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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 10(5)2017 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28772848

RESUMO

In this study, a template copolymer (TPAA) of (3-Acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (AATPAC) and acrylamide (AM) was successfully synthesized though ultrasonic-initiated template copolymerization (UTP), using sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) as a template. TPAA was characterized by an evident cationic microblock structure which was observed through the analyses of the reactivity ratio, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ¹H (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H (13C) NMR), and thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC). The introduction of the template could improve the monomer (AATPAC) reactivity ratio and increase the length and amount of AATPAC segments. This novel cationic microblock structure extremely enhanced the ability of charge neutralization, patching, and bridging, thus improving the activated sludge flocculation performance. The experiments of floc formation, breakage, and regrowth revealed that the cationic microblock structure in the copolymer resulted in large and compact flocs, and these flocs had a rapid regrowth when broken. Finally, the larger and more compact flocs contributed to the formation of more channels and voids, and therefore the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) reached a minimum.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(1): 016602, 2016 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799035

RESUMO

One of the basic assumptions in organic field-effect transistors, the most fundamental device unit in organic electronics, is that charge transport occurs two dimensionally in the first few molecular layers near the dielectric interface. Although the mobility of bulk organic semiconductors has increased dramatically, direct probing of intrinsic charge transport in the two-dimensional limit has not been possible due to excessive disorders and traps in ultrathin organic thin films. Here, highly ordered single-crystalline mono- to tetralayer pentacene crystals are realized by van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy on hexagonal BN. We find that the charge transport is dominated by hopping in the first conductive layer, but transforms to bandlike in subsequent layers. Such an abrupt phase transition is attributed to strong modulation of the molecular packing by interfacial vdW interactions, as corroborated by quantitative structural characterization and density functional theory calculations. The structural modulation becomes negligible beyond the second conductive layer, leading to a mobility saturation thickness of only ∼3 nm. Highly ordered organic ultrathin films provide a platform for new physics and device structures (such as heterostructures and quantum wells) that are not possible in conventional bulk crystals.

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