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1.
Small ; : e1902813, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596546

RESUMO

Owing to their safety, high energy density, and long cycling life, all-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) have been identified as promising systems to power portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Developing high-performance solid-state electrolytes is vital for the successful commercialization of ASSLBs. In particular, polymer-based composite solid electrolytes (PCSEs), derived from the incorporation of inorganic fillers into polymer solid electrolytes, have emerged as one of the most promising electrolyte candidates for ASSLBs because they can synergistically integrate many merits from their components. The development of PCSEs is summarized. Their major components, including typical polymer matrices and diverse inorganic fillers, are reviewed in detail. The effects of fillers on their ionic conductivity, mechanical strength, thermal/interfacial stability and possible Li+ -conductive mechanisms are discussed. Recent progress in a number of rationally constructed PCSEs by compositional and structural modulation based on different design concepts is introduced. Successful applications of PCSEs in various lithium-battery systems including lithium-sulfur and lithium-gas batteries are evaluated. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives for developing high-performance PCSEs are proposed.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(38): 34939-34947, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465194

RESUMO

Garnet-type solid electrolytes are suitable for solid-state batteries with a lithium metal anode, but it is challenging to fabricate garnet-based lithium metal batteries with a long cycle life at high rates. This study demonstrates that a mosaic Li7Sn3/LiF interface layer formed in situ on the surface of garnet-type Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 (LLZT) through the reaction between a SnF2 coating layer and a lithium metal enables stable, high-rate cycling for LLZT-based batteries. The interface layer possesses a nanomosaic structure of Li7Sn3 nanoparticles and surrounding LiF, enabling fast lithium-ion conduction. Meanwhile, ion insulating Li2CO3 on the surface of LLZT pellets is completely removed by SnF2 during the formation of the interface layer, which reduces the ion diffusion barrier from LLZT to the lithium anode. Benefiting from the advantageous interface layer, LiFePO4∥SnF2-LLZT∥Li cells show superior cycle performance over 200 cycles at 1 C (272 µA cm-2) with a capacity of 140.6 mAh g-1 (94.6% retention) at 30 °C. Even at 2 C, a capacity of 102.9 mAh g-1 remains after 200 cycles. This work provides an optimal interfacial structure to enhance lithium-ion migration between garnet electrolytes and a lithium metal and paves the way for developing high-performance solid-state batteries.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(32): 28774-28780, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314493

RESUMO

Safety is critical to developing next-generation batteries with high-energy density. Polyether-based electrolytes, such as poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), are attractive alternatives to the current flammable liquid organic electrolyte, since they are much more thermally stable and compatible with high-capacity lithium anode. Unfortunately, they are not stable with 4 V Li(NixMnyCo1-x-y)O2 (NMC) cathodes, hindering them from application in batteries with high-energy density. Here, we report that the compatibility between PEG electrolyte and NMC cathodes can be significantly improved by forming a 2 nm Al2O3 coating on the NMC surface. This nanoscale coating dramatically changes the composition of the cathode electrolyte interphase and thus stabilizes the PEG electrolyte with the NMC cathode. With Al2O3, the capacity remains at 84.7% after 80 cycles and 70.3% after 180 cycles. In contrast, the capacity fades to less than 50% after only 20 cycles in bare NMC electrodes. This study opens a new opportunity to develop safe electrolyte for lithium batteries with high-energy density.

4.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(1): 47-54, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049149

RESUMO

Dysregulated free cholesterol (FC) metabolism has been implicated in nearly all stages of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of most cardiovascular disease. According to a widely cited model, the burden of macrophage FC in the arterial wall is relieved by transhepatic reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), which comprises three successive steps: (1) macrophage FC efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and/or its major protein, apolipoprotein AI; (2) FC esterification by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT); and (3) HDL-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake via the hepatic HDL-receptor, scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1). Recent studies have challenged the validity of this model, most notably the role of LCAT, which appears to be of minor importance. In mice, most macrophage-derived FC is rapidly cleared from plasma (t1/2 < 5 min) without esterification by hepatic uptake; the remainder is taken up by multiple tissue and cell types, especially erythrocytes. Further, some FC is cleared by the nonhepatic transintestinal pathway. Lastly, FC movement among lipid surfaces is reversible, so that a higher-than-normal level of HDL-FC bioavailability-defined by high plasma HDL levels concurrent with a high mol% HDL-FC-leads to the transfer of excess FC to cells in vivo. SR-B1-/- mice provide an animal model to study the mechanistic consequences of high HDL-FC bioavailability that provokes atherosclerosis and other metabolic abnormalities. Future efforts should aim to reduce HDL-FC bioavailability, thereby reducing FC accretion by tissues and the attendant atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilcolina-Esterol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(19): 17333-17340, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013429

RESUMO

Rechargeable metallic lithium batteries are considered as promising candidates for next-generation energy storage due to their high energy densities. However, safety concerns associated with electrolyte flammability and dendrite growth hinder their practical applications. Nonflammable liquid electrolytes have attracted significant attention recently, but they are mainly based on expensive ionic liquids, fluorinated solvents, or with highly concentrated salt. Here we design a novel trisalt electrolyte composed of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI)-lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB)-LiPF6 in EC/PC solvent, which is not flammable even in contact with fire. Moreover, it creates unique protection of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on lithium metal anode that allows 400 cycles of Li/Li(NiMnCo)1/3O2 cells with a capacity retention of 97.0% at 0.83 mA cm-2. This work illustrates that low-cost fluorine-free carbonate solvents can also realize nonflammable electrolyte with high performance, which opens new opportunities to promote safety and energy density of rechargeable lithium batteries simultaneously.

6.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 15: 73, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337946

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases that accompanied by severe complications. Gynura divaricata (GD), a medicinal and edible plant that is usually used for the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical components of GD with hypoglycemic effect and the possible mechanism lowering blood sugar in T2D diabetic mice. Methods: The methanol extract of GD was analysed by HPLC-DAD. And then mice with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin feed the diet containing lyophilized GD powder for 4 weeks. During this period, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and body weight were measured. Results: GD was rich in four bioactive components of dicaffeoylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid. These components occupied about 2.37% in the GD powder in which the highest level was 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Oral GD significantly reduced FBG, fasting serum insulin, and glycosylated serum protein levels, and enhanced antioxidative activities. HE-staining showed that the pathological damage in pancreatic ß-cells was ameliorated. An immunohistochemical assay also showed that GD promoted marked pancreatic ß-cell regeneration. GD also caused notable increase in GLUT2, GK, MafA, PDX-1, and Bcl-2 as well as reduction in Bax and caspase-3 expression as shown by western blot analysis. Conclusions: GD exerts the pronounced hypoglycaemic effect by inhibiting islet cell apoptosis and improving pancreatic function. Therefore, GD might have a potential to improve diabetes.

7.
J Clin Lipidol ; 12(4): 849-856, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731282

RESUMO

Human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations are a negative risk factor for atherosclerosis-linked cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological attempts to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been disappointing so that recent research has shifted from HDL quantity to HDL quality, that is, functional vs dysfunctional HDL. HDL has varying degrees of dysfunction reflected in impaired reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In the context of atheroprotection, RCT occurs by 2 mechanisms: one is the well-known trans-hepatic pathway comprising macrophage free cholesterol (FC) efflux, which produces early forms of FC-rich nascent HDL (nHDL). Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase converts HDL-FC to HDL-cholesteryl ester while converting nHDL from a disc to a mature spherical HDL, which transfers its cholesteryl ester to the hepatic HDL receptor, scavenger receptor B1 for uptake, conversion to bile salts, or transfer to the intestine for excretion. Although widely cited, current evidence suggests that this is a minor pathway and that most HDL-FC and nHDL-FC rapidly transfer directly to the liver independent of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. A small fraction of plasma HDL-FC enters the trans-intestinal efflux pathway comprising direct FC transfer to the intestine. SR-B1-/- mice, which have impaired trans-hepatic FC transport, are characterized by high plasma levels of a dysfunctional FC-rich HDL that increases plasma FC bioavailability in a way that produces whole-body hypercholesterolemia and multiple pathologies. The design of future therapeutic strategies to improve RCT will have to be formulated in the context of these dual RCT mechanisms and the role of FC bioavailability.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(22): 19047-19058, 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757610

RESUMO

Owing to their unique structural advantages, TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures assembled by low-dimensional (LD) building blocks have been extensively used in the energy-storage/-conversion field. However, it is still a big challenge to produce such advanced structures by current synthetic techniques because of the harsh conditions needed to generate primary LD subunits. Herein, a novel one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 hierarchical porous fibrous nanostructure constructed by TiO2 nanobelts is synthesized by combining a room-temperature aqueous solution growth mechanism with the electrospinning technology. The nanobelt-constructed 1D hierarchical nanoarchitecture is evolves directly from the amorphous TiO2/SiO2 composite fibers in alkaline solutions at ambient conditions without any catalyst and other reactant. Benefiting from the unique structural features such as 1D nanoscale building blocks, large surface area, and numerous interconnected pores, as well as mixed phase anatase-TiO2(B), the optimum 1D TiO2 hierarchical porous nanostructure shows a remarkable high-rate performance when tested as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (107 mA h g-1 at ∼10 A g-1) and can be used in a hybrid lithium-ion supercapacitor with very stable lithium-storage performance (a capacity retention of ∼80% after 3000 cycles at 2 A g-1). The current work presents a scalable and cost-effective method for the synthesis of advanced TiO2 hierarchical materials for high-power and stable energy-storage/-conversion devices.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(12): 10029-10035, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473727

RESUMO

By using highly Li-ion conductive 78Li2S-22P2S5 glass-ceramic (7822gc) as both the electrolyte and active material in the composite cathode obtained via ball-milling the 7822gc with multiple carbons, a kind of monolithic all-solid-state batteries were prepared with a lithium-indium foil as the anode. Such 7822gc-based monolithic batteries present stable discharge capacity of 480.3 mA h g-1 at 0.176 mA cm-2 after 60 cycles, which is three times larger than that of the previous work, with the highest capacity obtained so far among all attempts of using sulfide electrolytes as the active materials. High capacity retention of 90.6% and Coulombic efficiency of higher than 99% with high active material loading of 7 mg cm-2 were also obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to reveal the electrochemical reaction mechanisms in the 7822gc cathode.

10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 37(12): 2260-2270, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reverse cholesterol transport comprises cholesterol efflux from ABCA1-expressing macrophages to apolipoprotein (apo) AI, giving nascent high-density lipoprotein (nHDL), esterification of nHDL-free cholesterol (FC), selective hepatic extraction of HDL lipids, and hepatic conversion of HDL cholesterol to bile salts, which are excreted. We tested this model by identifying the fates of nHDL-[3H]FC, [14C] phospholipid (PL), and [125I]apo AI in serum in vitro and in vivo. APPROACH AND RESULTS: During in vitro incubation of human serum, nHDL-[3H]FC and [14C]PL rapidly transfer to HDL and low-density lipoproteins (t1/2=2-7 minutes), whereas nHDL-[125I]apo AI transfers solely to HDL (t1/2<10 minutes) and to the lipid-free form (t1/2>480 minutes). After injection into mice, nHDL-[3H]FC and [14C]PL rapidly transfer to liver (t1/2=≈2-3 minutes), whereas apo AI clears with t1/2=≈460 minutes. The plasma nHDL-[3H]FC esterification rate is slow (0.46%/h) compared with hepatic uptake. PL transfer protein enhances nHDL-[14C]PL but not nHDL-[3H]FC transfer to cultured Huh7 hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: nHDL-FC, PL, and apo AI enter different pathways in vivo. Most nHDL-[3H]FC and [14C]PL are rapidly extracted by the liver via SR-B1 (scavenger receptor class B member 1) and spontaneous transfer; hepatic PL uptake is promoted by PL transfer protein. nHDL-[125I]apo AI transfers to HDL and to the lipid-free form that can be recycled to nHDL formation. Cholesterol esterification by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase is a minor process in nHDL metabolism. These findings could guide the design of therapies that better mobilize peripheral tissue-FC to hepatic disposal.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Lipoproteínas de Alta Densidade Pré-beta/sangue , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Linhagem Celular , Ésteres do Colesterol/sangue , Cromatografia em Gel , Meia-Vida , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilcolina-Esterol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Transfecção
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(39): 13779-13785, 2017 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898065

RESUMO

Easy processing and flexibility of polymer electrolytes make them very promising in developing all-solid-state lithium batteries. However, their low room-temperature conductivity and poor mechanical and thermal properties still hinder their applications. Here, we use Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 (LLZTO) ceramics to trigger structural modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer electrolyte. By combining experiments and first-principle calculations, we find that La atom of LLZTO could complex with the N atom and C═O group of solvent molecules such as N,N-dimethylformamide along with electrons enriching at the N atom, which behaves like a Lewis base and induces the chemical dehydrofluorination of the PVDF skeleton. Partially modified PVDF chains activate the interactions between the PVDF matrix, lithium salt, and LLZTO fillers, hence leading to significantly improved performance of the flexible electrolyte membrane (e.g., a high ionic conductivity of about 5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 25 °C, high mechanical strength, and good thermal stability). For further illustration, a solid-state lithium battery of LiCoO2|PVDF-based membrane|Li is fabricated and delivers satisfactory rate capability and cycling stability at room temperature. Our study indicates that the LLZTO modifying PVDF membrane is a promising electrolyte used for all-solid-state lithium batteries.

12.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med ; 14(3): 113-127, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: G. divaricata (L.) DC belongs to genus the Gynura Cass which is a kind of perennial herb that has good health protection efficacy and is especially used widely in medicine and functional food. It is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and is usually used to cure bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, kink cough, rheumatism, diabetes, and so on. It has a long history for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the folk medicine. This review is aimed at gathering all information relating to G. divaricata and obtaining new insights for further studies on G. divaricata. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Springer Link, Web of Science, Science Direct and Research Gate were used for the literature search. The key search terms included G. divaricata isolation and identification, flavonoids and their combinations without language restriction. The period for the search is from year 1979 to 2016. RESULTS: The main chemical components were listed, and the folk application, the extraction and separation methods of main chemical components, pharmacological effects of G. divaricata were discussed, which further demonstrated the plant's value as health food and medicine. CONCLUSION: The present review is of great significance to the development of new medicinal resources and health food of G. divaricata.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(11): 9654-9661, 2017 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28244733

RESUMO

All-solid-state bulk-type lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are considered ultimate solutions to the safety issues associated with conventional LIBs using flammable liquid electrolyte. The development of bulk-type all-solid-state LIBs has been hindered by the low loading of active cathode materials, hence low specific surface capacity, and by the high interface resistance, which results in low rate and cyclic performance. In this contribution, we propose and demonstrate a synergistic all-composite approach to fabricating flexible all-solid-state LIBs. PEO-based composite cathode layers (filled with LiFePO4 particles) of ∼300 µm in thickness and composite electrolyte layers (filled with Al-LLZTO particles) are stacked layer-by-layer with lithium foils as negative layer and hot-pressed into a monolithic all-solid-state LIB. The flexible LIB delivers a high specific discharge capacity of 155 mAh/g, which corresponds to an ultrahigh surface capacity of 10.8 mAh/cm2, exhibits excellent capacity retention up to at least 10 cycles and could work properly under harsh operating conditions such as bending or being sectioned into pieces. The all-composite approach is favorable for improving both mesoscopic and microscopic interfaces inside the all-solid-state LIB and may provide a new toolbox for design and fabrication of all-solid-state LIBs.

14.
Cancer Med ; 6(1): 310-319, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27860387

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation plays an important role in tumor progression. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate whether inflammatory biomarkers such as the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) could predict the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this analysis, pretreatment GPS, NLR, PLR, LMR of 388 patients who were diagnosed as nonmetastatic NPC and recruited prospectively in the 863 Program No. 2006AA02Z4B4 were assessed. Of those, the 249 cases enrolled between December 27th 2006 and July 31st 2011 were defined as the development set. The rest 139 cases enrolled between August 1st 2011 and July 31st 2013 were defined as the validation set. The variables above were analyzed in the development set, together with age, gender, Karnofsky performance score, T stage, and N stage, with respect to their impact on the disease-specific survival (DSS) through a univariate analysis. The candidate prognostic factors then underwent a multivariate analysis. A nomogram was established to predict the DSS, by involving the independent prognostic factors. Its predction capacity was evaluated through calculating Harrell's concordance index (C-index) in the validation set. After multivariate analysis for the development set, age (≤50 vs. >50 years old), T stage (T1-2 vs. T3-4), N stage (N0-1 vs. N2-3) and pretreatment GPS (0 vs. 1-2), NLR (≤2.5 vs. >2.5), LMR (≤2.35 vs. >2.35) were independent prognostic factors of DSS (P values were 0.002, 0.008, <0.001, 0.004, 0.018, and 0.004, respectively). A nomogram was established by involving all the factors above. Its C-index for predicting the DSS of the validation set was 0.734 (standard error 0.056). Pretreatment GPS, NLR, and LMR were independent prognostic factors of NPC. The nomogram based on them could be used to predict the DSS of NPC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/imunologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Monócitos/citologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/imunologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nomogramas , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27373035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between-1304T/G polymorphism in the promoter of MKK4 gene and the susceptibility in sporadic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHOD: MKK4-1304T/G genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 90 NPC cases and 30 healthy controls. RESULT: The number of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients carrying with TG+GG genotype was much higher than those of controls (82.2% vs 66.7%, χ² =10.076, P < 0.05). Analysis showed that compared with the-1304TT genotype, -1304TG heterozygous reduced risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma 0.56 fold (95% CI = 0.164-1.178, P < 0.01) and-1304GG lower 0.58 fold (95% CI = 0.126-1.381, P < 0.01), TG+ GG genotype variation risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma decreased 0.72 fold (95% CI = 0.105-0.753, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: MKK4 gene-1304TG genotype can reduce risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and it may be an independent protection factor in sporadic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Carcinoma , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
16.
Chin J Cancer ; 35: 37, 2016 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27056488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the improved overall survival (OS) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, the importance of quality of life (QoL) is increasingly being recognized. For some radiosensitive NPC patients, whether low-dose radiotherapy can improve the QoL without affecting clinical efficacy is unknown. This study aimed to assess the survival rates and QoL of NPC patients treated with 50 Gy radiotherapy plus hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD). METHODS: Forty-six newly diagnosed NPC patients treated with 50 Gy radiotherapy plus HPD between June 1988 and July 1992 were analyzed. All patients were restaged according to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. The radiotherapy plan was designed on the basis of pretreatment computed tomography. The OS, local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. QoL was assessed using the Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. RESULTS: The 5-year OS, LRFS, DMFS, and DFS rates were 74.3%, 72.6%, 82.1%, and 61.2%, respectively. The corresponding 10-year rates were 38.4%, 62.9%, 78.5%, and 49.8%, respectively, and the 20-year rates were 27.7%, 51.4%, 78.5%, and 40.7%, respectively. None of the patients developed severe radiation-related complications, such as radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis, hearing loss, trismus, and dysphagia. CONCLUSION: Some NPC patients were sensitive to 50 Gy radiotherapy plus HPD, and this sensitivity was characterized by long-term survival without significant late treatment morbidities.


Assuntos
Hematoporfirinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Qualidade de Vida , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27057196

RESUMO

This study was designed to determine whether the 50% EtOH fraction from AB-8 macroporous resin fractionation of a 70% EtOH extract of P. Alkekengi (50-EFP) has antibacterial and/or anti-inflammatory activity both in vivo and in vitro and to investigate the mechanism of 50-EFP anti-inflammatory activity. Additionally, this study sought to define the chemical composition of 50-EFP. Results indicated that 50-EFP showed significant antibacterial activity in vitro and efficacy in vivo. Moreover, 50-EFP significantly reduced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated THP-1 cells. Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (examined at the protein level) in THP-1 cells were suppressed by 50-EFP, which inhibited nuclear translocation of p65. Consistent with this anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, 50-EFP reduced inflammation in both animal models. Finally, seventeen compounds (8 physalins and 9 flavones) were isolated as major components of 50-EFP. Our data demonstrate that 50-EFP has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-inflammatory effect appears to occur, at least in part, through the inhibition of nuclear translocation of p65. Moreover, physalins and flavones are probably the active components in 50-EFP that exert antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 86: 177-88, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26835987

RESUMO

In our previous study, we found that the acidic polysaccharides of Ephedra sinica had immunosuppressive effect to treat rheumatoid arthritis and the pure polysaccharide ESP-B4 was the main composition of the acidic polysaccharides. At present, the exact molecular mechanism of ESP-B4 on treating arthritis is unclear. We are thus evaluating the properties of ESP-B4 on LPS-induced THP-1 pro-monocytic cells and adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar rats via TLR4. In vitro, ESP-B4 decreased the production of cytokines induced by LPS. In addition, ESP-B4 reduced the LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-κB. Pretreatment with ESP-B4 significantly down-regulated the phosphorylation of MAPKs induced by LPS. Furthermore, in vivo, after 12 days of disease induced by adjuvant, rats were treated with ESP-B4 for 16 days. ESP-B4 significantly improved all parameters of inflammation. ESP-B4 reduced the release of inflammatory factors and cytokines by inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathway to treat rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ephedra sinica/química , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Artrite/genética , Artrite/patologia , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Dinoprostona/biossíntese , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Ligantes , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
19.
Materials (Basel) ; 9(12)2016 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774077

RESUMO

Well-dispersed Co/CoO/C nanospheres have been designed and constructed through a facile electrospinning method with a strategy controlling the morphology of nanocomposites via adjusting the pre-oxidized and heat treatments. Scanning electron microscopy results reveal that the as-synthesized sample pre-oxidized at 275 °C shows better spherical morphology with a diameter of around 300 nm without conspicuous agglomeration. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the coexistence of cobalt and cobalt monoxide in the sample. Furthermore, the electrochemical tests reveal that the sample pre-oxidized at 275 °C displays excellent cycling stability with only 0.016% loss per cycle even after 400 cycles at 1000 mA·g-1 and enhanced high-rate capability with a specific discharge capacity of 354 mA·g-1 at 2000 mA·g-1. Besides, the sample pre-oxidized at 275 °C shows a specific capacity of 755 mA·g-1 at 100 mA·g-1 after 95 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance has been ascribed to the well dispersion of nanospheres, the improved electronic conductivity, and the structural integrity contribution from the carbon and cobalt coexisting nanocomposite. The strategy for preparing well-dispersed nanospheres by adjusting pre-oxidized and annealing processes could have insight for other oxide nanosphere synthesis.

20.
Environ Toxicol ; 31(6): 655-62, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25411160

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been used in environmental management, food, medicine, and industry. But TiO2 NPs have been demonstrated to cross the blood-brain barrier and store up in the brain organization, leading to glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity. However, the neurotoxicity in the brain is not well understood. In this study, mice were exposed to 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg body weight TiO2 NPs for 9 months, and the glutamate-glutamine cyclic pathway and expressions of glutamate receptors associated with the hippocampal neurotoxicity were investigated. Our findings showed elevations of glutamate release and phosphate-activated glutaminase activity, and reductions in glutamine and glutamine synthetase in the hippocampus following exposure to TiO2 NPs. Furthermore, TiO2 NPs significantly inhibited the expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits (including NR1, NR2A, and NR2B) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 in mouse hippocampus. These findings suggest that the imbalance of glutamate metabolism triggered inhibitions of glutamate receptor expression in the TiO2 NP-exposed hippocampus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 655-662, 2016.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutaminase/genética , Glutaminase/metabolismo , Glutamina/genética , Glutamina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/genética , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo
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