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1.
Anal Biochem ; 568: 41-50, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605634

RESUMO

Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor, has generated interest due to its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Synthesized as a 77 amino acid preproprotein, apelin is post-translationally cleaved to a series of shorter peptides. Though (Pyr)1apelin-13 represents the major circulating form in plasma, it is highly susceptible to proteolytic degradation and has an extremely short half-life, making it challenging to quantify. Literature reports of apelin levels in rodents have historically been determined with commercial ELISA kits which suffer from a lack of selectivity, recognizing a range of active and inactive isoforms of apelin peptide. (Pyr)1apelin-13 has demonstrated beneficial hemodynamic effects in humans, and we wished to evaluate if similar effects could be measured in pre-clinical models. Despite development of a highly selective LC/MS/MS method, in rodent studies where (Pyr)1apelin-13 was administered exogenously the peptide was not detectable until a detailed stabilization protocol was implemented during blood collection. Further, the inherent high clearance of (Pyr)1apelin-13 required an extended release delivery system to enable chronic dosing. The ability to deliver sustained doses and stabilize (Pyr)1apelin-13 in plasma allowed us to demonstrate for the first time the link between systemic concentration of apelin and its pharmacological effects in animal models.

2.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 3(2): 176-186, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876530

RESUMO

Apelin agonism causes systemic vasodilatation and increased cardiac contractility in humans, and improves pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in animal models. Here, the authors examined the short-term pulmonary hemodynamic effects of systemic apelin infusion in patients with PAH. In a double-blind randomized crossover study, 19 patients with PAH received intravenous (Pyr1)apelin-13 and matched saline placebo during invasive right heart catheterization. (Pyr1)apelin-13 infusion caused a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. This effect was accentuated in the subgroup of patients receiving concomitant phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition. Apelin agonism is a novel potential therapeutic target for PAH. (Effects of Apelin on the Lung Circulation in Pulmonary Hypertension; NCT01457170).

3.
J Med Chem ; 61(3): 681-694, 2018 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316397

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) has become an attractive target for the treatment of diabetes since it was shown clinically to promote glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Herein, we report our efforts to develop highly selective and potent GPR40 agonists with a dual mechanism of action, promoting both glucose-dependent insulin and incretin secretion. Employing strategies to increase polarity and the ratio of sp3/sp2 character of the chemotype, we identified BMS-986118 (compound 4), which showed potent and selective GPR40 agonist activity in vitro. In vivo, compound 4 demonstrated insulinotropic efficacy and GLP-1 secretory effects resulting in improved glucose control in acute animal models.

4.
J Pharm Sci ; 107(5): 1352-1360, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317226

RESUMO

BMS-A is an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and is a highly lipophilic compound (clogP 10.5) with poor aqueous solubility (<0.0001 mg/mL at pH 6.5). The compound exhibits low oral exposure when dosed as cosolvent solution formulations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lipid-based formulations for enabling high-dose toxicology studies and enhancing toxicology margins of BMS-A in preclinical studies in nonrodent species. The solubility of BMS-A was screened in lipid and cosolvent/surfactant excipients, and prototype formulations were developed. In vitro tests showed that fine/microemulsions were formed after aqueous dilution of lipid formulations, and BMS-A was transferred from oil phase to aqueous phase with enhanced solubility following lipid digestion. When dosed in dogs at 200 mg/kg, a Gelucire-based formulation exhibited more than 10-fold higher exposure compared to the solution formulation and was thus selected for toxicology studies in dogs. For monkeys, an olive oil formulation was developed, and the exposure was about 7-fold higher than that from the solution. In summary, lipid-based drug delivery could be applied in early stages of drug discovery to enhance oral exposure and enable preclinical toxicology studies of highly lipophilic compounds, while facilitating the candidate selection of a molecule which is more specifically designed for bioperformance in a lipid-based drug delivery strategy.

5.
J Med Chem ; 60(4): 1417-1431, 2017 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112924

RESUMO

A novel series of pyrrolidine-containing GPR40 agonists is described as a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. The initial pyrrolidine hit was modified by moving the position of the carboxylic acid, a key pharmacophore for GPR40. Addition of a 4-cis-CF3 to the pyrrolidine improves the human GPR40 binding Ki and agonist efficacy. After further optimization, the discovery of a minor enantiomeric impurity with agonist activity led to the finding that enantiomers (R,R)-68 and (S,S)-68 have differential effects on the radioligand used for the binding assay, with (R,R)-68 potentiating the radioligand and (S,S)-68 displacing the radioligand. Compound (R,R)-68 activates both Gq-coupled intracellular Ca2+ flux and Gs-coupled cAMP accumulation. This signaling bias results in a dual mechanism of action for compound (R,R)-68, demonstrating glucose-dependent insulin and GLP-1 secretion in vitro. In vivo, compound (R,R)-68 significantly lowers plasma glucose levels in mice during an oral glucose challenge, encouraging further development of the series.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Moleculares , Pirrolidinas/química , Pirrolidinas/farmacocinética , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
6.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(6): 590-4, 2016 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27326332

RESUMO

BMS-711939 (3) is a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist, with an EC50 of 4 nM for human PPARα and >1000-fold selectivity vs human PPARγ (EC50 = 4.5 µM) and PPARδ (EC50 > 100 µM) in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Compound 3 also demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy and safety profiles in preclinical studies and thus was chosen for further preclinical evaluation. The synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, and in vivo pharmacology of 3 in preclinical animal models as well as its ADME profile are described.

7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 916: 42-51, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016437

RESUMO

To quantify a therapeutic PEGylated protein in monkey serum as well as to monitor its potential in vivo instability and methionine oxidation, a novel ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometric (UHPLC-HRMS) assay was developed using a surrogate disulfide-containing peptide, DCP(SS), and a confirmatory peptide, CP, a disulfide-free peptide. DCP(SS) was obtained by eliminating the step of reduction/alkylation before trypsin digestion. It contains an intact disulfide linkage between two peptide sequences that are essential for drug function but susceptible to potential in vivo cleavages. HRMS-based single ion monitoring (SIM) on a Q Exactive™ mass spectrometer was employed to improve assay specificity and sensitivity for DCP(SS) due to its poor fragmentation and low sensitivity with SRM detection. The assay has been validated for the protein drug in monkey serum using both surrogate peptides with excellent accuracy (within ±4.4%Dev) and precision (within 7.5%CV) with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) at 10 ng mL(-1). The protein concentrations in monkey serum obtained from the DCP(SS)-based assay not only provided important pharmacokinetic parameters, but also confirmed in vivo stability of the peptide regions of interest by comparing drug concentrations with those obtained from the CP-based assay or from a ligand-binding assay (LBA). Furthermore, UHPLC-HRMS allowed simultaneous monitoring of the oxidized forms of both surrogate peptides to evaluate potential ex vivo/in vivo oxidation of one methionine present in each of both surrogate peptides. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using a surrogate disulfide-containing peptide for LC-MS bioanalysis of a therapeutic protein.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Dissulfetos/química , Polietilenoglicóis/análise , Proteínas/uso terapêutico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Calibragem , Haplorrinos , Controle de Qualidade
8.
J Med Chem ; 58(22): 9010-26, 2015 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26524347

RESUMO

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise HDL-C in animals and humans and may be antiatherosclerotic by enhancing reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In this article, we describe the lead optimization efforts resulting in the discovery of a series of triphenylethanamine (TPE) ureas and amides as potent and orally available CETP inhibitors. Compound 10g is a potent CETP inhibitor that maximally inhibited cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer activity at an oral dose of 1 mg/kg in human CETP/apoB-100 dual transgenic mice and increased HDL cholesterol content and size comparable to torcetrapib (1) in moderately-fat fed hamsters. In contrast to the off-target liabilities with 1, no blood pressure increase was observed with 10g in rat telemetry studies and no increase of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was detected in H295R cells. On the basis of its preclinical profile, compound 10g was advanced into preclinical safety studies.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/síntese química , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Benzilaminas/síntese química , Benzilaminas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacocinética , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Benzilaminas/farmacocinética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Cricetinae , Citocromo P-450 CYP11B2/antagonistas & inibidores , Cães , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 25(6): 1196-205, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25686852

RESUMO

The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of 3,4-disubstituted pyrrolidine acid analogs as PPAR ligands is outlined. In both the 1,3- and 1,4-oxybenzyl pyrrolidine acid series, the preferred stereochemistry was shown to be the cis-3R,4S isomer, as exemplified by the potent dual PPARα/γ agonists 3k and 4i. The N-4-trifluoromethyl-pyrimidinyl pyrrolidine acid analog 4i was efficacious in lowering fasting glucose and triglyceride levels in diabetic db/db mice.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pirrolidinas/química , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Drogas , Feminino , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pirrolidinas/síntese química , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Anal Chem ; 86(23): 11523-7, 2014 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25371986

RESUMO

Due to observed collision induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation inefficiency, developing sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays for CID resistant compounds is especially challenging. As an alternative to traditional LC-MS/MS, we present here a methodology that preserves the intact analyte ion for quantification by selectively filtering ions while reducing chemical noise. Utilizing a quadrupole-Orbitrap MS, the target ion is selectively isolated while interfering matrix components undergo MS/MS fragmentation by CID, allowing noise-free detection of the analyte's surviving molecular ion. In this manner, CID affords additional selectivity during high resolution accurate mass analysis by elimination of isobaric interferences, a fundamentally different concept than the traditional approach of monitoring a target analyte's unique fragment following CID. This survivor-selected ion monitoring (survivor-SIM) approach has allowed sensitive and specific detection of disulfide-rich cyclic peptides extracted from plasma.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/sangue , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Íons/análise , Íons/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 50(1): 115-24, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23962082

RESUMO

ß-Agonists are the first-line therapy to alleviate asthma symptoms by acutely relaxing the airway. Purified components of ginger relax airway smooth muscle (ASM), but the mechanisms are unclear. By elucidating these mechanisms, we can explore the use of phytotherapeutics in combination with traditional asthma therapies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol potentiate ß-agonist-induced ASM relaxation; and (2) define the mechanism(s) of action responsible for this potentiation. Human ASM was contracted in organ baths. Tissues were relaxed dose dependently with ß-agonist, isoproterenol, in the presence of vehicle, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol (100 µM). Primary human ASM cells were used for cellular experiments. Purified phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D or phospholipase C ß enzyme was used to assess inhibitory activity of ginger components using fluorescent assays. A G-LISA assay was used to determine the effects of ginger constituents on Ras homolog gene family member A activation. Significant potentiation of isoproterenol-induced relaxation was observed with each of the ginger constituents. 6-Shogaol showed the largest shift in isoproterenol half-maximal effective concentration. 6-Gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol significantly inhibited PDE4D, whereas 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol also inhibited phospholipase C ß activity. 6-Shogaol alone inhibited Ras homolog gene family member A activation. In human ASM cells, these constituents decreased phosphorylation of 17-kD protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein of type 1 protein phosphatase and 8-gingerol decreased myosin light chain phosphorylation. Isolated components of ginger potentiate ß-agonist-induced relaxation in human ASM. This potentiation involves PDE4D inhibition and cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. Together with ß-agonists, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, or 6-shogaol may augment existing asthma therapy, resulting in relief of symptoms through complementary intracellular pathways.


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Gengibre/química , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/metabolismo , Catecóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 4/metabolismo , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/metabolismo , Humanos , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Fosfolipase C beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipase C beta/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
12.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 48(2): 157-63, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23065130

RESUMO

The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent years, and is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Many patients report using alternative therapies to self-treat asthma symptoms as adjuncts to short-acting and long-acting ß-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). As many as 40% of patients with asthma use herbal therapies to manage asthma symptoms, often without proven efficacy or known mechanisms of action. Therefore, investigations of both the therapeutic and possible detrimental effects of isolated components of herbal treatments on the airway are important. We hypothesized that ginger and its active components induce bronchodilation by modulating intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In isolated human ASM, ginger caused significant and rapid relaxation. Four purified constituents of ginger were subsequently tested for ASM relaxant properties in both guinea pig and human tracheas: [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol induced rapid relaxation of precontracted ASM (100-300 µM), whereas [10]-gingerol failed to induce relaxation. In human ASM cells, exposure to [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, but not [10]-gingerol (100 µM), blunted subsequent Ca(2+) responses to bradykinin (10 µM) and S-(-)-Bay K 8644 (10 µM). In A/J mice, the nebulization of [8]-gingerol (100 µM), 15 minutes before methacholine challenge, significantly attenuated airway resistance, compared with vehicle. Taken together, these novel data show that ginger and its isolated active components, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, relax ASM, and [8]-gingerol attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness, in part by altering [Ca(2+)](i) regulation. These purified compounds may provide a therapeutic option alone or in combination with accepted therapeutics, including ß(2)-agonists, in airway diseases such as asthma.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Gengibre/química , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bradicinina/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Cricetinae , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Cloreto de Metacolina/farmacologia , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Traqueia/metabolismo , Traqueia/fisiologia
13.
J Med Chem ; 53(7): 2854-64, 2010 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20218621

RESUMO

An 1,3-oxybenzylglycine based compound 2 (BMS-687453) was discovered to be a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist, with an EC(50) of 10 nM for human PPARalpha and approximately 410-fold selectivity vs human PPARgamma in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Similar potencies and selectivity were also observed in the full length receptor co-transfection assays. Compound 2 has negligible cross-reactivity against a panel of human nuclear hormone receptors including PPARdelta. Compound 2 demonstrated an excellent pharmacological and safety profile in preclinical studies and thus was chosen as a development candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The X-ray cocrystal structures of the early lead compound 12 and compound 2 in complex with PPARalpha ligand binding domain (LBD) were determined. The role of the crystal structure of compound 12 with PPARalpha in the development of the SAR that ultimately resulted in the discovery of compound 2 is discussed.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Oxazóis/química , Oxazóis/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Cristalografia por Raios X , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Glicina/síntese química , Glicina/química , Glicina/farmacologia , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Oxazóis/síntese química , Oxazóis/toxicidade , PPAR alfa/química , PPAR alfa/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 19(5): 1451-6, 2009 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19201606

RESUMO

The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of N-phenyl-substituted pyrrole, 1,2-pyrazole and 1,2,3-triazole acid analogs as PPAR ligands are outlined. The triazole acid analogs 3f and 4f were identified as potent dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists both in binding and functional assays in vitro. The 3-oxybenzyl triazole acetic acid analog 3f showed excellent glucose and triglyceride lowering in diabetic db/db mice.


Assuntos
Azóis/síntese química , Desenho de Drogas , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Animais , Azóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular/enzimologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 14(9): 2701-9, 2008 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18451235

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if ixabepilone is a substrate for cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and if its metabolism by this cytochrome is clinically important, we did a clinical drug interaction study in humans using ketoconazole as an inhibitor of CYP3A4. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Human microsomes were used to determine the cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) involved in the metabolism of ixabepilone. Computational docking (CYP3A4) studies were done for epothilone B and ixabepilone. A follow-up clinical study was done in patients with cancer to determine if 400 mg/d ketoconazole (inhibitor of CYP3A4) altered the pharmacokinetics, drug-target interactions, and pharmacodynamics of ixabepilone. RESULTS: Molecular modeling and human microsomal studies predicted ixabepilone to be a good substrate for CYP3A4. In patients, ketoconazole coadministration resulted in a maximum ixabepilone dose administration to 25 mg/m(2) when compared with single-agent therapy of 40 mg/m(2). Coadministration of ketoconazole with ixabepilone resulted in a 79% increase in AUC(0-infinity). The relationship of microtubule bundle formation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to plasma ixabepilone concentration was well described by the Hill equation. Microtubule bundle formation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlated with neutropenia. CONCLUSIONS: Ixabepilone is a good CYP3A4 substrate in vitro; however, in humans, it is likely to be cleared by multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that there is a direct relationship between ixabepilone pharmacokinetics, neutrophil counts, and microtubule bundle formation in PBMCs. Strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 should be used cautiously in the context of ixabepilone dosing.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Epotilonas/administração & dosagem , Epotilonas/farmacocinética , Cetoconazol/administração & dosagem , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biologia Computacional , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Epotilonas/efeitos adversos , Epotilonas/farmacologia , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cetoconazol/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/administração & dosagem , Moduladores de Tubulina/efeitos adversos , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacocinética , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
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