, after the adsorption of DBP and pelargonamide on MMT, the bands in fingerprint region of the two IR spectra are almost identical, indicating coordination bonds were formed on the surface of MMT. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is employed to detect the chemical environment of N, O and Al. The reverse migration of Al2p spectrum and forward migration of N1s and O1s spectra indicate the coordination adsorption of carbonyl and amine groups on MMT surface. Then, density functional theory (DFT) calculations are applied to make a further explanation of the bonding mechanisms of DBP and pelargonamide onto MMT surfaces. The result shows that there are two types of aluminum on the surface of MMT acting as Lewis acid sites in coordination adsorption, namely Al3+/Si4+ isomorphic substitutions and Al3+ adsorbed on MMT by means of electrostatic adsorption. Meanwhile, the oxygenium on the surface of MMT acts as Brønsted bases in hydrogen bonding adsorption.

13.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932669

RESUMO

The ability to organize nanoscale objects into well-defined three-dimensional (3D) arrays can translate advances in nanoscale synthesis into targeted material fabrication. Despite successes in nanoparticle assembly, most extant methods are system specific and not fully compatible with biomolecules. Here, we report a platform for creating distinct 3D ordered arrays from different nanomaterials using DNA-prescribed and valence-controlled material voxels. These material voxels consist of 3D DNA frames that integrate nano-objects within their scaffold, thus enabling the object's valence and coordination to be determined by the frame's vertices, which can bind to each other through hybridization. Such DNA material voxels define the lattice symmetry through the spatially prescribed valence decoupling the 3D assembly process from the nature of the nanocomponents, such as their intrinsic properties and shapes. We show this by assembling metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles and also protein superlattices. We support the technological potential of such an assembly approach by fabricating light-emitting 3D arrays with diffraction-limited spectral purity and 3D enzymatic arrays with increased activity.

14.
Arch Virol ; 165(3): 753-756, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965314

RESUMO

The genome sequence of a novel Meiothermus bacteriophage, named MMP7, which was isolated from Tengchong hot spring in Yunnan Province of China and belongs to the family Myoviridae, was sequenced in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome sequence of a Meiothermus phage, which has a circular DNA genome of 32,864 bp and a GC content of 64%. The MMP7 genome contains 53 putative protein-encoding genes but no rRNA or tRNA genes, and it exhibits low overall sequence similarity and no significant homology to phage genomes whose sequences are publicly available, suggesting that MMP7 is a novel phage. Consistent with current taxonomic results, whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that Meiothermus phage MMP7 has close evolutionary relationship to Thermus phages. Together, our results could be helpful for discovering new thermostable antimicrobial agents and understanding the evolution and genetic diversity of Meiothermus phages in extreme environments.


Assuntos
Bactérias/virologia , Genoma Viral , Myoviridae/genética , DNA Viral , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(3): 2240-2251, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957239

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the prominent risk factors for pathological development and progression of tendinopathy. One feature of DM-related changes in tendinopathy is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in affected tendons. Pioglitazone (Pio), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, performs a protective effect against AGEs. The present study aimed to investigate the pathogenetic role of AGEs on tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) and to determine the effect of Pio on AGEs-induced TDSC dysfunctions. Results indicated that AGEs induced TDSC apoptosis as well as compensatory activation of autophagy. Pharmacologic activation/inhibition of autophagy leaded to alleviate/exacerbate apoptosis induced by AGEs. We further confirmed the effect of Pio on autophagy, which ameliorated apoptosis and abnormal calcification caused by AGEs both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we suggest that Pio ameliorates the dysfunctions of TDSCs against AGEs by promoting autophagy, and we also reveal that Pio is a potential pharmacological choice for tendinopathy.

16.
Environ Technol ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941432

RESUMO

Choline-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have many outstanding features as they are easy to prepare, inexpensive, low-toxic, low volatile, and biodegradable, which make them increasingly attractive in industrial chemistry and green chemistry. In this paper, the abilities of three different kinds of DESs for crude oil removal from contaminated soils were compared and it was found the DES formed by phenylpropionic acid and choline chloride (mole ratio = 2:1) had the best performance. The effects of extraction time, temperature and the solvent-soil ratio on phenylpropionic acid/choline chloride DES performance were evaluated. The rational extraction conditions were recommended as follows: mass ratio of DES to soil was 10:1 and 60 min extraction time at 80°C. The extraction (desorption) process could be described by Freundlich desorption isotherm mode. In addition, the phenylpropionic acid/choline chloride DES could be recycled and the oil removal efficiency was about 90% after 10 cycles. This finding suggested that choline-based DES extraction was a promising technology for crude oil removal from contaminated soil.

17.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(2): 567-574, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974600

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate whether brain death (BD) induces the activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and reveal the possible association with BD­induced liver cell apoptosis. A total of 30 healthy adult male Sprague­Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: Sham­operated group (S), BD group and 4­phenylbutyric acid group (BD + 4­PBA), with 10 rats in each group. All rats were anesthetized. The model of BD was established by inflating a balloon catheter that was placed into the extradural space after anesthesia. 4­PBA was administered via an intraperitoneal injection when the BD model was established. Anesthesia of the S group of rats was maintained for 6 h. Liver tissues were harvested after 6 h of BD. HE staining was used to evaluate the damage of liver. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase­mediated 2'­deoxyuridine 5'­triphosphate nick­end labeling staining was used to observe the apoptosis of liver cells. Activation of ERS and PP2A was examined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. We reported that the apoptosis of liver cells after BD was significantly promoted than in the S group. Activation of ERS and PP2A was induced in the BD group when compared with S group. Phosphorylation of PP2A was suppressed in BD group. Application of 4­PBA decreased the activation of ERS and apoptosis rate compared with the BD group. In addition, activation of PP2A in the BD + 4­PBA group was decreased due to the reduction of PP2A phosphorylation compared with the BD group, but the levels were higher than in the S group. (P<0.05). In summary, our results indicated that BD induced ERS, then activated PP2A by suppressing the phosphorylation of PP2A, resulting in the apoptosis of liver cells.

18.
J Clin Invest ; 130(4): 1830-1842, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917688

RESUMO

Foxp3+ Tregs are key to immune homeostasis, but the contributions of various large, multiprotein complexes that regulate gene expression remain unexplored. We analyzed the role in Tregs of the evolutionarily conserved CoREST complex, consisting of a scaffolding protein, Rcor1 or Rcor2, plus Hdac1 or Hdac2 and Lsd1 enzymes. Rcor1, Rcor2, and Lsd1 were physically associated with Foxp3, and mice with conditional deletion of Rcor1 in Foxp3+ Tregs had decreased proportions of Tregs in peripheral lymphoid tissues and increased Treg expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ compared with what was found in WT cells. Mice with conditional deletion of the gene encoding Rcor1 in their Tregs had reduced suppression of homeostatic proliferation, inability to maintain long-term allograft survival despite costimulation blockade, and enhanced antitumor immunity in syngeneic models. Comparable findings were seen in WT mice treated with CoREST complex bivalent inhibitors, which also altered the phenotype of human Tregs and impaired their suppressive function. Our data point to the potential for therapeutic modulation of Treg functions by pharmacologic targeting of enzymatic components of the CoREST complex and contribute to an understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which Foxp3 represses large gene sets and maintains the unique properties of this key immune cell.

19.
Resuscitation ; 149: 209-216, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenaline is an important component in the resuscitation of individuals experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The 2018 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) algorithm gives the option of either intravenous (IV) or intraosseous (IO) routes for adrenaline administration during cardiac arrest. However, the optimal route during prehospital resuscitation remains controversial. This study aims to investigate whether IV and IO routes lead to different outcomes in OHCA patients who received prehospital adrenaline. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included adult patients with OHCA of presumed cardiac origin who had Emergency Medical Services (EMS) CPR, received adrenaline, and were enrolled in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Cardiac Epistry version 3 database between 2011 and 2015. We divided the study population into IV and IO groups based on the administration route. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between adrenaline delivery routes and prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital discharge, and favorable neurological outcome. RESULTS: Of the 35,733 patients included, 27,758 (77.7%) had adrenaline administered via IV access and 7975 (22.3%) via IO access. With the IO group as a reference in the logistic regression model, the adjusted odds ratios of the IV group for prehospital ROSC, survival and favorable neurological outcome were 1.367 (95%CI, 1.276-1.464), 1.468 (95%CI, 1.264-1.705) and 1.849 (95%CI, 1.526-2.240), respectively. Similar results were found in the propensity score matched population and subgroup analysis. CONCLUSION: Compared with the IO approach, the IV approach appears to be the optimal route for adrenaline administration in advanced life support for OHCA during prehospital resuscitation.

20.
Plant Physiol ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949028

RESUMO

Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is an atypical serine/threonine protein kinase that is evolutionally conserved among yeasts, plants, and mammals. In plants, TOR signaling functions as a central hub to integrate different kinds of nutrient, energy, hormone, and environmental signals. TOR thereby orchestrates every stage of plant life, from embryogenesis, meristem activation, root and leaf growth to flowering, senescence, and life span determination. Besides its essential role in the control of plant growth and development, recent research has also shed light on its multifaceted roles in plant environmental stress responses. Here, we review recent findings on the involvement of TOR signaling in plant adaptation to nutrient deficiency and various abiotic stresses. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying how plants cope with such unfavorable conditions via TOR-ABA crosstalk and TOR-mediated autophagy, both of which play crucial roles in plant stress responses. Until now, little was known about the upstream regulators and downstream effectors of TOR in plant stress responses. We propose that the SnRKs-TOR axis plays a role in sensing various stress signals, and predict the key downstream effectors based on recent high-throughput proteomic analyses.

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