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2.
Pediatr Investig ; : e12282, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540320

RESUMO

Importance: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a considerable challenge for pediatricians. Objective: This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of pediatric patients with COVID-19 in China. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study included pediatric patients from 46 hospitals in China, covering 12 provinces and two municipalities. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were analyzed. Results: In total, 211 pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. The median age was 7.0 years (range: 22 days to 18 years). Approximately 16.3% of the patients exhibited asymptomatic infections, 23.0% had upper respiratory tract infections, and 60.7% had pneumonia, including two with severe pneumonia and one with critical illness. Approximately 78.7% of the pediatric patients occurred in familial clusters. The most three common symptoms or signs at onset in children with COVID-19 were fever (54.5%), cough (49.3%), and pharyngeal congestion (20.8%). Only 17.6% of the patients presented with decreased lymphocyte count, whereas 13.6% had increased lymphocyte count. Among the patients with pneumonia who exhibited abnormal chest computed tomography findings, 18.2% (23/127) of the patients had no other symptoms. Generally, the chest radiographs showed abnormalities that affected both lungs (49.6%); ground-glass opacity (47.2%) was the most common manifestation. The cure and improvement rates were 86.7% (183/211) and 13.3% (28/211), respectively. Only one patient with an underlying condition received invasive mechanical ventilation; none of the patients died. Interpretation: Similar to adults, children of all age groups are susceptible to COVID-19. Fortunately, most pediatric patients have mild symptoms or remain asymptomatic, despite the high incidence of pneumonia. Decreased proportions of white blood cells and lymphocytes are less frequent in children than in adults.

4.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523109

RESUMO

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. In this study, we aimed to describe the aetiology of viral infection of pediatric CAP in Chinese mainland. During November 2014 to June 2016, the prospective study was conducted in 13 hospitals. The hospitalized children under 18 years old who met the criteria for CAP were enrolled. The throat swabs or nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected which were then screened 18 respiratory viruses using multiplex PCR assay. Viral pathogens were present in 56.6% (1539/2721) of the enrolled cases, with the detection rate of single virus in 39.8% of the cases and multiple viruses in 16.8% of the cases. The most frequently detected virus was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (15.2%, 414/2721). The highest detection rate of virus was in < 6-month-age group (70.7%, 292/413). RSV, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) and influenza B virus (Flu B) showed the similar prevalence patterns both in north and south China, but HPIVs, Flu A, human bocavirus (HBoV), human adenovirus (HAdV) and human coronaviruses (HCoVs) showed the distinct circulating patterns in north and south China. Human enterovirus/human rhinovirus (HEV/HRV) (27.6%, 27/98), HBoV (18.4%, 18/98), RSV (16.3%, 16/98) and HMPV (14.3%, 14/98) were the most commonly detected viruses in severe pneumonia cases with single virus infection. In conclusion, viral pathogens are frequently detected in pediatric CAP cases and may therefore play a vital role in the aetiology of CAP. RSV was the most important virus in hospitalized children with CAP in Chinese mainland.

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 695134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368015

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of molecular methods in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Previously developed mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods combined with quantitative real-time PCR (combined-MS methods) were used to describe the aetiology and evaluate antibiotic therapy in the enrolled children. Sputum collected from 302 children hospitalized with CAP were analyzed using the combined-MS methods, which can detect 19 viruses and 12 bacteria related to CAP. Based on the results, appropriate antibiotics were determined using national guidelines and compared with the initial empirical therapies. Respiratory pathogens were identified in 84.4% of the patients (255/302). Co-infection was the predominant infection pattern (51.7%, 156/302) and was primarily a bacterial-viral mixed infection (36.8%, 111/302). Compared with that using culture-based methods, the identification rate for bacteria using the combined-MS methods (61.8%, 126/204) increased by 28.5% (p <0.001). Based on the results of the combined-MS methods, the initial antibiotic treatment of 235 patients was not optimal, which mostly required switching to ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations or reducing unnecessary macrolide treatments. Moreover, using the combined-MS methods to guide antibiotic therapy showed potential to decrease the length of stay in children with severe CAP. For children with CAP, quantitative molecular testing on sputum can serve as an important complement to traditional culture methods. Early aetiology elucidated using molecular testing can help guide the antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/genética , Criança , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Immunogenetics ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406419

RESUMO

Artemis (DCLRE1C) is involved in opening recombination-activating gene (RAG1/RAG2)-generated hairpins during V(D)J recombination, an essential process for the differentiation and maturation of T and B cells. Here, we reported a case of 5-month-old boy with recurrent respiratory infections, disseminated Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection, generalized erythroderma, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, eosinophillia and failure to thrive, symptoms often observed in Omenn syndrome. Genetic analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations of the DCLRE1C gene, including deletions of exons 1 and 2, and a c. 352G>T (p. G118X) nonsense mutation in exon 5. Flow cytometry analysis of the patient PBMCs indicated a TlowB-NK+ immunophenotype. Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis confirmed transplacental maternal lymphocytes engraftment in circulating blood of the patient. Collectively, we reported a patient showing atypical immunophenotypic and typical clinical presentations of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) with Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) in the context of compound heterozygous mutations of the DCLRE1C gene. This study adds to the ever-growing knowledge on the broad immunological and clinical spectrum associated with DCLRE1C mutations.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 815, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying and prioritizing at-risk populations is critical for pediatric tuberculosis control. We aimed to identify a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening strategy that is appropriate for the Chinese context among children with different TB exposure levels and to explore its clinical importance. METHODS: During 2013-2015, we enrolled hospitalized children with suspected respiratory infectious disease (RID) for LTBI screening using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) T-SPOT.TB as part of a work up for their RID. Participants with confirmed diagnosis were classified into three subgroups according to level of exposure to TB: no reported contact risk, with household contact risk, and with non-household contact risk. RESULTS: A total 6202 children (median age: 4.76 years; interquartile range: 1.0-8.0 years) were enrolled. Children with no reported contact risk had the lowest proportions of positive results for the IGRA (0.7%) and TST (3.3%). The proportion of positive results for each test was higher for household contacts than non-household contacts. The TST positive proportion was much higher than that for the IGRA in all three groups. Children with IGRA+/TST+ results had larger indurations than those with IGRA- /TST+ results (15 mm vs. 13 mm, P = 0.02). For IGRA, older age (> 5 years) and non-household or household contact risk were associated with a positive result. CONCLUSIONS: Positive IGRA results in children with a contact risk can serve as a critical reference for LTBI management. IGRA can be used, in preference to TST, for Chinese children with a TB exposure risk.


Assuntos
Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
8.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398429

RESUMO

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major pathogen of acute lower respiratory tract infection among young children. To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of RSV in China, we performed a molecular epidemiological study during 2015-2019. A total of 964 RSV-positive specimens were identified from 5529 enrolled patients during a multi-center study. RSV subgroup A (RSV-A) was the predominant subgroup during this research period except in 2016. Totally, 535 sequences of the second hypervariable region (HVR-2) of the G gene were obtained. Combined with 182 Chinese sequences from GenBank, phylogenetic trees showed that 521 RSV-A sequences fell in genotypes ON1 (512), NA1 (6) and GA5 (3), respectively; while 196 RSV-B sequences fell in BA9 (193) and SAB4 (3). ON1 and BA9 were the only genotypes after December 2015. Genotypes ON1 and BA9 can be separated into 10 and 7 lineages, respectively. The HVR-2 of genotype ON1 had six amino acid changes with a frequency more than 10%, while two substitutions H258Q and H266L were co-occurrences. The HVR-2 of genotype BA9 had nine amino acid substitutions with a frequency more than 10%, while the sequences with T290I and T312I were all from 2018 to 2019. One N-glycosylation site at 237 was identified among ON1 sequences, while two N-glycosylation sites (296 and 310) were identified in the 60-nucleotide duplication region of BA9. To conclusion, ON1 and BA9 were the predominant genotypes in China during 2015-2019. For the genotypes ON1 and BA9, the G gene exhibited relatively high diversity and evolved continuously.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 663884, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277466

RESUMO

Background: The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) brings new challenges for pediatricians, especially in the differentiation with non-COVID-19 pneumonia in the peak season of pneumonia. We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with COVID-19 and other respiratory pathogens infected pneumonias. Methods: We conducted a multi-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric inpatients in China. Based on pathogenic test results, pediatric patients were divided into three groups, including COVID-19 pneumonia group, Non-COVID-19 viral (NCV) pneumonia group and Non-viral (NV) pneumonia group. Their clinical characteristics were compared by Kruskal-Wallis H test or chi-square test. Results: A total of 636 pediatric pneumonia inpatients, among which 87 in COVID-19 group, 194 in NCV group, and 355 in NV group, were included in analysis. Compared with NCV and NV patients, COVID-19 patients were older (median age 6.33, IQR 2.00-12.00 years), and relatively fewer COVID-19 patients presented fever (63.2%), cough (60.9%), shortness of breath (1.1%), and abnormal pulmonary auscultation (18.4%). The results were verified by the comparison of COVID-19, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A (IFA) pneumonia patients. Approximately 42.5%, 44.8%, and 12.6% of the COVID-19 patients presented simply ground-glass opacity (GGO), simply consolidation, and the both changes on computed tomography (CT) scans, respectively; the proportions were similar as those in NCV and NV group (p>0.05). Only 47.1% of COVID-19 patients had both lungs pneumonia, which was significantly lower than that proportion of nearly 80% in the other two groups. COVID-19 patients presented lower proportions of increased white blood cell count (16.5%) and abnormal procalcitonin (PCT) (10.7%), and a higher proportion of decreased lymphocyte count (44.0%) compared with the other two groups. Conclusion: Majority clinical characteristics of pediatric COVID-19 pneumonia patients were milder than non-COVID-19 patients. However, lymphocytopenia remained a prominent feature of COVID-19 pediatric pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Thorax ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been associated with deteriorated respiratory health, but evidence on particles in smaller sizes and childhood respiratory health has been limited. METHODS: We collected time-series data on daily respiratory emergency room visits (ERVs) among children under 14 years old in Beijing, China, during 2015-2017. Concurrently, size-fractioned number concentrations of particles in size ranges of 5-560 nm (PNC5-560) and mass concentrations of PM2.5, black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured from a fixed-location monitoring station in the urban area of Beijing. Confounder-adjusted Poisson regression models were used to estimate excessive risks (ERs) of particle size fractions on childhood respiratory ERVs, and positive matrix factorisation models were applied to apportion the sources of PNC5-560. RESULTS: Among the 136 925 cases of all-respiratory ERVs, increased risks were associated with IQR increases in PNC25-100 (ER=5.4%, 95% CI 2.4% to 8.6%), PNC100-560 (4.9%, 95% CI 2.5% to 7.3%) and PM2.5 (1.3%, 95% CI 0.1% to 2.5%) at current and 1 prior days (lag0-1). Major sources of PNC5-560 were identified, including nucleation (36.5%), gasoline vehicle emissions (27.9%), diesel vehicle emissions (18.9%) and secondary aerosols (10.6%). Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles were found of significant associations with all-respiratory ERVs, with increased ERs of 6.0% (95% CI 2.5% to 9.7%) and 4.4% (95% CI 1.7% to 7.1%) at lag0-1 days, respectively. Exposures to other traffic-related pollutants (BC and NO2) were also associated with increased respiratory ERVs. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that exposures to higher levels of PNC5-560 from traffic emissions could be attributed to increased childhood respiratory morbidity, which supports traffic emission control priority in urban areas.

11.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population pharmacokinetic evaluations have been widely used in neonatal pharmacokinetic studies, while machine learning has become a popular approach to solving complex problems in the current era of big data. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate whether combining population pharmacokinetic and machine learning approaches could provide a more accurate prediction of the clearance of renally eliminated drugs in individual neonates. METHODS: Six drugs that are primarily eliminated by the kidneys were selected (vancomycin, latamoxef, cefepime, azlocillin, ceftazidime, and amoxicillin) as 'proof of concept' compounds. Individual estimates of clearance obtained from population pharmacokinetic models were used as reference clearances, and diverse machine learning methods and nested cross-validation were adopted and evaluated against these reference clearances. The predictive performance of these combined methods was compared with the performance of two other predictive methods: a covariate-based maturation model and a postmenstrual age and body weight scaling model. Relative error was used to evaluate the different methods. RESULTS: The extra tree regressor was selected as the best-fit machine learning method. Using the combined method, more than 95% of predictions for all six drugs had a relative error of < 50% and the mean relative error was reduced by an average of 44.3% and 71.3% compared with the other two predictive methods. CONCLUSION: A combined population pharmacokinetic and machine learning approach provided improved predictions of individual clearances of renally cleared drugs in neonates. For a new patient treated in clinical practice, individual clearance can be predicted a priori using our model code combined with demographic data.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 42(7): 891-900, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942430

RESUMO

The high clinical and genetic heterogeneity makes it difficult to reach a confirmative diagnosis of suspected pediatric respiratory inherited diseases. Many patients with monogenic respiratory disorders could be missed without genetic testing. We performed a single-center study in Beijing Children's Hospital to demonstrate the clinical utility of exome sequencing (ES) as a first-tier test by evaluating the diagnostic yields of ES for inherited diseases with respiratory symptoms. A total of 107 patients were recruited in this study. We identified 51 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 37 patients by ES (with or without copy number variants sequencing). The overall diagnostic yield was 34.6% (37/107). The most frequent disorders in our cohort were primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDs) (18/37, 48.6%) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) (9/37, 24.3%). We further reviewed the directive outcomes of genetic testing on the 37 positive cases. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of ES as a first-tier test in China for diagnosing monogenic diseases of the respiratory system. In the era of precision medicine, ES as a first-tier test can rapidly make a molecular diagnosis and direct the intervention of the positive cases in pediatric respiratory medicine.

13.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 163: 105868, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951483

RESUMO

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin with high activity against many pathogens. But the ambiguity and diversity of the dosing regimens in neonates and young infants impair access to effective treatment. Thus, we conducted a population pharmacokinetic study of ceftazidime in this vulnerable population and recommended a model-based dosage regimen to optimize sepsis therapy. Totally 146 neonates and young infants (gestational age (GA): 36-43.4 weeks, postnatal age (PNA): 1-81 days, current weight (CW): 900-4500 g) were enrolled based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ceftazidime bloods samples (203) were obtained using the opportunistic sampling strategy and determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography. The population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was conducted by nonlinear mixed effects model (NONMEM). A one-compartment model with first-order elimination best described the pharmacokinetic data. Covariate analysis showed the significance of GA, PNA, and CW on developmental pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation was performed based on above covariates and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In the newborns with PNA ≤ 3 days (MIC=8 mg/L), the dose regimen was 25 mg/kg twice daily (BID). For the newborns with PNA > 3 days (MIC=16 mg/L), the optimal dose was 30 mg/kg three times daily (TID) for those with GA ≤ 37 weeks and 40 mg/kg TID for those with GA > 37 weeks. Overall, on the basis of the developmental population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis covering the whole range of neonates and young infants, the evidence-based ceftazidime dosage regimens were proposed to optimize neonatal early-onset and late-onset sepsis therapy.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Método de Monte Carlo , Sepse Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 675466, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055671

RESUMO

To characterize Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) strains and to clarify the continuous high rates of macrolide resistance, 1,524 oropharyngeal swabs collected from children in Beijing Children's Hospital infected with MP during 2016-2019 were analyzed. Among the 1,524 samples, 1,386 harbored mutations associated with macrolide resistance; 1,049 samples were successfully classified into 11 genotypes using multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). The proportion of the predominant type, M4572, decreased from 84.49 to 70.77% over the time period examined, while that of M3562 increased from 11.63 to 24.67%. Notably, we also found that the frequency of macrolide resistance in M3562 drastically increased, from 60% in 2016 to 93.48% in 2019. Clinical data suggested that the frequency of resistant M3562 was higher in the macrolide usage group than in the nondrug usage group (90.73 vs 53.57%, P<0.0001), while the resistance rate of M4572 was not substantially affected by previous macrolide exposure. These findings validated that antimicrobial application and clonal expansion of resistant MP strains play important roles in the high rates of macrolide resistance.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 339, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, there were few studies to estimate antibiotic use for children with upper respiratory infections at the national level. The aim of this study was to describe the antibiotic prescribing practice for children aged < 5 years old with upper respiratory infections (URIs) using a nationwide claims database. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using a sampled database from the China Health Insurance Research Association (CHIRA). Study subjects included children younger than 5 years with outpatient visits in 2015 that resulted in a diagnosis of a upper respiratory infection. We calculated the percentage of visits who received antibiotics, the proportion of injection formulations, the percentage of combined antibiotics and the proportion of each antibiotic class. The patterns of antibiotic prescription were also described by medical institution type, city level and geographical region. RESULTS: Among the 92,821 visits, 27.1% were prescribed antibiotics, of which 27.0% received injection formulations. The rate of antibiotic prescribing varied by age group (P < 0.001), with the lowest (16.0%) in infants and the highest in patients at age 3 to < 4 years (29.9%) and age 4 to < 5 years (32.5%). The Midwestern region, underdeveloped cities and low-level hospitals represented relatively higher rates of prescribing antibiotics (P < 0.001) and higher proportions of injection dosage forms (P < 0.001). The most 3 common antibiotic classes prescribed of all visits with antibiotic prescriptions were the third-generation cephalosporins (34.9%), macrolides (24.3%), and the second-generation cephalosporins (23.3%). CONCLUSIONS: In mainland China, the overall rate of antibacterial prescribing and the proportion of injection formulations prescribed in children under 5 years with URIs were at a low level, but still higher in underdeveloped regions and cities. Moreover, the overuse of the second and third generation cephalosporins, macrolides, remains a serious issue. Further efforts should be focused on reducing those non-first-line antibiotic prescribing and narrowing the gaps among regions and cities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(9): 1833-1842, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786728

RESUMO

Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, limited studies have reported clinical features of IPD cases among Chinese children. This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics as well as serotype distribution of hospitalized IPD children in Beijing, China. Children with confirmed IPD were retrospectively recruited from January 2014 to December 2019. Clinical data were gathered from medical records, and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were detected. Clinical differences between deaths and survivors were also compared, and risk factors associated with death were determined. Of sixty-eight children diagnosed with IPD, 58 (85.3%) were < 5 years. 19F was the predominant serotype (23, 33.8%), followed by 19A (14, 20.6%), 14 (12, 17.6%), 23F (5, 7.4%), and non-vaccine serotype (NVT) 15A (3, 4.4%). The coverage rate of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was 92.6% (63). After introduction of PCV-13, there was a significant increase of IPD due to NVTs (p = 0.047). Sixteen (23.5%) children died, and diagnoses of 11 (68.8%) were meningitis. Risk factors for death were < 2 years (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 6.64 [1.14-32.10]; p = 0.019), altered mental status (OR [95%CI]: 10.10 [2.11-48.31]; p = 0.004), and septic shock (OR [95%CI]: 6.61 [1.11-39.50]; p = 0.038). This study revealed that the case fatality rate of hospitalized IPD children was high in this hospital. Fatal cases were more likely to be children < 2 years, presented with changed mental status and septic shock. Notably, we found that NVTs increased after PCV13 availability in China.

18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(23): 29445-29454, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555475

RESUMO

Little is known on the potential impact of temperature on respiratory morbidity, especially for children whose respiratory system can be more vulnerable to climate changes. In this time-series study, Poisson generalized additive models combined with distributed lag nonlinear models were used to assess the associations between ambient temperature and childhood respiratory morbidity. The impacts of extreme cold and hot temperatures were calculated as cumulative relative risks (cum.RRs) at the 1st and 99th temperature percentiles relative to the minimum morbidity temperature percentile. Attributable fractions of respiratory morbidity due to cold or heat were calculated for temperatures below or above the minimum morbidity temperature. Effect modifications by air pollution, age, and sex were assessed in stratified analyses. A total of 877,793 respiratory hospital visits of children under 14 years old between 2013 and 2017 were collected from Beijing Children's Hospital. Overall, we observed J-shaped associations with greater respiratory morbidity risks for exposure to lower temperatures, and higher fraction of all-cause respiratory hospital visits was caused by cold (33.1%) than by heat (0.9%). Relative to the minimum morbidity temperature (25 °C, except for rhinitis, which is 31 °C), the cum.RRs for extreme cold temperature (-6 °C) were 2.64 (95%CI: 1.51-4.61) for all-cause respiratory hospital visits, 2.73 (95%CI: 1.44-5.18) for upper respiratory infection, 2.76 (95%CI: 1.56-4.89) for bronchitis, 2.12 (95%CI: 1.30-3.47) for pneumonia, 2.06 (95%CI: 1.27-3.34) for rhinitis, and 4.02 (95%CI: 2.14-7.55) for asthma, whereas the associations between extreme hot temperature (29 °C) and respiratory hospital visits were not significant. The impacts of extreme cold temperature on asthma hospital visits were greater at higher levels of ozone (O3) exposure (> 50th percentile). Our findings suggest significantly increased childhood respiratory morbidity risks at extreme cold temperature, and the impact of extreme cold temperature on asthma hospital visits can be enhanced under higher level exposure to O3.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Hospitais , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Temperatura
19.
Virol Sin ; 36(3): 382-392, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400092

RESUMO

To investigate the molecular epidemiology and genetic variation of human adenovirus type 7 (HAdV-7) in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in China. HAdV-7-positive respiratory samples collected from children with ARI in Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Wenzhou and Guangzhou from 2014-2018 were selected for gene amplification and sequence analysis. Fifty-seven HAdV-7 clinical strains with hexon, penton base and fiber gene sequences were obtained. Meanwhile 17 strains were selected randomly from different cities for whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetic and variation analyses were performed based on the obtained sequences, HAdV-7 prototype strain Gomen (AY594255), vaccine strains (AY495969 and AY594256) and representative sequences of strains. The phylogenetic trees constructed based on whole genome sequences, major capsid protein genes (hexon, penton base and fiber) and the early genes (E1, E2, E3 and E4) were not completely consistent. The HAdV-7 strains obtained in this study always clustered with most of the circulating strains worldwide from the 1980s to the present. Compared with the HAdV-7 prototype strain Gomen (AY594255), some amino acid mutations in loop1 and loop2 of hexon and the RGD loop region of the penton base gene were observed. Recombination analysis showed that partial regions of 55 kDa protein and 100 kDa hexon-assembly associated protein genes among all HAdV-7 strains in this study were from HAdV-16 and HAdV-3, respectively. Our study demonstrated the molecular evolution characteristics of HAdV-7 strains circulating in China and provided basic reference data for the prevention, control and vaccine development of HAdV-7.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos , Adenovírus Humanos , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 71(6): 689-700, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428540

RESUMO

To eliminate nitrogen oxides (NOx), composite carrier-supported catalysts (Mn-Ce/MWCNT-W) and traditional catalysts (Mn-Ce/MWCNT and W-Mn-Ce/MWCNT) were prepared using an ultrasonic impregnation method that preformed low-temperature ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) removal of NOx. The promotion effects of MWCNT-W composite carriers for low temperature SCR activities and SO2 tolerance of the catalysts were systematically investigated. Compared to traditional catalyst, Mn-Ce/MWCNT-W catalyst, with a 30% WOx/MWCNT mass ratio, demonstrated improved SCR activity and high N2-selectivity from 100°C to 200°C. A series of characterizations were carried out and it was found that there were more redox sites and the stronger the NH3 adsorption capacity over the composite carrier-supported catalysts than traditional catalysts. Also, with this composite carrier-supported catalyst, the improvement of SCR reaction was considered to be from the abundance of high valence state Mn and well dispersed active components. Notably, compared to traditional catalyst, the composite carrier-supported catalyst exhibited the stronger sulfur resistance. Thus, using MWCNT-W composite carriers to prepare Mn-Ce/MWCNT-W catalysts resulted in excellent NOx conversion and SO2 resistance at low temperatures.Implications: LT NH3-SCR of NOx is an effective way to remove NOx from stationary sources. The physicochemical properties of the support not only affect a catalyst's LT SCR activity but also affect the catalyst's anti-poisoning performance. The modified carriers could promote active component dispersion, which is conducive to SCR reaction. However, for LT SCR reactions, few reports have addressed the design and preparation of composite carrier-supported catalysts. The goal of this study was to design and synthesize Mn-Ce/MWCNT-W catalysts and to observe the influence of composite support in Mn-based catalysts on LT SCR activity and sulfur resistance.

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