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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(4): 347-350, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and genetic features of three patient diagnosed with Kleefstra syndrome. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out for the probands and their parents. Suspected variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. Copy number variations (CNV) were detected by CNV-seq and validated by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Proband 1 was found to carry a de novo heterogeneous variant (c.823+1G>T) of the EHMT1 gene, which may affect its expression. Based on the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2). Proband 2 was found to carry a de novo missense variant c.439C>G (p.L147V) of the EHMT1 gene, which was predicted to be likely pathogenic (PS2+PM1+PM2+PP3). Proband 3 was found to carry a heterozygous 520 kb deletion at 9q34.3 by CNV-seq. The deletion has encompassed the whole of the EHMT1 gene. Real-time PCR has detected no CNV of this region in her parents. CONCLUSION: Variants of the EHMT1 gene probably underlay the disease in these patients. Genetic testing has provided a basis for their clinical diagnosis.

2.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 161: 105788, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been confirmed to reduce the rate of rehospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death in diabetic patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the cardioprotective role of SGLT2 inhibitors in early myocardial infarction (MI) of non-diabetic mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice underwent left artery coronary artery descending (LAD) ligation to induce MI. Following the surgery, animals were randomized to receive saline or empagliflozin. Empagliflozin (EMPA) was administrated at 10 mg/kg per day by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Echocardiography, histological staining and qualitative RT-PCR were performed to assess the cardiac remodeling post MI. In vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of empagliflozin on apoptosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane potential of cardiomyocyte subjected to hypoxic treatment. RESULTS: Compared with MI group, the empagliflozin treatment group showed improved cardiac function, reduced infarct size and interstitial fibrosis. Empagliflozin also inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by alleviating oxidative stress and restoring mitochondrial membrane potential. Immunoblotting analysis revealed activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling may mediated the cardioprotective role of empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, empagliflozin could inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improve cardiac remodeling early MI, which provided insights into the benefic effect of empagliflozin on MI patients without diabetes.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(8): 3724-3734, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724642

RESUMO

Several studies reported the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in vascular calcification. High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) plays a substantial role in diabetes and its complications. However, relatively little information is available regarding the association between HMGB-1 and calcification, and the underlying mechanism has still remained elusive. Therefore, in the present study, we attempted to indicate whether HMGB-1 could promote vascular calcification via ERS in diabetes. After induction of diabetes by Streptozotocin (STZ), mice were treated with glycyrrhizin (Gly) or 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA). Mineral deposition was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and calcium assay. In cell experiments, calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was performed with Alizarin Red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and RT-PCR. Expression and location of HMGB-1 in aortic tissue were detected by Western blotting, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Diabetic mice demonstrated increased HMGB-1 expression, ERS and vascular calcification. However, inhibition of HMGB-1 with Gly or inhibition of ERS with 4-PBA ameliorated the enhanced vascular calcification and ERS in diabetic mice. In vitro experiments unveiled that inhibition of HMGB-1 attenuated advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced ERS in VSMCs. In addition, AGEs promoted translocation and secretion of HMGB-1 in VSMCs, which was reversed by 4-PBA. Moreover, VSMCs exhibited increased mineralization and osteogenic gene expressions in response to HMGB-1 and AGEs. However, inhibition of ERS with 4-PBA partially, although noticeably, attenuated VSMC calcification induced by HMGB-1. Thus, diabetes induced translocation and secretion of HMGB-1 via ERS, which resulted in calcification in diabetic mice and in AGEs-treated VSMCs.

4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 648172, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681139

RESUMO

Background: Dyslipidemia is a common comorbidity and an important risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). This study aimed to examine the economic burden of MI combined with dyslipidemia in China. Methods: Patients who were hospitalized due to MI combined with dyslipidemia in 2016 were enrolled. Costs were measured based on electronic medical records and questionnaires. The annual costs were analyzed by conducting descriptive statistics, univariable, and multivariable analyses. Results: Data of 900 patients were analyzed, and 144 patients were dead during the follow-up. The majority of patients were aged 51-70 years (n = 563, 62.55%) and males (n = 706, 78.44%). For all-cause costs, the median annual direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, indirect costs, and total costs were RMB 13,168 (5,212-29,369), RMB 600 (0-1,750), RMB 676 (0-1,787), RMB 15,361 (6,440-33,943), respectively; while for cardiovascular-related costs, the corresponding costs were RMB 12,233 (3,795-23,746), RMB 515 (0-1,680), RMB 587 (0-1,655), and RMB 14,223 (4,914-28,975), respectively. Lifestyle and complications significantly affected both all-cause costs and cardiovascular-related costs. Conclusions: Increasing attention should be paid to encourage healthy lifestyle, and evidence-based medicine should focus on optimal precautions and treatments for complications, to reduce the economic burden among MI patients with a comorbid dyslipidemia.

5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 214: 113225, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550182

RESUMO

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) are promising therapeutic targets that have received increasing attentions in cancer metabolism. In this paper, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel dichloroacetophenones as potent PDKs inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship analysis enabled us to identify a potent compound 6u, which inhibited PDKs with an EC50 value of 0.09 µM, and reduced various cancer cells proliferation with IC50 values ranging from 1.1 to 3.8 µM, while show weak effect against non-cancerous L02 cell (IC50 > 10 µM). In the A375 xenograft model, 6u displayed an obvious antitumor activity at a dose of 5 mg/kg, but with no negative effect to the mice weight. Molecular docking suggested that 6u formed direct hydrogen bond interactions with Ser75 and Gln61 in PDK1, and meanwhile the aniline skeleton in 6u was sandwiched by the conserved hydrophobic residues Phe78 and Phe65, which contribute to the biochemical activity improvement. Moreover, 6u induced A375 cell apoptosis and cell arrest in G1 phase, and inhibited cancer cell migration. In addition, 6u altered glucose metabolic pathway in A375 cell by decreasing lactate formation and increasing ROS production and OCR consumption, which could serve as a potential modulator to reprogram the glycolysis pathway in cancer cell.

6.
J Int Med Res ; 49(2): 300060520980639, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with an increased risk of fracture, few studies have assessed fracture rates in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: The occurrence of subclinical fractures in patients with HIV was assessed. Pearson's chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between subclinical fractures and related factors. RESULTS: Fifty patients with HIV were included, among whom 11 were diagnosed with subclinical fractures. These 11 patients had a mean body mass index of 24.127 ± 3.482 kg/m2, smoked a mean of 142.091 ± 3.482 cigarettes/month, drank a mean of 61.545 ± 13.026 mL/day of alcohol, had a mean CD4+ T cell count of 247.727 ± 181.679 cells/mm3, had a mean duration of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of 4.27 ± 0.786 years, and had a mean BMD of the third lumbar spine of 0.810 ± 0.063 g/cm3. The AIDS duration and BMD of the third lumbar spine were significantly associated with subclinical fractures. The BMD of the third lumbar spine was negatively correlated with subclinical fractures. CONCLUSION: A significant negative correlation was found between the BMD of the third lumbar spine and subclinical fractures.

7.
Am Heart J ; 234: 81-89, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have proposed growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. The present study aimed to determine if such associations remain after accounting for death as a competing risk, and if GDF-15 provides superior prediction performance than other biomarkers. METHODS: Plasma GDF-15 levels and cardiovascular risk factors were measured in individuals without cardiovascular diseases (n = 4,143, aged 57.4 ± 5.96 years, 38.6 % men) from Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort and were followed up for more than 20 years. Incidence of coronary events, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality was studied in relation to GDF-15 using Cox proportional hazards regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Confounding from death as competing risk was carefully checked using the Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard model. Predictive capabilities were further evaluated using C-statistics, continuous net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement. RESULTS: During follow-up, 424 coronary events, 327 ischemic stroke, 368 cardiovascular deaths, and 1,308 all-cause deaths occurred. After controlling for death from other causes as competing events, only all-cause mortality remained significantly related to GDF-15. The addition of GDF-15 significantly improved prediction for all-cause mortality in addition to the traditional risk factors, high-sensitive C-reactive protein and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide. Only N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide improved prediction for CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 is a robust biomarker for all-cause mortality but less reliable for coronary event, ischemic stroke or cardiovascular mortality. Competing risk from death is an important consideration when interpreting the results.

8.
Phytochemistry ; 183: 112642, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421888

RESUMO

Fifteen eremophilane sesquiterpenoids, including nine undescribed congeners, septeremophilane A-H, and chaetopenoid G, together with four conjugated unsaturated polyketide fatty acids, including an undescribed derivative, were isolated from cultures of the fungus Septoria rudbeckiae, a plant pathogenic fungus isolated from the halophyte Karelinia caspia. Septeremophilane A represents an unprecedented tetranor-eremophilane sesquiterpenoid with an α,ß-unsaturated δ-lactone unit bearing a hemiacetal group, while septeremophilane B-H possesses a trinor-eremophilane skeleton. Their structures and absolute configurations were established based on spectroscopic data (NMR and HRESIMS), quantum chemical calculations and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments. All metabolites were tested for nitric oxide (NO) production inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglial cells, while dendryphiellin D, septeremophilane D, and septeremophilane E were found to display significant inhibition, with IC50 values of 11.9 ± 1.0, 8.5 ± 0.1, and 6.0 ± 0.2 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Sesquiterpenos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 27, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lisu is an ethnic minority group and most of them are living in Yunnan, China. This study investigated the oral health status among 12-year-old Lisu children in Yunnan. METHOD: This survey employed a multistage sampling method to recruit 12-year-old Lisu children. Two calibrated dentists performed the oral examinations in the primary schools. They examined dental caries, gingival bleeding and dental fluorosis using the diagnosis criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to the children to collect their sociodemographic background information and oral health-related behaviours. A chi-square test, the Mann-Whitney U test, zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: This survey invited 512 children, and 482 children (48% boys) participated in the study (response rate: 94%). Their caries prevalence was 35% and their caries experience in mean (SD) DMFT scores was 0.63 (0.10). The mean (SD) DT score was 0.60 (1.10), consisting 95% of the mean DMFT scores. No dental fluorosis was observed; whereas 426 children (88%) had gingival bleeding. Results of ZINB model indicated sex and sugary-snacking habits were related to the dental caries experience (p < 0.05). The gingival-bleeding prevalence was associated with the mother's education level, the child's monthly-pocket money and daily toothbrushing frequency (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dental caries and gingival bleeding were prevalent among 12-year-old Lisu children in the Yunnan province in China, and most of the decayed teeth were unrestored. Dental fluorosis was not observed in the children.

10.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 5, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several large clinical trials have confirmed the cardioprotective role of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, whether empagliflozin, as an SGLT2i, could alleviate atherosclerosis progression in non-diabetic states remain unknown. METHODS: ApoE-/- mice were fed a Western diet for 12 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. On the 7th week, a group of mice were treated with drinking water containing empagliflozin (10 mg/kg/day), while another group was given normal water. At the 12th week, the whole aortas of each group were harvested. Oil Red O, HE and Movat staining were performed for atherosclerotic lesion area and size. Mouse serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol [TC], triglyceride [TG], low-density lipoprotein-c [LDL], and high-density lipoprotein-c [HDL]), systemic inflammation levels (IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) components and sympathetic activity (norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y) indicators were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Empagliflozin reduced the atherosclerotic lesion burden (-8.6 %, P = 0.004) at aortic root in ApoE-/- mice. In addition, empagliflozin decreased body weight (-3.27 g, P = 0.002), lipid profiles (TC: [-15.3 mmol/L, P = 0.011]; TG: [-2.4 mmol/L, P < 0.001]; LDL: [-2.9 mmol/L, P = 0.010]), RAAS (renin [-9.3 ng/L, P = 0.047]; aldosterone [-16.7 ng/L, P < 0.001]) and sympathetic activity (norepinephrine [-8.9 ng/L, P = 0.019]; neuropeptide Y [-8.8 ng/L, P = 0.002]). However, the anti-inflammatory effect of empagliflozin was not significantly evident. CONCLUSIONS: The early atherosclerotic lesion size was less visible in empagliflozin-treated mice. Empagliflozin could decrease lipid profiles and sympathetic activity in atherosclerosis.

11.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496607

RESUMO

Camelina sativa, an herbaceous annual plant in the family Brassicaceae, is especially well known for its oilseed crop that produce camelina oil (Hovsepyan et al. 2008). In April 2016, white blister rust disease on C. sativa were observed in a cultivated farmland with an incidence of about 60% in Xinyuan County (43°33'39.17"N, 83°14'54.04"E), Xinjiang, China. Symptoms appeared as light-yellow chlorotic spots on the upper surface of the leaves and white blister on the corresponding lower surface. Blister sori were white, oval to ellipsoidal, scattered or coalesce, and 1.8 to 4 mm in diameter. Two representative voucher specimens were deposited in the Mycological Herbarium of Tarim University (HMUT 2527 and HMUT 2528), Aral, China. Sporangiophores hyaline, clavate or cylindrical, straight to slightly curved, (23.7 to) 27.9 to 37.9 (to 42.1) (av. 31) × (7.9 to) 9.6 to 13.7 (to 15.1) (av. 11.4) µm (n = 30), thick-walled on their lower parts, bearing sporangia in chains. Primary sporangia were globose to subglobose, wall equal thickness, and (9.5 to) 10.6 to 13.2 (to 14.3) (av. 11.9) µm in diameter (n = 50). Secondary sporangia were mostly subglobose to ovoid, with a subtruncated base, and (12.1 to) 13.2 to 16.9 (to 18) (av. 15.1) µm × (11 to) 12.1 to 15 (to 16.1) (av. 13.4) µm in size (n = 50). Oogonia were globose to subglobose, (39.7 to) 42.7 to 51.7 (to 54.1) (av. 48.3) µm in diameter (n = 30), irregular. Oospores were globose to subglobose, brown, (34.5 to) 37 to 42.7 (to 45.2) (av. 41.1) µm in diameter (n = 30), 3 to 5 µm wall in thickness, with single warts, 1.5 to 4 × 2 to 3.5 µm (n = 30). The morphological characteristics of specimens were consistent with those of Albugo koreana (Choi et al. 2007). To confirm the identification, genomic DNA were extracted directly from sori on diseased leaves from isolates HMUT 2527 and HMUT 2528, respectively. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA and cytochrome oxidase II (cox2) mtDNA were amplified with primers DC6/LR-0 described by Choi et al. (2006) and cox2-F/cox2-R described by Hudspeth et al. (2000), respectively. A BLASTn search revealed that the ITS rDNA sequences (GenBank accession Nos. MW135444 and MW135445) were 99% (838/844 nucleotides)identical to that of A. koreana from Capsella bursa-pastoris (AY929829), and the cox2 sequences (GenBank accession Nos. MW147150 and MW147151) were 100% (567/567 nucleotides) identical to that of A. koreana from C. bursa-pastoris (AY927048). Based on the concatenated ITS and cox2 sequences, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analysis showed that pathogen from C. sativa with the reference isolate of A. koreana (ex C. bursa-pastoris) with high bootstrap support values and maximum posterior probability (100 ML BS and 1.00 BPP, respectively). For pathogenicity, sporangia collected from the infected leaves were suspended in sterile water at 4°C for 2 hours to improve zoospore release, and the zoospore suspension obtained from sporangial suspension (1×105 sporangia/ml) was inoculated to the lower surface of six healthy potted plants. Three non-inoculated plants were served as controls. Each plant was kept in a separate plastic humid chamber in a greenhouse with 25°C and 80% humidity for 15 days. Typical symptoms of white rust pustules developed on the inoculated plants were identical to that observed on the originally infected leaves. Control plants remained symptomless.. Based on morphological characteristics, molecular data, as well as pathogenicity tests, the pathogen on C. sativa was identified as Albugo koreana. A. koreana aslo is reported only on C. bursa-pastoris in Korea (Choi et al. 2007; Farr and Rossman 2020). To our knowledge, this is the first record of white rust disease caused by A. koreana on C. sativa, and the species is new to China. This report represents a new host plant association and a new geographical expansion for this species, presenting a potential threat to camelina production in northwest China.

12.
Heart Vessels ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512599

RESUMO

Ripple mapping can make the visualization of activation conduction on a 3-dimensional voltage map and is useful tool for scar-related organized atrial tachycardia (AT). This study sought to assess the efficacy of ripple mapping for interpreting reentrant circuits and critical isthmus in postoperative ATs. 34 consecutive patients with a history of mitral valve surgery (mean age, 54.5 ± 12.4 years) underwent high density (HD) RM during ATs with CARTO3v4 CONFIDENSE system. The voltage activation threshold was determined by RM over a bipolar voltage map. The identification of underlying mechanisms and ablation setting was based on RM without reviewing activation mapping. A total of 41 ATs (35 spontaneous, 6 induced) were characterized. 39 reentry circuits were successfully mapped (cycle length, 256 ± 43 ms). Of the 41 ATs, 28 were confirmed by ripple mapping alone (68%), and 12 (29%) by ripple mapping and entrainment mapping. Of 12 ATs in the left atrium, 9 (75%) needed entrainment to confirm, compared with 5 (17.8%) in the right atrium. Primary endpoint after initial ablation set was achieved in 32 of the 34 patients (94.1%). Freedom from atrial arrhythmias was 79.4% after the follow-up of 12 ± 5 months. Of the seven patients with recurrence, three underwent the repeated catheter ablation. Ripple mapping precisely delineated reentrant circuits in post-cardiac surgery AT resulting in a high success rate of ablation. Entrainment maneuvers remain useful for elucidation of complex AT circuits.

13.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 179, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287831

RESUMO

Inflammation and oxidative stress are two major factors that are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A smart drug delivery system that responds to the oxidative microenvironment of atherosclerotic plaques was constructed in the present study. Simvastatin (SIM)-loaded biodegradable polymeric micelles were constructed from hyaluronic acid (HA)-coated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(tyrosine-ethyl oxalyl) (PEG-Ptyr-EO) for the purpose of simultaneously inhibiting macrophages and decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to treat atherosclerosis. HA coating endows the micelle system the ability of targeting CD44-positive inflammatory macrophages. Owing to the ROS-responsive nature of PEG-Ptyr-EO, the micelles can not only be degraded by enzymes, but also consumes ROS by itself at the pathologic sites, upon which the accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages is effectively suppressed and oxidative stress is alleviated. Consequently, the cellular uptake experiment demonstrated that SIM-loaded HA-coated micelles can be effectively internalized by LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells and showed high cytotoxicity against the cells, but low cytotoxicity against LO2 cells. In mouse models of atherosclerosis, intravenously SIM-loaded HA-coated micelles can effectively reduce plaque content of cholesterol, resulting in remarkable therapeutic effects. In conclusion, the SIM-loaded micelle system provides a promising and innovative option against atherosclerosis.

14.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 22: 948-956, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294288

RESUMO

Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) have been confirmed to play a cardioprotective role in heart failure. However, whether TSC-derived exosomes (TSC-exos) can protect against cardiac injury remains unclear. In the present study, TSC-exos were isolated from the supernatant of TSCs using the ultracentrifugation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. Utilizing the public Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we found that let-7i and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) could participate in the development of heart failure. In vitro, AC16 cardiomyocytes subjected to doxorubicin (DOX) were treated with TSC-exos or let-7i mimic. Flow cytometry showed that TSC-exos and let-7i both decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In vivo, mice that were intraperitoneally injected into DOX received either PBS, TSC-exos, or AAV9-let7iup for let-7i overexpression. Mice receiving TSC-exos and AAV9-let7iup showed improved cardiac function and decreased inflammatory responses, accompanied by downregulated YAP signaling. Mechanistically, TSC-exos could transfer let-7i to cardiomyocytes and silence the YAP signaling pathway. In conclusion, TSC-exos could alleviate DOX-induced cardiac injury via the let-7i/YAP pathway, which sheds new light on the application of TSC-exos as a potential therapeutic tool for heart failure.

16.
J Med Chem ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271020

RESUMO

In a previously described chimeric peptide, we reported that the multifunctional opioid/neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptor agonist 0 (BN-9) produced antinociception for 1.5 h after supraspinal administration. Herein, four cyclic disulfide analogs containing l- and/or d-type cysteine at positions 2 and 5 were synthesized. The cyclized analogs and their linear counterparts behaved as multifunctional agonists at both opioid and NPFF receptors in vitro and produced potent analgesia without tolerance development. In comparison to 0, cyclized peptide 6 exhibited sevenfold more potent µ-opioid receptor agonistic activity in vitro. Interestingly, the cyclized analog 6 possessed an improved stability in the brain and an increased blood-brain barrier permeability compared to the parent peptide 0 and produced more potent analgesia after supraspinal or subcutaneous administration with improved duration of action of 4 h. In addition, antinociceptive tolerance of analog 6 was greatly reduced after subcutaneous injection compared to fentanyl, as was the rewarding effect, withdrawal reaction, and gastrointestinal inhibition.

17.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 171, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218341

RESUMO

Human trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) have been confirmed to play a cardioprotective role in heart failure. However, whether trophoblast stem cell-derived exosomes (TSC-Exos) can protect cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin (Dox)-induced injury remains unclear. In the present study, TSC-Exos were isolated from the supernatants of human trophoblasts using the ultracentrifugation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. In vitro, primary cardiomyocytes were subjected to Dox and treated with TSC-Exos, miR-200b mimic or miR-200b inhibitor. Cellular apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry and immunoblotting. In vivo, mice were intraperitoneally injected into Dox to establish a heart failure model. Then, different groups of mice were administered either PBS, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-vector, AAV-miR-200b-inhibitor or TSC-Exos via tail vein injection. Then, the cardiac function, cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in each group were evaluated, and the downstream molecular mechanism was explored. TSC-Exos and miR-200b inhibitor both decreased primary cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Similarly, mice receiving TSC-Exos and AAV-miR-200b inhibitor exhibited improved cardiac function, accompanied by reduced apoptosis and inflammation. The bioinformatic prediction and luciferase reporter results confirmed that Zeb1 was a downstream target of miR-200b and had an antiapoptotic effect. TSC-Exos attenuated doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury by playing antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory roles. The underlying mechanism could be an increase in Zeb1 expression by the inhibition of miR-200b expression. In summary, this study sheds new light on the application of TSC-Exos as a potential therapeutic tool for heart failure.

18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 896, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a devastating complication of orthopedic surgery, related with increased morbidity and mortality. This study was performed with the aim to compare the SSI rate in human immunodeficiency virus HIV-positive patients, to identify other risk factors for SSI and to establish a nomogram model to predict the risk of SSI. METHODS: A total of 101 HIV-positive individuals following orthopedic surgery patients admitted to Beijing Ditan Hospital. Their characteristics were gathered. The univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to explore the risk factors of SSI. And the Nomogram prediction model was constructed and verified. RESULTS: The independent predictive factors of SSI included CD4 (Odds ratio [OR], 0.041; P = 0.040), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR, 89.773; P = 0.030), and procalcitonin (PCT) (OR, 220.746; P = 0.006). The scoring nomogram model was as follows: Logit (SSI) = - 2.63589-0.00314*CD4 < 430.75 = 1) + 0.04695*(ESR < 17.46 = 1) + 2.93694*(PCT < 0.22 = 1). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.946. The cutoff score was - 2.1026 with a sensitivity of 93.33% and a specificity of 84.88%. CONCLUSIONS: CD4, ESR, PCT might affect the occurrence of SSI after orthopedic surgery. The nomogram model constructed in this study is helpful for predicting the probability of SSI.

20.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202102

RESUMO

Voriconazole is the mainstay for the treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients who underwent a kidney transplant. Variant CYP2C19 alleles, hepatic function, and concomitant medications are directly involved in the metabolism of voriconazole. However, the drug is also associated with numerous adverse events. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of adverse events using binary logistic regression and to measure its trough concentration using multiple linear modeling. We conducted a prospective analysis of 93 kidney recipients cotreated with voriconazole and recorded 213 trough concentrations of it. Predictors of the adverse events were voriconazole trough concentration with the odds ratios (OR) of 2.614 (P = 0.016), cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19), and hemoglobin (OR 0.181, P = 0.005). The predictive power of these three factors was 91.30%. We also found that CYP2C19 phenotypes, hemoglobin, platelet count, and concomitant use of ilaprazole had quantitative relationships with voriconazole trough concentration. The fit coefficient of this regression equation was R2  = 0.336, demonstrating that the model explained 33.60% of interindividual variability in the disposition of voriconazole. In conclusion, predictors of adverse events are CYP2C19 phenotypes, hemoglobin, and voriconazole trough concentration. Determinants of the voriconazole trough concentration were CYP2C19 phenotypes, platelet count, hemoglobin, concomitant use of ilaprazole. If we consider these factors during voriconazole use, we are likely to maximize the treatment effect and minimize adverse events.

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