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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547071

RESUMO

To characterize the genetic basis of facial features in Latin Americans, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 6000 individuals using 59 landmark-based measurements from two-dimensional profile photographs and ~9,000,000 genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We detected significant association of 32 traits with at least 1 (and up to 6) of 32 different genomic regions, more than doubling the number of robustly associated face morphology loci reported until now (from 11 to 23). These GWAS hits are strongly enriched in regulatory sequences active specifically during craniofacial development. The associated region in 1p12 includes a tract of archaic adaptive introgression, with a Denisovan haplotype common in Native Americans affecting particularly lip thickness. Among the nine previously unidentified face morphology loci we identified is the VPS13B gene region, and we show that variants in this region also affect midfacial morphology in mice.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(4): 1930-1940, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608702

RESUMO

The purple soil sloping field is considered as the main source of sediment and non-point source pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. To prevent and control the non-point source pollution, it is indispensable to explore the characteristics of nitrogen loss in the overland flow and interflow of purple soil sloping field in Three Gorges Reservoir area. The purple soil sloping runoff plots, located in the Shibaozhai Experimental Station of Chengdu Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Zhongxian County, Chongqing, were studied. The experiment included no fertilization treatment (CK), traditional fertilization treatment (T1), amended fertilization treatment (T2), and reduced fertilizer with straw treatment (T3). According to the data of volume of the interflow and runoff and the leach concentration and flux of nitrogen forms under rapeseed-maize rotation system, the response of nitrogen leaching flux to reduce fertilizer with straw application can be definite in purple soil sloping plots. The results show that the ratio of interflow to total runoff is 60.14%-88.56%, and the flux of nitrogen leaching in the interflow accounts for 72.88%-92.35% of total nitrogen loss flux. Ammonium was mainly leached by the overland flow. In addition, nitrate was mainly leached by the interflow and was the main form of nitrogen leaching. The fluxes of ammonium and nitrate under different treatments followed the order T1 > T2 > T3 > CK. The total nitrogen flux of T3 was 20.07 kg·(hm2·a)-1, which was 43.59% and 39.55% lower than that of T1 and T2, respectively. The reduced fertilizer with straw application significantly decreased the leaching flux of ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen, and weakened the effect on runoff nitrogen leaching in the purple soil sloping plots.

3.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
4.
Hum Genet ; 138(6): 681-689, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025105

RESUMO

In human society, the facial surface is visible and recognizable based on the facial shape variation which represents a set of highly polygenic and correlated complex traits. Understanding the genetic basis underlying facial shape traits has important implications in population genetics, developmental biology, and forensic science. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with human facial shape variation, mostly in European populations. To bridge the gap between European and Asian populations in term of the genetic basis of facial shape variation, we examined the effect of these SNPs in a European-Asian admixed Eurasian population which included a total of 612 individuals. The coordinates of 17 facial landmarks were derived from high resolution 3dMD facial images, and 136 Euclidean distances between all pairs of landmarks were quantitatively derived. DNA samples were genotyped using the Illumina Infinium Global Screening Array and imputed using the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Genetic association between 125 previously reported facial shape-associated SNPs and 136 facial shape phenotypes was tested using linear regression. As a result, a total of eight SNPs from different loci demonstrated significant association with one or more facial shape traits after adjusting for multiple testing (significance threshold p < 1.28 × 10-3), together explaining up to 6.47% of sex-, age-, and BMI-adjusted facial phenotype variance. These included EDAR rs3827760, LYPLAL1 rs5781117, PRDM16 rs4648379, PAX3 rs7559271, DKK1 rs1194708, TNFSF12 rs80067372, CACNA2D3 rs56063440, and SUPT3H rs227833. Notably, the EDAR rs3827760 and LYPLAL1 rs5781117 SNPs displayed significant association with eight and seven facial phenotypes, respectively (2.39 × 10-5 < p < 1.28 × 10-3). The majority of these SNPs showed a distinct allele frequency between European and East Asian reference panels from the 1000 Genomes Project. These results showed the details of above eight genes influence facial shape variation in a Eurasian population.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , China , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 285: 121350, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004951

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of different inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) (5, 10, 15%) on hydrolysis and acidogenesis of food waste in a conventional leachate bed reactor (LBR-C) and a novel fractionalized LBR (LBR-F). At ISR of 10%, LBR-C experienced clogging and thus the solid removal and VFA production reduced significantly. Without any clogging events at high ISR of 10%, LBR-F achieved significantly higher (p < 0.05) VS removal of 91%, hydrolysis yield of 837 g cumulative sCOD/kg volatile solids (VS), and VFA yield of 669 g COD/kg VS. Hydrogen yield was as high as 20 m3/ton food waste in LBR-F. Energy balance indicated that the LBR-F can be energy-positive for food waste treatment with net energy benefit of ∼8 kWh/ton food waste treated. Considering the high VFA yield, the LBR-F can also be a promising food waste fermentation system for the biorefinery platform.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Reatores Biológicos , Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 274: 153-161, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502606

RESUMO

Food waste fermentation was investigated in a leach bed reactor operated at acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Highest solids reduction of 87% was obtained at pH 7 in 14 days of reaction time with minimum mixing. The concentration of volatile fatty acids increased to 28.6 g COD/L under pH 7, while the highest butyric acid of 16 g COD/L was obtained at pH 6. Bacterial community structure was narrowed down to Bifidobacterium and Clostridium at pH 6, while Bacteroides and Dysgonomonas were identified as main players at both pH 7 and 8. Bacterial populations in the food residue generally reflected those in the leachate, but some bacteria were selectively enriched in the leachate or the food residue. Bacterial community dynamics suggested that biodegradable food waste was first fermented by one of dominant players (e.g., Clostridium) and the other degraded resistant dietary fibers later (e.g., Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Dysgonomonas).


Assuntos
Fermentação , Alimentos , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 189: 79-86, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580429

RESUMO

There has been growing interest in the use of nanocellulose-based substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. This study aimed to use cellulose nanofibers (CNF) to develop novel CNF-based nanocomposite as a SERS substrate. CNF were cationized with ammonium ions and then interacted with citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via electrostatic attraction to form uniform nanocomposites. The CNF-based nanostructures were loaded with AuNPs that were firmly adhered on the CNF surfaces, providing a three-dimensional plasmonic SERS platform. A Raman-active probe molecule, 4-aminothiophenol, was selected to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of CNF-based SERS substrate. The intensity of SERS spectra obtained from CNF/AuNP nanocomposite was 20 times higher than that from the filter paper/AuNP substrate. The SERS intensity map demonstrates good uniformity of the CNF/AuNP substrate. CNF/AuNP nanocomposites were used in rapid detection of thiram in apple juice by SERS and a limit of detection of 52 ppb of thiram was achieved. These results demonstrate that CNF/AuNP nanocomposite can be used for rapid and sensitive detection of pesticides in food products.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nanofibras/química , Análise Espectral Raman
8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24265, 2016 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27072743

RESUMO

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a diverse and large group of polypeptides that play important roles in desiccation and freezing tolerance in plants. The LEA family has been systematically characterized in some plants but not Brassica napus. In this study, 108 BnLEA genes were identified in the B. napus genome and classified into eight families based on their conserved domains. Protein sequence alignments revealed an abundance of alanine, lysine and glutamic acid residues in BnLEA proteins. The BnLEA gene structure has few introns (<3), and they are distributed unevenly across all 19 chromosomes in B. napus, occurring as gene clusters in chromosomes A9, C2, C4 and C5. More than two-thirds of the BnLEA genes are associated with segmental duplication. Synteny analysis revealed that most LEA genes are conserved, although gene losses or gains were also identified. These results suggest that segmental duplication and whole-genome duplication played a major role in the expansion of the BnLEA gene family. Expression profiles analysis indicated that expression of most BnLEAs was increased in leaves and late stage seeds. This study presents a comprehensive overview of the LEA gene family in B. napus and provides new insights into the formation of this family.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Genoma de Planta , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia
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