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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5908, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625564

RESUMO

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 is capable of lysing tumor cells while alerting the immune system. CD47, in collaboration with SIRPα, represents an important immune checkpoint to inhibit phagocytosis by innate immune cells. Here we show locoregional control of glioblastoma by an oncolytic herpes virus expressing a full-length anti(α)-human CD47 IgG1 or IgG4 antibody. The antibodies secreted by the virus-infected glioblastoma cells block the CD47 'don't eat me' signal irrespective of the subclass; however, αCD47-IgG1 has a stronger tumor killing effect than αCD47-IgG4 due to additional antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis by macrophages and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by NK cells. Intracranially injected αCD47-IgG1-producing virus continuously releases the respective antibody in the tumor microenvironment but not into systemic circulation; additionally, αCD47-IgG1-producing virus also improves the survival of tumor-bearing mice better than control oncolytic herpes virus combined with topical αCD47-IgG1. Results from immunocompetent mouse tumor models further confirm that macrophages, and to a lesser extent NK cells, mediate the anti-tumor cytotoxicity of antibody-producing oncolytic herpesviruses. Collectively, oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 encoding full-length antibodies could improve immune-virotherapy for glioblastoma.

2.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(10): 839-855, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636187

RESUMO

B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is an important antiapoptotic gene that plays a dual role in the maintenance of the dynamic balance between the survival and death of cancer cells. In our previous study, Bcl-2 was shown to delay the G0/G1 to S phase entry by regulating the mitochondrial metabolic pathways to produce lower levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the detailed molecular mechanisms or pathways by which Bcl-2 regulates the cell cycle remain unknown. Here, we compared the effects of Bcl-2 overexpression with an empty vector control in the NIH3T3 cell line synchronized by serum starvation, and evaluated the effects using proteomic analysis. The effect of Bcl-2 on cell cycle regulation was detected by monitoring Bcl-2 and p27 expression. The result of subsequent proteomic analysis of Bcl-2 overexpressing cells identified 169 upregulated and 120 downregulated proteins with a 1.5-fold change. These differentially expressed proteins were enriched in a number of signaling pathways predominantly involving the ribosome and oxidative phosphorylation, according to the data of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses. These results indicated that Bcl-2 potentially acts at the translation level to influence proteins or enzymes of the respiratory chain or in the ribosome, and thereby regulates the cell cycle. Additionally, differentially expressed proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation were determined to account for most of the effects of Bcl-2 on the cell cycle mediated by the mitochondrial pathway investigated in our previous study. These results can provide assistance for additional in-depth studies on the regulation of the cell cycle by Bcl-2. The results of the proteomic analysis determined the mechanism of Bcl-2-dependent delay of the cell cycle progression. In summary, the results of this study provide a novel mechanistic basis for identifying the key proteins or pathways for designing and developing precisely targeted cancer drugs.

3.
Asian J Androl ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596601

RESUMO

Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) is a common cause of infertility and is defined as the complete absence of sperm in ejaculation due to defective spermatogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic etiology of NOA in an infertile male from a Chinese consanguineous family. A homozygous missense variant of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 1 (MBOAT1) gene (c.770C>T, p.Thr257Met) was found by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Bioinformatic analysis also showed that this variant was a pathogenic variant and that the amino acid residue in MBOAT1 was highly conserved in mammals. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis showed that the mRNA level of MBOAT1 in the patient was 22.0% lower than that in his father. Furthermore, we screened variants of MBOAT1 in a broader population and found an additional homozygous variant of the MBOAT1 gene in 123 infertile men. Our data identified homozygous variants of the MBOAT1 gene associated with male infertility. This study will provide new insights for researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms of male infertility and will help clinicians make accurate diagnoses.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645647

RESUMO

Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) blocking immune checkpoints have emerged as important cancer therapeutics, as exemplified by systemic administration of the IgG1 anti-CD47 mAb that blocks the "don't eat me" pathway. However, this strategy is associated with severe toxicity. Experimental Design: To improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxicities for ovarian cancer, we engineered an oncolytic herpesvirus (oHSV) to express a full-length, soluble anti-CD47 mAb with a human IgG1 scaffold (OV-αCD47-G1) or IgG4 scaffold (OV-αCD47-G1). Results: Both IgG1 and IgG4 anti-CD47 mAbs secreted by oHSV-infected tumor cells blocked the CD47-SIRPα signal pathway, enhancing macrophage phagocytosis against ovarian tumor cells. OV-αCD47-G1, but not OV-αCD47-G4, activated human NK cell cytotoxicity and macrophage phagocytosis by binding to the Fc receptors of these cells. In vivo, these multifaceted functions of OV-αCD47-G1 improved mouse survival in xenograft and immunocompetent mouse models of ovarian cancer when compared to OV-αCD47-G4 and a parental oHSV. The murine counterpart of OV-αCD47-G1, OV-αmCD47-G2b, also enhanced mouse NK cell cytotoxicity and macrophage phagocytosis and prolonged survival of mice bearing ovarian tumors compared to OV-αmCD47-G3. OV-αmCD47-G2b was also superior to αmCD47-G2b and showed a significantly better effect when combined with an antibody against PD-L1 that was upregulated by oHSV infection. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that an oHSV encoding a full-length human IgG1 anti-CD47 mAb, when used as a single agent or combined with another agent, is a promising approach for improving ovarian cancer treatment via enhancing innate immunity, as well as performing its known oncolytic function and modulation of immune cells.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605601

RESUMO

Photothermal materials with broadband optical absorption and high conversion efficiency are intensively pursued to date. Here, proposing by the d-d interband transitions, we report an unprecedented high-entropy alloy FeCoNiTiVCrCu nanoparticles that the energy regions below and above the Fermi level (±4 eV) have been fully filled by the 3 d transition metals, which realizes an average absorbance greater than 96% in the entire solar spectrum (wavelength of 250 to 2500 nm). Furthermore, we also calculated the photothermal conversion efficiency and the evaporation rate towards the steam generation. Due to its pronounced full light capture and ultrafast local heating, our high-entropy-alloy nanoparticle-based solar steam generator has over 98% efficiency under one sun irradiation, meanwhile enabling a high evaporation rate of 2.26 kg m -2 h -1 .

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615657

RESUMO

Background and objectives: IgA nephropathy is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Previous research demonstrated that collectin11, an initiator of complement lectin pathway, was involved in both acute kidney injury and chronic tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Here, we investigated the potential role of collectin11 in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. Design, setting, participants, and measurements: The deposition of collectin11 and other complement proteins was detected in glomeruli of 60 participants with IgA nephropathy by immunofluorescence. In vitro, human mesangial cells were treated with IgA1-containing immune complexes derived from participants with IgA nephropathy. Then, the expression of collectin11 in mesangial cells was examined by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence. The codeposition of collctin11 with IgA1 or C3 on mesangial cells was detected by immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays. Results: 37% participants with IgA nephropathy (22/60) showed codeposition of collectin11 with IgA in the glomerular mesangium. Using an injury model of mesangial cells, we demonstrated that IgA1-immune complexes derived from participants with IgA nephropathy increased the secretion of collectin11 in mesangial cells with the subsequent deposition of collectin11 on the cell surface via the interaction with deposited IgA1-immune complexes. In vitro, we found that collectin11 bound to IgA1-immune complexes in a dose-dependent but calcium-independent manner. Furthermore, deposited collectin11 initiated the activation of complement and accelerated the deposition of C3 on mesangial cells. Conclusions: In situ-produced collectin11 by mesangial cells might play an essential role in kidney injury in a subset of patients with IgA nephropathy through the induction of complement activation.

8.
Sleep Breath ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker irbesartan (ARB) with a partial agonist of PPAR-γ could protect against chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced cardiac Fas/FasL-mediated to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were in a normoxic control group (CON-G), or rats were in a chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia group (HP-G, from 3 to 7% oxygen versus 21% oxygen per forty seconds cycle, nocturnally 8 h per day for 1 month), or rats were in a chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia group pretreated with ARB (50 mg/kg/day, S.C.) (ARB-HP-G). Echocardiography, H&E staining, TUNEL staining, and Western blotting were measured in the left ventricle. RESULTS: Hypoxia-induced SIRT1 degradation, Fas receptors, FADD, active caspase-8 and caspase-3 (Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway) and Bax, tBid, active caspase-9 and -3 (mitochondrial apoptotic pathway) and TUNEL-positive apoptosis were reduced in ARB-HP-G when compared with HP-G. IGF-I, IGF1 receptor, p-PI3k, p-Akt, Bcl2, and Bcl-XL (IGF1/PI3K/AKT pro-survival pathway) were increased in ARB-HP-G compared to HP-G. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the ARB may prevent cardiac Fas/FasL to mitochondrial apoptotic pathways and enhance cardiac IGF1/PI3K/AKT pro-survival pathway in the sleep apnea model associated with JNK de-activation and SIRT1 upregulation. ARB prevents chronic sleep apnea-enhanced cardiac apoptosis via enhancing survival pathways.

9.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626343

RESUMO

Anesthetics are commonly used in various medical procedures. Accumulating evidence suggests that early-life anesthetics exposure in infants and children affects brain development, causing psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using zebrafish larvae as a model, we found that the proliferation and migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) were severely impaired by the exposure of midazolam (MDZ), an anesthetic widely used in pediatric surgery and intensive care medicine, leading to a reduction of oligodendroglial lineage cell in the dorsal spinal cord. This defect was mimicked by the bath application of translocator protein (TSPO) agonists and partially rescued by genetic downregulation of TSPO. Cell transplantation experiments showed that requirement of TSPO for MDZ-induced oligodendroglial lineage cell defects is cell-autonomous. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy and in vivo electrophysiological recording experiments demonstrated that MDZ exposure caused axon hypomyelination and action potential propagation retardation, resulting in delayed behavior initiation. Thus, our findings reveal that MDZ affects oligodendroglial lineage cell development and myelination in young animals, raising the care about its clinic use in infants and children.

10.
Environ Int ; 158: 106913, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on the associations of legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and glucose homeostasis remain discordant. Understanding of PFAS alternatives is limited, and few studies have reported joint associations of PFASs and PFAS alternatives. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of novel PFAS alternatives (chlorinated perfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids, Cl-PFESAs and perfluorobutanoic acid, PFBA) and two legacy PFASs (Perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA and perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) with glucose-homeostasis markers and explore joint associations of 13 legacy and alternative PFASs with the selected outcomes. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data of 1,038 adults from the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. Associations of PFASs and PFAS alternatives with glucose-homeostasis were explored in single-pollutant models using generalized linear models with natural cubic splines for PFASs. Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) models were applied to assess joint associations of exposures and outcomes. Sex-specific analyses were also conducted to evaluate effect modification. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, both legacy (PFOA, PFOS) and alternative (Cl-PFESAs and PFBA) PFASs were positively associated with glucose-homeostasis markers in single-pollutant models. For example, in the total study population, estimated changes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of fasting glucose at the 95th percentile of 6:2Cl-PFESA and PFOS against the thresholds were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.21) and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.62). Positive joint associations were found in BKMR models with 6:2Cl-PFESA contributing most. Sex-specific associations existed in both single- and multi-pollutant models. CONCLUSIONS: Legacy and alternative PFASs were positively associated with glucose-homeostasis markers. 6:2Cl-PFESA was the primary contributor. Sex-specific associations were also identified. These results indicate that joint associations and effect modification should be considered in risk assessment. However, further studies are recommended to strengthen our findings and to elucidate the mechanisms of action of legacy and alternative PFASs.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic implications of atherosclerosis functional pattern on ischemia-causing vessels received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or conservative treatment. BACKGROUND: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR)-derived pullback pressure gradient (PPG) index is recently proposed to characterize atherosclerosis functional pattern, but its prognostic value remains unclear. METHODS: QFR-derived PPG index was retrospectively calculated in patients from the PANDA III trial. Vessels with low or high PPG treated by PCI or not were compared for the risk of 2-year vessel-oriented composite outcome (VOCO), which was a composite of vessel-related ischemia-driven revascularization, vessel-related myocardial infarction, or cardiac death. RESULTS: A total of 1444 vessels were included while 94 (6.5%) VOCOs occurred within 2 years. Among physiologically ischemic vessels (QFR ≤ 0.80) treated by PCI, those with low PPG acquired higher VOCO risk than those with high PPG (8.4% vs. 3.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18 to 3.86), and a similar VOCO risk (8.4% vs. 7.8%; adjusted HR 1.11, 95%CI 0.70-1.78) compared to those treated by conservatively. After multiple adjustment, PPG index was an independent predictor for VOCO (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.62). The addition of PPG to the model of clinical risk factors substantially improved the predictions of VOCO (C-index 0.67 vs. 0.62, net reclassification index 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: PCI treatment was associated with improved outcomes in vessels with high PPG, but not for those with low PPG, which acquired similar risk of VOCO compared to vessels treated conservatively. QFR-derived PPG might assist the treatment strategy selection in ischemia-causing vessels.

12.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(9): 1192-1199, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523288

RESUMO

Objective: The properties and characteristics of different types of silk fibroin (SF) drug-loaded sustained-release carriers and their effects on the drug release behavior were reviewed, and the existing problems and development prospects of SF drug-loaded sustained-release carriers in tissue engineering drug delivery system were discussed. Methods: The literatures about drug-loaded SF sustained-release carriers in recent years were extensively consulted, and the types of sustained-release carriers, characteristics of drug release, range of applications, advantages and disadvantages, and solutions were summarized and analyzed. Results: At present, the SF drug-loaded sustained-release carriers are mainly divided into SF microparticles, SF scaffolds, SF membranes, SF hydrogels, SF nanofibers, SF sponges, and so on. These types of SF drug-loaded sustained-release carriers have their own advantages and problems, of which the most prominent problem is the burst release of drugs at the initial stage. While, the initial burst release of drugs can be effectively solved by improving the preparation process and adjusting the material ratio. Different types of drug-loaded sustained-release carriers can be prepared by combining different materials to achieve different application scopes and drug release behaviors under different conditions. Conclusion: SF is a good drug-loaded carrier for tissue engineering, the burst release of drugs at the initial stage can be solved by improving the preparation process and changing the material structure; through the combination of the advantages of various types of SF drug-loaded sustained-release carriers, it is expected to prepare SF drug-loaded sustained-release carriers that meet different clinical needs.


Assuntos
Fibroínas , Nanofibras , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Seda , Engenharia Tecidual
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502477

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder known to cause cognitive impairment among the elderly worldwide. Although physical exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) improves cognition, understanding its underlying molecular mechanisms requires further investigation using AD mouse models. In this present work, we subjected amyloid precursor protein (APP)/PS1 mice to a 12-week aerobic treadmill exercise to investigate AHN and its potential mechanisms. We divided 3-month-old littermates wild-type and APP/PS1 transgenic male mice into four groups, and the exercise groups performed 12-week treadmill exercise. Next, we evaluated the influence of treadmill exercise on learning and memory capacity, AHN, and APP proteolytic pathway-related factors. As per our results, the treadmill exercise was able to improve the hippocampal microenvironment in APP/PS1 mice probably by regulating various neurotrophic factors and secretases resulting in APP cleavage through a non-amyloidogenic pathway, which seems to further promote new cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis. All of these effects ameliorate learning and memory capacity. This study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for understanding AHN in an AD mouse model, which is beneficial for preventing and treating AD.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520379

RESUMO

In a small operational space, e.g., mesoscale or microscale, we need to control movements carefully because of fragile objects. This article proposes a novel structure based on spiking neural networks to imitate the joint function of multiple brain regions in visual guiding in the small operational space and offers two channels to achieve collision-free movements. For the state sensation, we simulate the primary visual cortex to directly extract features from multiple input images and the high-level visual cortex to obtain the object distance, which is indirectly measurable, in the Cartesian coordinates. Our approach emulates the prefrontal cortex from two aspects: multiple liquid state machines to predict distances of the next several steps based on the preceding trajectory and a block-based excitation-inhibition feedforward network to plan movements considering the target and prediction. Responding to ``too close'' states needs rich temporal information, and we leverage a cerebellar network for the subconscious reaction. From the viewpoint of the inner pathway, they also form two channels. One channel starts from state extraction to attraction movement planning, both in the camera coordinates, behaving visual-servo control. The other is the collision-avoidance channel, which calculates distances, predicts trajectories, and reacts to the repulsion, all in the Cartesian coordinates. We provide appropriate supervised signals for coarse training and apply reinforcement learning to modify synapses in accordance with reality. Simulation and experiment results validate the proposed method.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558620

RESUMO

AIMS: The PRECISE-DAPT score is recommended by guidelines for predicting out-of-hospital bleeding in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the long-term prognostic value of the PRECISE-DAPT score in patients after PCI remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective study of 10,724 patients who underwent PCI throughout 2013 in Fuwai hospital. The bleeding endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. The ischaemic endpoints were all-cause death and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). After a 5-year follow-up, 10,109 patients were finally analysed. A total of 415 (4.11%) patients experienced bleeding, 364 (3.60%) experienced all-cause death, and 2049 (20.27%) had MACCE. Using Cox regression, the risk of bleeding (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.721, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.180-2.511, P = 0.005), MACCE (HR: 1.607, 95% CI: 1.347-1.917, P < 0.001), and all-cause-death (HR: 3.902, 95% CI: 2.916-5.221, P < 0.001) in patients with a high score were significantly higher than those in patients with a low score. The PRECISE-DAPT score showed prognostic value for 5-year events of bleeding (C statistic: 0.566, 95% CI: 0.537-0.594), MACCE (C statistic: 0.540, 95% CI: 0.527-0.553), and all-cause-death (C statistic: 0.673, 95% CI: 0.644-0.702). CONCLUSION: After 5 years of follow-up, the PRECISE-DAPT score has a statistically significant predictive value for long-term bleeding events in Chinese PCI population, and also had some prognostic value for death and MACCE.

16.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(9): e012211, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated tricuspid regurgitation (TR) remains a management dilemma with poor outcomes. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are valuable tools for evaluating TR, but their prognostic utility has rarely been studied together in this setting. We aimed to determine the prognostic value and thresholds for echocardiography and CMR parameters for isolated severe TR. METHODS: Consecutive patients with isolated severe TR by echocardiography and undergoing CMR during January 2007 to June 2019 were studied. Echocardiography and CMR-derived quantitative parameters were analyzed for independent associations with and thresholds for predicting the primary end point of all-cause mortality during follow-up. RESULTS: Among 262 patients studied, mean age was 62.8±15.6 years, 156 (59.5%) were females, 207 (79.0%) had secondary TR, and 87 (33.2%) underwent tricuspid valve surgery after CMR. There were 68 (26.0%) deaths during a mean follow-up of 2.5 years. Both CMR-derived tricuspid regurgitant fraction (per 5% increase) and right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain (per 1% decrease in magnitude) were independently associated with worse survival, with hazard ratios (95% CIs) of 1.15 (1.05-1.25) and 1.10 (1.04-1.17), respectively, along with right heart failure symptoms of 2.03 (1.14-3.60), while tricuspid valve surgery was borderline protective with 0.55 (0.31-0.997). Regurgitant fraction ≥30%, regurgitant volume ≥35 mL and right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain ≥-11% (by velocity vector imaging technique, which yields lower magnitude values than other conventional strain techniques) were the optimal thresholds for mortality during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: TR quantification by CMR and right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain by echocardiography were the key imaging parameters independently associated with reduced survival in isolated TR, incremental to conventional clinical factors. Clinically significant thresholds for these parameters were determined and may help guide decision-making for TR management.

17.
Methods ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562584

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has outbreak since early December 2019, and COVID-19 has caused over 100 million cases and 2 million deaths around the world. After one year of the COVID-19 outbreak, there is no certain and approve medicine against it. Drug repositioning has become one line of scientific research that is being pursued to develop an effective drug. However, due to the lack of COVID-19 data, there is still no specific drug repositioning targeting the COVID-19. In this paper, we propose a framework for COVID-19 drug repositioning. This framework has several advantages that can be exploited: one is that a local graph aggregating representation is used across a heterogeneous network to address the data sparsity problem; another is the multi-hop neighbors of the heterogeneous graph are aggregated to recall as many COVID-19 potential drugs as possible. Our experimental results show that our COVDR framework performs significantly better than baseline methods, and the docking simulation verifies that our three potential drugs have the ability to against COVID-19 disease.

18.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132274, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562709

RESUMO

Ladle furnace slag (LFS) is a by-product of the steel industry and is difficult to be reused due to its weak cementitious property, low strength, and potential leaching of heavy metals. The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) is also a concern for the steel industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use CO2 to immobilize heavy metals in LFS and enhance its strength. The LFS specimens were carbonated with different initial water contents, CO2 pressures, and carbonation periods. The carbonated LFS were then studied by leaching test, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed that LFS had carbonation reactivity and could sequester CO2 up to 9.6% of its own mass. The carbonation also effectively reduced the leaching of heavy metals from LFS, especially Pb and Zn. The concentrations of leached Pb and Zn of carbonated LFS were significantly reduced from 2760 and 1460 µg/L to 0.11 and 0.56 µg/L, respectively, being one order of magnitude (Pb) or three orders of magnitude (Zn) lower than limits of inert waste and three drinking water regulations. The strength of the carbonated LFS also remarkably increased and was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the uncarbonated LFS. Following the carbonation, calcium carbonate, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite were produced; these carbonates filled pores and bound LFS particles, which enhanced the strength of LFS.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591959

RESUMO

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to calcium deposition in the fibrous skeleton of the mitral valve. It has many cardiovascular associations, including mitral valve dysfunction, elevated cardiovascular risk, arrhythmias, and endocarditis. Echocardiography conventionally is the first-line imaging modality for anatomic assessment, and evaluation of mitral valve function. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated importance as an imaging modality for the evaluation and planning of related procedures. It also holds promise in quantitative grading of MAC. Currently, there is no universally accepted definition or classification system of MAC severity. We review the multimodality imaging evaluation of MAC and associated valvular dysfunction and propose a novel classification system based on qualitative and quantitative measurements derived from echocardiography and cardiac CT.

20.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577029

RESUMO

Among the trace elements, selenium (Se) has great demand as a health supplement. Compared to its other forms, selenium nanoparticles have minor toxicity, superior reactivity, and excellent bioavailability. The present study was conducted to produce selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) via a biosynthetic approach using probiotic Bacillus subtilis BSN313 in an economical and easy manner. The BSN313 exhibited a gradual increase in Se reduction and production of SeNPs up to 5-200 µg/mL of its environmental Se. However, the capability was decreased beyond that concentration. The capacity for extracellular SeNP production was evidenced by the emergence of red color, then confirmed by a microscopic approach. Produced SeNPs were purified, freeze-dried, and subsequently characterized systematically using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, Zetasizer, SEM-EDS, and TEM techniques. SEM-EDS analysis proved the presence of selenium as the foremost constituent of SeNPs. With an average particle size of 530 nm, SeNPs were shown to have a -26.9 (mV) zeta potential and -2.11 µm cm/Vs electrophoretic mobility in water. SeNPs produced during both the 24 and 48 h incubation periods showed good antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH and ABST scavenging action at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with no significant differences (p > 0.05). Moreover, 200 µg/mL of SeNPs showed antibacterial reactivity against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9027, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25923. In the future, this work will be helpful to produce biogenic SeNPs using probiotic Bacillus subtilis BSN313 as biofactories, with the potential for safe use in biomedical and nutritional applications.

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