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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130806, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399184

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the in vitro digestibility of different buckwheat and wheat starch cultivars and establish the relationship between digestibility and structure of buckwheat starch. Structure of starches were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography and fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis. Results showed that the amylose content of Tartary buckwheat starch (TBS) and common buckwheat starch (CBS) was 3-4% lower than that of wheat starch. However, no significant difference in the digestibility was found between them. The fast digestion rate coefficient of TBS was negatively correlated with the amount of long amylopectin chains (24 < DP ≤ 36), and the total digested starch percentage of CBS was negatively correlated with the amount of medium-long amylopectin chains (13 < DP ≤ 24). This suggests that the digestibility of fully gelatinized starch had no association with the botanical sources but may be more influenced by starch structure.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Amido , Amilopectina , Amilose , Estrutura Molecular , Triticum
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150142, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509836

RESUMO

A two-stage tidal flow constructed wetland (referred to as TFCW-A and TFCW-B) was used to treat low chemical oxygen demand/total nitrogen (COD/TN or simply C/N) ratio influent at low temperatures (<15 °C). The influence of the flooding-resting time (A: 8 h-4 h, B: 4 h-8 h) and effluent recirculation on nitrogen removal and microbial community characteristics were explored. TFCW-B achieved optimal average nitrogen removal efficiency with effluent recirculation (96.05% ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N); 78.43% TN) and led to nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) accumulation due to the lack of a carbon source and longer resting time. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were inhibited at low temperatures. Except for nrfA, AOA, AOB, narG and nirS were separated by the flooding-resting time rather than by spatial position. Furthermore, the dominant genera in TFCW-A were Arthrobacter, Rhodobacter, Pseudomonas, and Solitalea, whereas prolonging resting time promoted the growth of Thauera and Zoogloea in TFCW-B. Spearman correlation analysis showed that Zoogloea and Rhodobacter had the strongest correlations with other genera. Moreover, the NH4+-N concentration was significantly positively influenced by Arthrobacter, Rhodobacter, Pseudomonas, and Solitalea but negatively influenced by Thauera and Zoogloea. There was no significant correlation between TN and the dominant genera. This study not only provides a practicable system for wastewater treatment with a low C/N ratio but also presents a theoretical basis for the regulation of microbial communities in nitrogen removal systems at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Áreas Alagadas , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Temperatura , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150024, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517318

RESUMO

Photocatalysis has emerged as an environmentally friendly approach for microbial disinfection. The development of visible-light-driven (VLD) photocatalysts for water pollution remediation is imperative, considering that visible light constitutes a substantial fraction of the solar spectrum. The modification of photocatalysts by Ag/AgX (X = Cl, Br, I) deposition can be used to improve photocatalytic efficiencies. This is achieved by preventing photogenerated electron-hole pairs recombination through electron trapping mechanisms. With the introduction of silver NPs, visible light absorption can also be increased through its SPR enhancement. Silver also possesses excellent antimicrobial properties. Consequently, a novel class of Ag/AgX-containing hybrid materials has recently emerged as a promising candidate for water disinfection. This review summarizes the latest advances in the synthesis of Ag/AgX-containing photocatalysts using various synthetic methods. The microbial disinfection efficiencies of the as-prepared materials, the main reactive oxygen species and disinfection mechanisms are also reviewed in detail. Finally, some areas that need to be improved are discussed along with new insights as perspectives for future developments in this field.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Prata , Catálise , Luz , Água
4.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131747, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358893

RESUMO

Pyrimidine and purine bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine) are important precursors of organic chloramines (OC) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlor(am)ination. In this study, OC and DBP formation derived from pyrimidine and purine bases during chlor(am)ination, post-chlor(am)ination after pretreated by UV alone and UV/chlorination were systematically investigated with ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs, 265 and 275 nm) and low pressure mercury lamp (LPUV, 254 nm). The results revealed that higher OC formation was observed during chlorination than that during chloramination of pyrimidine and purine bases. The degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Both solution pH and UV wavelength played vital influence on the degradation of pyrimidine and purine bases. In terms of fluence-based rate constants (kobs), the degradation rates of pyrimidine and purine bases decreased in the order of 275 nm > 265 nm > 254 nm in alkaline conditions. The synergistic effects of kobs, chlorine,kobs, •OH and kobs, RCS contributed to the differences of pyrimidine and purine bases degradation at different pH values and UV wavelengths. A vital suppression of OC formation was observed during post-chlorination after pretreated by 275 nm UV-LED/chlorination. In addition, compared with LPUV (254 nm), less DBP formation was observed at UV-LED (275 nm), especially during the UV/chlorine process. The phenomena obtained in this study indicated that 275 nm UV-LED combined with chlorine could be a preferred method to promote pyrimidine and purine bases degradation and control OC and DBP formation in practical water treatment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloraminas , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Purinas , Pirimidinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131615, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic evaluations of the cumulative effects and mortality displacement of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on deaths are lacking. We aimed to discern the cumulative effect profile of PM exposure, and investigate the presence of mortality displacement in a large-scale population. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis with different exposure-lag models on 13 cities in Jiangsu, China, to estimate the effects of PM pollution on non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality (2015-2019). Over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive models were integrated with distributed lag models to estimate cumulative exposure effects, and assess mortality displacement. RESULTS: Pooled cumulative effect estimates with lags of 0-7 and 0-14 days were substantially larger than those with single-day and 2-day moving average lags. For each 10 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 concentration with a cumulative lag of 0-7 days, we estimated an increase of 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.29, 0.72), 0.63 % (95 % CI: 0.38, 0.88), and 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.01, 1.01) in pooled estimates of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Both PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with significant increases in non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality with a cumulative lag of 0-14 days. We observed mortality displacement within 30 days for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that risk assessment based on single-day or 2-day moving average lag structures may underestimate the adverse effects of PM pollution. The cumulative effects of PM exposure on non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality can last up to 14 days. Evidence of mortality displacement for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths was found.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126821, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419843

RESUMO

Removal of antimony from wastewater is essential because of its potential harm to the environment and human health. Nano-silica and biogenic iron (oxyhydr)oxides composites (BS-Fe) were prepared by iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB) mediation and the batch adsorption experiments were applied to investigate antimonite (Sb(III)) and antimonate (Sb(V)) removal behaviors. By contrast, the synthetic BS-Fe calcined at 400 â„ƒ (BS-Fe-400) exhibited a large specific surface area (157.353 m2/g). The maximum adsorption capacities of BS-Fe-400 were 102.10 and 337.31 mg/g for Sb(III) and Sb(V), respectively, and experimental data fit well to the Langmuir isotherm and Temkin models, and followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Additionally, increasing pH promoted Sb(III) adsorption, while inhibited the adsorption of Sb(V), indicating that electrostatic attraction made a contribution to Sb(V) adsorption. Moreover, different co-existing ions showed different effects on adsorption. Characterization techniques of FTIR and XPS indicated that the main functional groups involved in the adsorption were -OH, C-O, CO, C-C, etc. and Sb(III) and Sb(V) may bind to iron (oxyhydr)oxides via the formation of inner-sphere complexes. The present work revealed that the synthetic BS-Fe-400 by nano-silica and biogenic iron (oxyhydr)oxides held great application potential in antimony removal from wastewater.


Assuntos
Antimônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Bactérias , Humanos , Ferro , Oxirredução , Óxidos , Dióxido de Silício
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850516

RESUMO

Regulation of fluorescence-phosphorescence pathways in organic molecular aggregate remains a challenge due to the complicated singlet-triplet excited state dynamics process. Herein, we demonstrated a successful example (o-BFT) to realize photoreversible fluorescence and room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) switching based on an effective strategy of integrating a phosphor (dibenzofuran) with a photoswitch (dithienylbenzothiophene). o-BFT exhibited dual emission of fluorescence and RTP in both powder and doping polymer film. Notably, the long-lived RTP of o-BFT could be repeatedly erased and restored through reversible photocyclization and decyclization under alternate ultraviolet and visible photoirradiation. In-depth theoretical and spectroscopic investigations revealed that the triplet inactivation was dominated by a photo-controlled triplet-to-singlet Förster resonance energy transfer from light-activated o-BFT to photoisomer c-BFT. Yet, the initial fluorescence could be preserved in this process to afford a photoreversible fluorescence-RTP switching.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101329, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731032

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor (NET) arising from the calcitonin-producing C cells. Unlike other NETs, there is no widely accepted pathologic grading scheme. In 2020, two groups separately developed slightly different schemes (the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Sydney grade) on the basis of proliferative activity (mitotic index and/or Ki67 proliferative index) and tumor necrosis. Building on this work, we sought to unify and validate an internationally accepted grading scheme for MTC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue from 327 patients with MTC from five centers across the United States, Europe, and Australia were reviewed for mitotic activity, Ki67 proliferative index, and necrosis using uniform criteria and blinded to other clinicopathologic features. After reviewing different cutoffs, a two-tiered consensus grading system was developed. High-grade MTCs were defined as tumors with at least one of the following features: mitotic index ≥ 5 per 2 mm2, Ki67 proliferative index ≥ 5%, or tumor necrosis. RESULTS: Eighty-one (24.8%) MTCs were high-grade using this scheme. In multivariate analysis, these patients demonstrated decreased overall (hazard ratio [HR] = 11.490; 95% CI, 3.118 to 32.333; P < .001), disease-specific (HR = 8.491; 95% CI, 1.461 to 49.327; P = .017), distant metastasis-free (HR = 2.489; 95% CI, 1.178 to 5.261; P = .017), and locoregional recurrence-free (HR = 2.114; 95% CI, 1.065 to 4.193; P = .032) survivals. This prognostic power was maintained in subgroup analyses of cohorts from each of the five centers. CONCLUSION: This simple two-tiered international grading system is a powerful predictor of adverse outcomes in MTC. As it is based solely on morphologic assessment in conjunction with Ki67 immunohistochemistry, it brings the grading of MTCs in line with other NETs and can be readily applied in routine practice. We therefore recommend grading of MTCs on the basis of mitotic count, Ki67 proliferative index, and tumor necrosis.

9.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731083

RESUMO

This article concentrates on adaptive tracking control of strict-feedback uncertain nonlinear systems with an event-based learning scheme. A novel neural network (NN) learning law is proposed to design the adaptive control scheme. The NN weights information driven by the prediction-error-based control process is intermittently transmitted in the event-triggered context to the NN learning law mainly for signal tracking. The online stored sampled data of NN driven by the tracking error are utilized in the event context to update the learning law. With the adaptive control and NN learning law updated via the event-triggered communication, the improvements of NN learning capability, tracking performance, and system computing resource saving are guaranteed. In addition, it is proved that the minimum time interval for triggering errors of the two types of events is bounded and the Zeno behavior is strictly excluded. Finally, simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed control method.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734681

RESUMO

Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is one of the most dominant mechanisms responsible for the loss of kidney grafts. Previous researches have shown that donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) are the major mediators of AMR. In order to prolong the survival time of grafts, it is vital to reduce the incidence of AMR and inhibit the generation of DSAs. We established an animal model of AMR by performing kidney transplantation in pre-sensitized rats. Then, we investigated the effect of bortezomib (BTZ) on AMR. We found that BTZ could reduce the serum level of DSAs and alleviate post-transplantation inflammation in peritubular capillaries (PTCs) and glomeruli, which was demonstrated by the reduction of C4d and IgG deposition in PTCs, and the reduced number of B cell and plasma cell in peripheral blood and the transplanted kidney (p < 0.05). Our results also suggested that BTZ increased the number of regulatory T cell (Treg) and significantly reduced the proportion of T helper (Th17) cell (p < 0.05). Besides, BTZ induced the significant upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines but downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.05). After dealing with Atg5 siRNA-lentivirus, the effect of BTZ alleviating AMR was reversed and Th17/Treg proportions were also significantly modulated. Collectively, these findings show that BTZ slows down the process of AMR and Atg5 may be the key mechanism. Furthermore, Atg5 silencing results may be demonstrated that Atg5 alleviated AMR by modulating the ratio of Th17/Treg.

11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-22, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730038

RESUMO

In comparison to conventional encapsulation methods of phenolic compounds (PCs), pH-driven method is green, simple and requires low energy consumption. It has a huge potential for industrial applications, and can overcome more effectively the aqueous solubility, stability and bioavailability issues related to PCs by changing pH to induce the encapsulation of PCs. This review aims to shed light on the use of pH-driven method for encapsulating PCs. The preparation steps and principles governing pH-driven method using various carriers and delivery systems are provided. A comparison of pH-driven with other methods is also presented. To circumvent the drawbacks of pH-driven method, improvement strategies are proposed. The essence of pH-driven method relies simultaneously on alkalization and acidification to bind PCs and carriers. It is used for the development of nanoemulsions, liposomes, edible films, nanoparticles, nanogels and functional foods. As a result of pH-driven method, PCs-loaded carriers may have smaller size, high encapsulation efficiency, more sustained-release and good bioavailability, due mainly to effects of pH change on the structure and properties of PCs as well as carriers. Finally, modification of wall materials and type of acidifier are considered as efficient approaches to improve the pH-driven method.

12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 736640, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760698

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed i) to identify the best cutoff points of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) that predict sarcopenia and ii) to illustrate the association between sarcopenia risk and NLR or PLR in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients undergoing laparoscopic partial or radical nephrectomy. Methods: A total of 343 RCC patients who underwent laparoscopic partial or radical nephrectomy between 2014 and 2019 were enrolled in our study. Sarcopenia was assessed by lumbar skeletal muscle index (SMI). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point of NLR or PLR to predict sarcopenia risk. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and dose-response analysis curves of restricted cubic spline function were conducted to assess the relationship between sarcopenia and NLR or PLR. Results: The best cutoff points of NLR >2.88 or PLR >135.63 were confirmed by the ROC curve to predict sarcopenia risk. Dose-response curves showed that the risk of sarcopenia increased with raising NLR and PLR. Patients with NLR >2.88 or PLR >135.63 had a higher sarcopenia risk than those in the NLR ≤2.8 or PLR ≤135.63 group, respectively. By adjusting for all variables, we found that patients with NLR >2.88 and PLR >135.63 had 149% and 85% higher risk to develop sarcopenia, respectively, than those with NLR ≤2.8 (aOR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.56-3.98; p < 0.001) or PLR ≤135.63 (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.16-2.95; p = 0.010). Conclusion: In RCC patients receiving laparoscopic partial or radical nephrectomy, NLR and PLR, which were biomarkers of systemic inflammation, were associated with sarcopenia risk.

13.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 9972805, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764819

RESUMO

Background: In the past decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), and noncoding RNAs in exosomes may play a major role. Aim: The present study is aimed at exploring the effect and mechanism of miR-326 in exosomes secreted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on pyroptosis of cartilage and OA improvement. Methods: Exosomes from BMSCs (BMSC-Exos) were isolated and identified to incubate with OA chondrocytes. Proliferation, migration, specific gene and miR-326 expression, and pyroptosis of chondrocytes were detected. BMSCs or chondrocytes were transfected with miR-326 mimics or inhibitors to investigate the effect of miR-326 in BMSC-Exos on pyroptosis of chondrocytes and the potential mechanism. Finally, a rat OA model was established to verify the effect and mechanism of miR-326 in BMSC-Exos on cartilage of pyroptosis. Results: Incubation with BMSC-Exos could significantly improve the survival rate, migration ability, and chondrocyte-specific genes (COL2A1, SOX9, Agg, and Prg4) and miR-326 expression of OA chondrocytes and significantly inhibit pyroptosis of chondrocytes by downregulation of the levels of inflammatory cytokines, Caspase-1 activity, and pyroptosis-related proteins such as GSDMD, NLRP3, ASC, IL-1ß, and IL-18 (P < 0.01). PKH26 labeling confirmed the uptake of BMSC-Exos by chondrocytes. Incubation with exosomes extracted from BMSCs overexpressing miR-326 can significantly repress the pyroptosis of chondrocytes, while knockdown of miR-326 had the opposite effect (P < 0.01). The same result was also demonstrated by direct interference with the expression level of miR-326 in chondrocytes (P < 0.01). In addition, we found that the overexpression of miR-326 significantly inhibited the expression of HDAC3 and NF-κB p65 and significantly promoted the expression of STAT1, acetylated STAT1, and acetylated NF-κB p65 in chondrocytes (P < 0.01). The targeted relationship between miR-326 and HDAC3 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Animal experiments confirmed the mechanism by which miR-326 delivered by BMSC-Exos inhibits pyroptosis of cartilage by targeting HDAC3 and STAT1/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway. Conclusion: BMSC-Exos can deliver miR-326 to chondrocytes and cartilage and improve OA by targeting HDAC3 and STAT1//NF-κB p65 to inhibit pyroptosis of chondrocytes and cartilage. Our findings provide a new mechanism for BMSC-Exos to treat OA.

14.
Surgery ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial neural network models have a strong self-learning ability and can deal with complex biological information, but there is no artificial neural network model for predicting the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: The clinicopathological data of patients who underwent radical resection of gastric cancer from January 2010 to September 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients who underwent surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy were randomly divided into a training cohort (70%) and a validation cohort (30%). An artificial neural network model (potential-CT-benefit-ANN) was established, and its ability to predict the potential benefit of chemotherapy was evaluated by the C-index. The prognostic prediction and stratification ability of potential-CT-benefit-ANN and the eighth American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system were compared by receiver operating characteristic curves and Kaplan-Meier curves. RESULTS: In both the training and validation cohort, potential-CT-benefit-ANN shows good prediction accuracy for potential adjuvant chemotherapy benefit. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the prediction accuracy of potential-CT-benefit-ANN was better than that of the eighth American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system in all groups. The calibration plots showed that the predicted prognosis of potential-CT-benefit-ANN was highly consistent with the actual value. The survival curves showed that potential-CT-benefit-ANN could stratify prognosis well for all groups and performed significantly better than the eighth AJCC staging system. CONCLUSION: The potential-CT-benefit-ANN model developed in this study can accurately predict the potential benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II/III gastric cancer. The benefit score based on potential-CT-benefit-ANN can predict the long-term prognosis of patients with adjuvant chemotherapy and has good prognostic stratification ability.

15.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757591

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) is considered to have potential antidiabetic effects; however, the role of the pancreatic intrinsic nervous system (PINS) in EA-induced amelioration of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether EA at ST25 exerts any beneficial effects on insulin resistance (IR), inflammation severity, and pancreatic ß cell function via the PINS in a rat model of a high-fat diet-streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced diabetes. To this end, Sprague Dawley rats were fed with HFD to induce IR, followed by STZ (35 mg/kg, i.p.) injection to establish the T2DM model. After hyperglycemia was confirmed as fasting glucose level > 16.7 mmol/L, the rats were treated with EA (2 mA, 2/15 Hz) for the next 28 days. Model rats showed increased serum glucose, insulin, IR, and TNF-α levels with a concomitant decrease in ß cell function. Microscopy examination of the pancreas revealed pathological changes in islets, which reverted to near-normal levels after EA at ST25. EA improved islet cell morphology by increasing islet area and reducing vacuolation. EA at ST25 decreased transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and increased substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression. Subsequently, insulin secretion decreased and impaired pancreatic endocrine function was restored through the TRPV1 channel (SP/CGRP)-insulin circuit. EA increased choline acetyltransferase and neuropeptide Y expression and controlled inflammation. It also enhanced the cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript prepropeptide expression and promoted glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. Additionally, the electrophysiological activity of PINS during acupuncture (2.71 ± 1.72 Hz) was significantly increased compared to the pre-acupuncture frequency (0.32 ± 0.37 Hz, P < 0.05). Thus, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of EA on ß cell dysfunction via the PINS in rat models of HFD-STZ-induced T2DM.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(46): e27630, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, some studies have suggested that the association of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) gene polymorphism with prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but there are still some controversies. Hence, we elaborated the relationship between APE1 rs1760944 and rs1130409 gene and PCa risk through systematic literature review and meta-analysis. METHODS: As of March 2020, EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Science Direct/Elsevier, MEDLINE and CNKI were used for systematic literature retrieval to investigate the correlation between APE1 rs1760944 and rs1130409 gene polymorphism with PCa risk. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager and Stata software. RESULTS: Seven studies were distinguished, consists of 1769 cases of PCa patients and 2237 normal controls. Our results illustrated that there are significant correlation between the APE1 rs1760944 gene polymorphism and PCa in all genetic models (P < .05). The combined odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were as follows: Additive model (ORs 0.62, 95%, CI [0.39, 0.97]); Codominant model (ORs 0.74, 95% CI [0.58, 0.95]); Dominant model (ORs 0.75, 95%, CI [0.59, 0.95]); Recessive model (ORs 0.63, 95% CI [0.41, 0.96]); Allele model (ORs 0.78, 95% CI [0.65, 0.94]). There also have significant associations between APE1 rs1130409 polymorphisms and PCa in all genetic models (P < .05). The combined odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were as follows: Additive model (ORs 1.37, 95%, CI [1.01, 1.85]); Codominant model (ORs 1.21, 95% CI [1.01, 1.44]); Dominant model (ORs 1.33, 95%, CI [1.02, 1.73]); Recessive model (ORs 1.74, 95% CI [1.06, 2.85]); Allele model (ORs 1.14, 95% CI [1.00, 1.29]). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that APE1 rs1760944 polymorphisms might be a protective factor of PCa, and APE1 rs1130409 is suggested to be a risk factor of PCa. APE1 rs1760944 and rs1130409 polymorphisms may be used in the risk assessment of PCa.

17.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789562

RESUMO

Hurthle cell carcinomas (HCC) are refractory to radioactive iodine and unresponsive to chemotherapeutic agents, with a fatality rate that is the highest among all types of thyroid cancer after anaplastic thyroid cancer. Our previous study on the genomic landscape of HCCs identified a high incidence of disruptions of mTOR pathway effectors. Here, we report a detailed analysis of mTOR signaling in cell line and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models of HCCs. We show that mTOR signaling is upregulated and that targeting mTOR signaling using mTOR inhibitors suppresses tumor growth in primary tumors and distant metastasis. Mechanistically, ablation of mTOR signaling impaired the expression of p-S6 and cyclin A2, resulting in the decrease of S phase and blocking of cancer cell proliferation. Strikingly, mTOR inhibitor treatment significantly reduced lung metastatic lesions, with the decreased expression of Snail in xenograft tumors. Our data demonstrates that mTOR pathway blockade represents a novel treatment strategy for HCC.

18.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772841

RESUMO

Although pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is benign, it may recur and prompt further treatment with radiotherapy (RT). This study investigated the prognostic features of primary and recurrent PAs. A total of 705 PAs (613 primary and 92 recurrent) were analyzed. The following parameters: age, site and size, status of resection, histologic features, and clinical management were documented and correlated with recurrence-free survival. For primary PAs: The mean patient age was 50 years (female/male: 2/1), the median size was 2.1 cm (range: 0.5 to 9.0 cm), and the most common location was the parotid (92%). Tumors showed the following: complete encapsulation (25%), involvement of the surrounding salivary gland/fat (74%), hypercellularity (26%), ≥10 pseudopods (15%), squamous metaplasia (43%), mitoses (49%), intravascular tumor deposit (n=1), close proximity to nerves (n=2), positive margin (15%), and suboptimal resection (2%). The recurrence rate was 3.4% and malignant transformation was <1%. On univariate analysis, age below 30, mitosis ≥3/10 HPFs, squamous metaplasia, hypercellularity, and suboptimal resection correlated with recurrence-free survival. On multivariate analysis, only age below 30, mitosis ≥3/10 HPF and suboptimal resection predicted recurrence. For recurrent PAs: The resected primary PAs were fragmented in 58%. Forty-eight percent of patients had subsequent recurrences, mostly within 10 years, and 1 patient developed a subsequent malignant transformation. Forty-two percent of patients received RT. On univariate analysis, only RT was associated with better outcome (P=0.033). Young age, high mitoses, and specimen integrity predicted recurrence in primary PA. Recurrent PAs are difficult to eradicate, and 48% of these recurred for the second time, mostly within 10 years.

19.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13714, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of primary bile cholangitis (PBC) is linked to gut microbiota dysbiosis. This study investigated the association between the gut microbiome and elevated total bilirubin (TB) level in PBC patients treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA). METHODS: A total of 47 PBC patients with 12 months of UCDA treatment were enrolled. Patients were divided into the TB (+) (TB>1× upper limit of the normal range [ULN]; n=20) and TB(-) (TB≤1× ULN; n=27) groups. Stool and serum specimens were collected, and microbiota composition and functional characteristics in the 2 groups were evaluated by 16S RNA gene sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. RESULTS: Bacterial diversity was lower in the TB(+) group than in the TB(-) group, although there was no significant difference in bacterial community profile. The phylum Saccharibacteria showed differential abundance in the 2 groups. Meanwhile, the TB(-) group had lower abundance of the Gemmiger, Blautia, Anaerostipes, and Coprococcus genera than the TB(+) group, whereas Holdemania was absent. The abundance of Gemmiger formicillis and Coprococcus eutactus was positively correlated with that of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, while Blautia, Anaerostipes, and Coprococcus were negatively correlated with total bile acid level. CONCLUSION: TB level in PBC patients treated for 12 months with UCDA is associated with a distinct gut microbiome profile.

20.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1188: 338859, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794573

RESUMO

Bioassays using a fluorophore and DNA aptamer have been extensively developed due to the ultrasensitivity of fluorophores and recognition ability of DNA aptamers. Conventional fluorescent aptamer-based sensors (aptasensors) require chemical labeling between the fluorophore and aptamer and is technologically impracical for various sensing and assay applications. A simple "mix and go" strategy has been introduced that uses label-free technology as a platform for sensor development. The biosensors comprise a fluorophore, a ssDNA aptamer, and eco-friendly graphene oxide (GO). In the absence of the sensor target, GO quenches the fluorescence of the fluorophore and single-strand DNA aptamer complex. When the target is added, the DNA aptamer conformationally turns into a duplex, G-quadruplexe, or other secondary structure. This structure change leads to release of GO by the fluorophore-aptamer-target complex, generating dramatic fluorescence recovery and amplification. With this sensing method, the DNA aptamer does not need to be chemically labeled. Therefore, flexible fluorophore indicators and ssDNA aptamers can be used in this label-free aptasensing strategy. In this review, we discuss various unlabeled fluorophores, including synthetic small molecular fluorophores and genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, as indicators for generating GO-based fluorescent DNA aptasensors for label-free bioassay.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Grafite , Bioensaio , Corantes Fluorescentes
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