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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130891, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507089

RESUMO

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) was extracted from hen eggs and enzymatic hydrolysates were formed by neutral protease, trypsin and alkaline protease, which were named as EHN, EHT and EHA, respectively. The solubility of hydrolysates was significantly higher than that of HDL, especially that of EHA significantly increased from 7.69% to 27.54% when it was hydrolyzed for 1.5 h. The emulsifying properties of EHT, EHA and EHN exhibited an increase trend as a function of hydrolysis time and reached the peak values at 3.5, 1.5 and 3.5 h, respectively. This improvement was attributed to the generation of soluble peptides fragments and the exposure of ionizable residues. At different pH, temperatures and ionic strengths, the stability of emulsions stabilized by hydrolysates was higher than that of HDL, especially for emulsions prepared by EHT. These findings might indicate feasible guidance to broaden the application of HDL and enzymatic hydrolysates in emulsions.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(37): 11015-11025, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494822

RESUMO

In this study, the influence of pH on the conformational state of EHT, which was obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of trypsin, and the stabilizing properties of high internal phase emulsions have been demonstrated. Critical micelle concentration and transmission electron microscopy results exhibited the formation of micellar nanoparticles with mean diameters ranging from 108 to 1359.5 nm. The results of solubility, surface hydrophobicity, and conformations indicated that EHT tended to act as particulate emulsifiers at pH 3, 5, and 7, while at alkaline pH, it was more like a polymeric emulsifier, which could be proven by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The EHT at pH 7 exhibited better stabilizing properties than those at pH 9 and 11 as influenced by storage, temperature, and ionic strength. These findings might be of great importance for broadening the range of sustainable applications of amphiphilic peptides in foods and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Micelas , Nanopartículas , Emulsões , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Lipoproteínas HDL , Tamanho da Partícula
3.
Food Chem ; 370: 130899, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509149

RESUMO

The oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) could be stabilized by pea protein isolate nanoparticles (PPINs) induced by potassium metabisulfite (K2S2O5). Confocal laser scanning microscope proved that PPINs were attached on the oil-water interface, indicating characteristic of Pickering HIPEs. The HIPEs stabilized by PPINs of higher concentration had smaller droplet size, better storage and centrifugal stability than that of PPINs of low concentration because there were enough particles to constitute the thick interface film. The storage modulus was higher than loss modulus indicating that HIPEs exhibited gel-like structure. At different temperatures and ionic strengths, HIPEs exhibited flocculation but still maintained a stable gel-like structure. The strain curve of HIPEs showed Type III nonlinear behavior due to the flocculation of emulsion droplets. HIPEs stabilized by PPINs might be a potential alternative to partially hydrogenated oils to reduce intake of trans fatty acids.

4.
Food Funct ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515716

RESUMO

The current study aimed to evaluate the protective activity of peptides isolated from Jinhua ham (JHP) against alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and the mechanisms by which JHP prevents against ALD. The tangential flow filtration (TFF) combined with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate the JHP. Then the hepatoprotective activity of peptides was evaluated through experiments in mice. The primary structure of the peptide with the strongest liver protective activity was Lys-Arg-Gln-Lys-Tyr-Asp (KRQKYD) and the peptide was derived from the myosin of Jinhua ham, which were both identified by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the mechanism of KRQKYD prevention against ALD was attributed to the fact that KRQKYD increases the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut and decreases the abundance of Proteobacteria (especially Escherichia_Shigella). The LPS-mediated liver inflammatory cascade was reduced by protecting the intestinal barrier, increasing the tight connection of intestinal epithelial cells and reducing the level of LPS in the portal venous circulation. KRQKYD could inhibit the production of ROS by upregulating the expression of the NRF2/HO-1 antioxidant defense system and by reducing oxidative stress injury in liver cells. This study can provide a theoretical foundation for the application of JHP in the protection of liver from ALD.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9905-9914, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412476

RESUMO

Pea protein isolate nanoparticles (PPINs) were successfully prepared by potassium metabisulfite (K2S2O5). The disulfide bonds were disrupted by K2S2O5, and then the PPINs were formed through self-assembly. The average diameter of PPINs increased from 124.7 to 297.5 nm as the concentration of K2S2O5 was increased from 2 to 8 mM, and the PPINs showed higher ζ-potentials (-32.2 to -35.8 mV) and unimodal distribution. The content of free sulfhydryl groups first increased and then decreased with the fracture and reformation of disulfide bonds. Subsequently, the increase of the ß-sheet, which has considerable hydrophobicity, promoted the formation of PPINs. The formation mechanism of PPINs was explored by dissociation tests: hydrophobic interactions maintained the basic skeleton of PPINs, disulfide bonds stabilized the internal structure, and hydrogen bonds existed on the exterior of the particles. This study provided a simple and economical method to fabricate nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Proteínas de Ervilha , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(8): 2557-2563, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617251

RESUMO

In this study, modified whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) were obtained after succinic anhydride succinylation and linear dextrin glycation, and emulsion gels were prepared on the basis of unmodified/modified WPH stabilized emulsions with sugar beet pectin (SBP) addition and laccase-catalyzed cross-linking. The influences of emulsifier types and SBP contents on the texture of emulsion gels were estimated. The texture and rheological properties of emulsion gels were characterized. An ideal gel emulsion was formed when the SBP content was 3% (w/w). A uniform network was observed in emulsion gels stabilized by W-L, W-L-S, and W-S-L. In addition, the effect of the emulsifier type on the bioaccessibility of curcumin encapsulated in emulsion gels was investigated and the W-S-L stabilized emulsion gel exhibited the highest curcumin bioaccessibility (65.57%). This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of emulsion gels with different textures by SBP addition and laccase cross-linking as encapsulation delivery systems.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Curcumina , Catálise , Emulsões , Géis , Lacase , Pectinas , Açúcares
7.
Food Funct ; 11(11): 9710-9720, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057513

RESUMO

Peptides extracted from Xuanwei ham (XHP) can prevent free radical-induced diseases. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify bioactive peptides from Xuanwei hams that rescue the oxidative stress damage induced by alcohol in HHL-5 hepatocytes. Alcohol-treated HHL-5 human hepatocytes were utilized as the alcohol-induced hepatocyte damage model to evaluate the effects of XHP on amounts of aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The result showed that XHP could significantly reduce ALT, AST and MDA, the major biomarkers of liver damage. The crude XHP was separated by size exclusion chromatography, followed by the evaluation of respective activities. Then, the most active components were further separated by RP-HPLC, and their activities were evaluated according to the above method. The peptide was identified as a hexapeptide with the sequence of Asn-Pro-Pro-Lys-Phe-Asp (NPPKFD) through LC-MS/MS. Further, the molecular mechanisms by which NPPKFD prevents alcohol-induced oxidative stress damage were revealed. Results showed that the hexapeptide could downregulate CYP2E1 expression, reduce generation of ROS and enhance oxidant defense systems via the activation of NrF2/HO-1 pathway. The findings suggest that Xuanwei ham can be used as a new source of bioactive peptides for protection from alcohol-induced liver damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carne , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Alimento Funcional , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Suínos , Transaminases/metabolismo
8.
Food Funct ; 11(8): 6834-6842, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691810

RESUMO

The sensitivity of meat gel to digestive enzymes and the overall digestion pattern of the meat product is vital, and exerts an important influence on the growth and metabolism of mice. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding for better usage of resistant starch (RS) in functional meat products, the effects of a mixed gel (MS, a cooked mixture) of lean pork meat and RS on the gastrointestinal digestion and cecal fermentation of mice were investigated via comparing with those of RS-free meat gel (M) and the addition of RS to meat gel (M + S). The results showed that both M + S and MS promoted gastrointestinal digestion and cecal fermentation in mice. Specifically, the MS diet contributed to the hydrolysis of proteins, the formation of beneficial amino acids, and cecal health in spite of the larger particle size for digestion than that of the M + S group. Collectively, mixed gels of meat and RS are prospective for developing healthier meat products.


Assuntos
Digestão/fisiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Alimento Funcional/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne de Porco/análise , Amido Resistente/farmacologia , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Géis , Camundongos , Modelos Animais
9.
J Food Sci Technol ; 57(7): 2516-2523, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549602

RESUMO

To improve the industrial yield of sodium-reduced meat products, we present a feasible method by adjusting water-immersion cooling temperatures to decrease the water loss of pork sausage during processing. The present results showed that the moisture retention capacity of sodium-reduced pork sausages (SRPS) cooled by the temperatures of 15-20 °C was larger than that of 0-10 °C. The higher cooling temperatures, especially at 20 °C, could change the movement and population of proton of inner water, decrease syneresis and facilitate the formation of homogenous cross-linked network, thus increasing the moisture retention of SRPS. Results of this work indicated that the control of cooling temperature of sodium-reduced sausages after cooking could serve as a feasible approach for improving the economic benefits and quality characteristics of the final products.

10.
Food Chem ; 319: 126535, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187565

RESUMO

The improvement mechanism of high pressure processing (HPP, 100-300 MPa, 10 min) on the gelation properties of reduced-sodium (0.3 M sodium chloride) myofibrillar protein containing 20 mM CaCl2 (MP-Ca) were explored. The results showed that the water holding capacity (WHC) and strength of MP-Ca gel reached the maximum values under 200 MPa. This was attributed to substantial solubilization of myosin heavy chain and actin, a decreased protein aggregation ability and the exposure of both tyrosine and tryptophan residues resulting from the unfolding of the protein tertiary structure. However, 300 MPa induced the hydrophobic rearrangement of MP and the disulfide cross-linking of the myosin S-1 subfragment, leading to the formation of large protein aggregates and decreased solubility of MP, thus resulting in a weaker gel with a reduced WHC. Therefore, moderate HPP (approximately 200 MPa) and low concentrations of CaCl2 could potentially improve the gelation properties of reduced-sodium meat products.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Galinhas , Miofibrilas/química , Sódio/química , Actinas/química , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Géis/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Pressão , Solubilidade , Água/química
11.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1717-1723, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115039

RESUMO

The effect of high-pressure processing (200 MPa, 10 min) on the solubility of chicken breast myosin with 25% molar substitution of Na+ by 3 anion types of potassium salts (KCl, K-lactate, and K-citrate) was investigated. The results showed that the lower hydrophobic group and reactive sulfhydryl group of nonpressurized myosin with the replacement of organic K-lactate or K-citrate possibly contributed to the aggregation of myosin molecules compared with the KCl group and thus decreased the solubility of both. In the presence of lactate or citrate, the high-pressure processing caused an increase in the surface hydrophobicity and reactive sulfhydryl group, indicating the unfolding of myosin molecule. Meanwhile, the increased hydration state and the decreased apparent viscosity suggested the disruption of protein-protein interactions and the strengthening of myosin-water interactions in pressurized myosin, ultimately resulting in increased solubility of the pressurized myosin with both organic potassium salts. The compensation of high-pressure processing is interesting for the efficient selection of the anion type in developing sodium-reduced industrial meat products.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Miosinas/química , Compostos de Potássio/química , Animais , Produtos Avícolas , Pressão , Solubilidade
12.
Org Lett ; 21(18): 7450-7454, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508970

RESUMO

Rare-earth catalysis has become a hot topic in the field of catalytic organic reaction. Chain ethers mostly have lower reactivity and lower boiling points which limited their reaction scope. Herein, we found a rare-earth Y(OTf)3 can catalyze the coupling reaction of ethers especially chain ethers and thioethers with azaarenes. This protocol features simple operations, a broad substrate scope (31 examples), moderate to good yields (up to 85%), and atom economy.

13.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(10): e1801364, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817073

RESUMO

SCOPE: The intake of resistant starch (RS) may attenuate the risks of chronic illness, including colorectal cancer. However, whether the attenuated functionality of RS is maintained in cooked meat products needs to be clarified. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of a cooked mixture of lean pork meat and RS (MS) on the growth performance, lipid accumulation, and intestinal health of mice is investigated compared to those of RS-free cooked meat (M) and the addition of RS to cooked meat (M+S). The results show that both M+S and MS diets improve growth performance, alleviate lipid accumulation, and ameliorate colon health via promoting food intake and body weight gain, attenuating adipose tissue weight and triglyceride levels in liver and serum, regulating short-chain fatty acids and ammonia concentrations, ameliorating gut morphology and remodeling the gut microbiome, including Desulfovibrio, Escherichia-Shigella, Lactococcus, Ruminococcus 2, and the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio in mice, compared to the M diet. In particular, the MS diet exerts preferable effects on promoting growth performance and intestinal benefits and alleviating lipid accumulation in mice. CONCLUSION: Cooked mixtures of meat and RS are promising for developing novel functional meat products for nutritional health interventions.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Carne Vermelha , Amido/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Colo/citologia , Colo/fisiologia , Culinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572669

RESUMO

(1) Background: Amino acids and carbohydrates are widely used as additives in the food industry. These compounds have been proven to be an influencing factor in the production of chemical carcinogenic compounds polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, the effect of the properties of the amino acids and carbohydrates on the production of PAHs is still little known. (2) Methods: We added different (i) R groups (the R group represents an aldehyde group in a glucose molecule or a ketone group in a fructose molecule); (ii) molecular weight carbohydrates; (iii) polarities, and (iv) acid-base amino acids to pork sausages. The effects of the molecular properties of carbohydrates and amino acids on the formation of PAHs in grilled pork sausages were investigated. (3) Results: The results showed that a grilled sausage with aldehyde-based d-glucose was capable of producing more PAHs than a sausage with keto-based d-fructose. A higher PAH content was determined in the grilled pork sausage when the smaller molecular weight, d-glucose, was added compared with the sausage where the larger molecular weight, 4-(α-d-glucosido)-d-glucose and cellulose were added. The addition of basic amino acids (l-lysine, l-arginine) was capable of producing more PAHs compared with the addition of acidic amino acids (l-glutamic acid, l-aspartate). When amino acid containing a benzene ring was added, a smaller volume of PAHs was produced compared with the addition of other amino acids. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that systematic consideration of molecule properties is necessary when using food additives (amino acids and carbohydrates) for food processing.


Assuntos
Arginina/análise , Glucose/análise , Lisina/análise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Peso Molecular , Suínos
15.
J Food Sci ; 77(1): C27-32, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22260101

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of conventional chilling (0 to 4 °C), rapid chilling (RC, -20 °C for 30 min, followed by 0 to 4 °C), and short-duration chilling (0 to 4 °C for 30 min, followed by 25 °C) on meat quality and calpain activity of pork muscle longissimus dorsi (LD). The muscle quality characteristics pH, color, cooking loss, pressing loss and tenderness, and calpain activities were measured 0-, 3-, 12-, and 24-h postmortem. Results show that the RC resulted in a faster temperature decline of the muscle, and prevented the meat pH and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L* value from declining during postmortem aging. RC also reduced meat cooking loss and pressing loss compared with the other two chilling methods. However, the chilling methods did not significantly affect meat shear force. During the first 24-h postmortem, there was not a noticeable change in the activity of m-calpain. But µ-calpain activity decreased regardless of chilling method. In the rapidly chilled carcasses, µ-calpain activity remained the same 3- and 12-h postmortem. However, in the short-duration chilled and conventionally chilled carcasses, the activity was visibly reduced. At 24-h postmortem, no clear zones on the gel were observed in all three treatments. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Conventional and RC methods are commonly used for pork in commercial practice nowadays. Compared with conventional chilling, the effect of RC on quality parameters of pork varies. In recent years, short-duration chilling (SC) is widely used in many Chinese pig slaughtering facilities. However, few researchers have studied the effect of SD on pork quality. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of different chilling methods on functionalities or quality of chilled pork meat.


Assuntos
Calpaína/metabolismo , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , China , Temperatura Baixa , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Pigmentação , Controle de Qualidade , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/química , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/enzimologia , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Água/análise
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