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1.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23619, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is posing a threat to the public health globally. Serological test for SARS-CoV-2 antibody can improve early diagnosis of COVID-19 and serves as a valuable supplement to RNA detection. METHOD: A SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM combined antibody test strip based on colloidal gold immunochromatography assay was developed, with both spike protein and nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 antigen used for antibody detection. From 3 medical institutions across China, serum or plasma of 170 patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and 300 normal controls were collected and tested with the strip. Sensitivity, specificity, kappa coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed. Positive rates in different medical centers, age group, gender, and different disease course were compared. RESULTS: 158 out 170 samples from confirmed COVID-19 patients had positive results from the test, and 296 out of 300 samples from normal controls had negative results. The kit was 92.9% sensitive and 98.7% specific. The positive rate was 77.3% during the first week after disease onset, but reached 100% since day 9. AUC and kappa coefficient were 0.958 and 0.926, respectively, which showed the consistency of the test results with the standard diagnosis. Age or gender caused little variations in the kit sensitivity. CONCLUSION: The rapid, easy-to-use SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM combined antibody test kit has a superior performance, which can help with accurate diagnosis and thus timely treatment and isolation of COVID-19 patients, that contributes to the better control of the global pandemic.

2.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(10): 1076-80, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture at Sifeng (EX-UE 10) as adjuvant treatment for pneumonia of phlegm-heat blocking lung type in children. METHODS: A total of 80 children with pneumonia of phlegm-heat blocking lung type were randomized into an observation group (40 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a control group (40 cases). In the control group, routine anti-infection and symptomatic and supportive treatment were given. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, acupuncture was applied at Sifeng (EX-UE 10) in the observation group, once every 2 days, 4 times were required. Before and after treatment, the score of clinical symptoms and signs and level of serum hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were observed in the two groups. The antifebrile time, lung moist rale disappearance time, duration of antibacterial drugs and hospital stays were recorded, and the clinical therapeutic effect was evaluated in the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the scores of clinical symptoms and signs and levels of serum hs-CRP were reduced in the two groups (P<0.01), and the changes of scores of fever, cough and lung moist rale, secondary symptom score, total score of clinical symptoms and signs and level of serum hs-CRP in the observation group were larger than those in the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The antifebrile time, lung moist rale disappearance time, duration of antibacterial drugs and hospital stays in the observation group were shorter than those in the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 87.2% (34/39) in the observation group, which was superior to 65.0% (26/40) in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture at Sifeng (EX-UE 10) as adjuvant treatment can relieve clinical symptoms, shorten duration of antibacterial drugs and hospital stays for children with pneumonia of phlegm-heat blocking lung type.

3.
Food Chem ; 340: 128108, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010643

RESUMO

α-Dicarbonyl compounds are generated in large amounts during heat treatment in food production. This work compared the influence of glycation by α-dicarbonyl on the hydrothermal aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and of ß-casein (ß-CN). Glycation by α-dicarbonyl compounds was found to be more efficient than glycation by glucose in reducing the free amino groups, surface hydrophobicity and isoelectric point of BSA, thus greatly inhibited the hydrothermal aggregation of BSA. In addition, glycation by α-dicarbonyl greatly transformed the rigid BSA aggregates into flexible structures, based on analysis by fluorescence spectrum, transmission electron microscope and small-angle X-ray scattering. In contrast, both the aggregation process and aggregates conformation of ß-CN were found to be minimally affected by glycation, possibly due to the intrinsic disorder of ß-CN. This work highlights the substantial influences of α-dicarbonyl on dietary proteins during heat treatment depending on the protein structural characteristics.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16705, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028907

RESUMO

The Yunnan province has one of the most serious outbreaks of the plague epidemic in China. Small mammals and fleas are risk factors for the occurrence of plague in commensal plague foci. Understanding the relationship between fleas and small mammals will help control fleas and prevent the onset of the plague. Four hundred and twenty-one small mammals, belonging to 9 species, were captured. Of these, 170 small mammals (40.4%) were found infested with fleas. A total of 992 parasitic fleas (including 5 species) were collected. The number of Leptopsylla segnis and Xenopsylla cheopis accounted for 91.03% (903/992). The final multiple hurdle negative binomial regression model showed that when compared with Rattus tanezumi, the probability of flea infestation with Mus musculus as well as other host species decreased by 58% and 99%, respectively, while the number of flea infestations of the other host species increased by 4.71 folds. The probability of flea prevalence in adult hosts increased by 74%, while the number of fleas decreased by 76%. The number of flea infestations in small male mammals increased by 62%. The number of fleas in small mammals weighing more than 59 g has been multiplied by about 4. R. tanezumi is the predominant species in households in the west Yunnan province, while L.segnis and X. cheopis were dominant parasitic fleas. There is a strong relationship between the abundance of fleas and the characteristics of small mammals (e.g. Species, age, sex, and body weight).

5.
Asian J Androl ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037172

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence supports the significance of aberrant alternative splicing (AS) events in cancer; however, genome-wide profiling of progression-free survival (PFS)-related AS events in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) has not been reported. Here, we analyzed high-throughput RNA-sequencing data and percent-spliced-in values for 150 patients with TGCT. Using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis and a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method, we identified the top 15 AS events most closely associated with disease progression. A risk-associated AS score (ASS) for the 15 AS events was calculated for each patient. ASS, pathological stage, and T stage were significantly associated with disease progression by univariate analysis, but only ASS and pathological stage remained significant by multivariate analysis. The ability of these variables to predict 5-year progression was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. ASS had stronger predictive value than a combination of age, pathological stage, and T stage (area under the curve = 0.899 and 0.715, respectively). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis of patients with low and high ASS demonstrated that high ASS was associated with significantly worse PFS than low ASS (P = 1.46 × 10-7). We also analyzed the biological functions of the PFS-related AS-related genes and found enrichment in pathways associated with DNA repair and modification. Finally, we identified a regulatory network of splicing factors with expression levels that correlated significantly with AS events in TGCT. Collectively, this study identifies a novel method for risk stratification of patients and provides insight into the molecular events underlying TGCT.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16222, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004842

RESUMO

Internet addiction (IA) is common among adolescents and significantly determined by sociocultural and economic factors. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of IA among adolescents between Macau and mainland China and also examine its association with quality of life. A total of 2892 secondary school students were included. Standardized instruments were used to measure IA, depressive symptoms and quality of life. The overall prevalence of IA was 23.7%, with 32.5% in Macau and 19.8% in mainland China. Students in Macau were more likely to suffer from IA than those in mainland China (OR = 2.15, p < 0.001). Correlates of IA included being in higher school grades, poor academic performance, and more severe depressive symptoms. Students with IA reported lower quality of life in physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains. IA is common among Chinese adolescents, particularly in Macau. Considering the negative impact of IA on health and quality of life, regular screening and effective interventions should be undertaken for young Internet users.

7.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 64: 101945, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we aimed to explore whether MIR2113 and MIR129-LEP polymorphisms confer susceptibility to COPD. METHODS: We selected five polymorphisms of two genes (MIR2113: rs2505059 and rs9320913; MIR129-LEP: rs7778167, rs791595 and rs4731420) based on previous studies and genotyped 629 samples, which included 315 COPD patients and 314 controls with Agena MassARRAY platform. The association of MIR2113 and MIR129-LEP polymorphisms with COPD risk was conducted with logistic regression by calculating odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: MIR2113 rs2505059 was remarkably linked with a decreased susceptibility of COPD in five genetic models, whereas MIR2113 rs9320913, MIR129-LEP rs791595 and MIR129-LEP rs4731420 could enhance the susceptibility of COPD in the Chinese Han population (P < 0.05). Stratified analysis revealed that the influences of genetic variants on COPD risk were dependent on age, sex, Body mass index or smoking status (P < 0.05). Haplotype analysis showed that Ars791595Crs4731420 haplotype significant increased the susceptibility of COPD. CONCLUSION: It suggested that polymorphisms of MIR2113 and MIR129-LEP might be linked with the susceptibility of COPD among the Chinese Han population.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 683-690, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961189

RESUMO

Three novel polysaccharides (PCPW, PCPS1 and PCPS2) were isolated from Potentilla chinensis and subjected to structural analysis by using spectral and physicochemical methods. The molecular weights of PCPW, PCPS1 and PCPS2 were calculated to be 4.45 × 103 Da, 1.18 × 104 Da and 4.23 × 104 Da, respectively. Analysis of monosaccharides composition confirmed that PCPW was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose, while the two acidic polysaccharides PCPS1 and PCPS2 were consisted of six monosaccharides, including mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose respectively. In addition, the main linkages of glycosidic bonds of PCPS2 were 1, 4-linked-rha, 1, 4-linked-man,1, 4-linked-galA and 1, 6-linked-man. Immunological tests indicated that both PCPW and PCPS2 could increase NO production of RAW264.7 cells, and promote splenocyte proliferation. All three polysaccharides proved to be activators of NF-κB. Overall, three polysaccharides showed a good immunological activity and pose great potential as a novel food or drug additive.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 311-319, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The microbiome-gut-brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), is closely connected to bipolar disorder with current major depressive episode (BPD). METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomics sequencing (SMS) of faecal samples from 25 BPD patients and 28 healthy controls (HCs). Except for the microbiota taxa and MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification model using the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to find the microbial biomarkers for BPD. RESULTS: Compared to HCs, the phylum Bacteroidetes abundance was significantly reduced, whereas that of the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were significantly increased in BPD patients. We also identified 38 species increased and 6 species decreased significantly in the BPD group. In the MiTBamp, we identified that two Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K00658 and K00837) were significantly lower in the BPD, and five KOs (K01696, K00382, K00626, K01667, and K03781) were significantly higher in the BPD group. We also identified significant genera and species which were closely related to these KOs. Finally, RF classification based on gut microbiota at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.997. LIMITATIONS: The features of cross-sectional design, limited sample size, the heterogeneity of bipolar disorders, and a lack of serum/plasma tryptophan concentration measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings enable a better understanding of changes in gastrointestinal microbiome and MiTBamp in BPD. Alterations of microbes may have potential as biomarkers for distinguishing the BPD patients form HCs.

10.
Dev Neurobiol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875725

RESUMO

Hippocampus, as an important organ of central memory storage and spatial orientation, has been studied increasingly in recent years. The expression of reference genes in the hippocampus of adult rats, which are commonly used in the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), is unstable in the fetal hippocampus and may not be suitable for the fetal period. Therefore, this study intends to screen and determine the optimal compound reference genes in the fetal rat hippocampus. Based on the literature, we selected five house-keeping genes (HKGs), including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), actin beta (ß-actin), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt), 18s ribosomal RNA (18s rRNA), and cyclophilin B (cypB). We analyzed the expression of them under physiological conditions in the fetal rat hippocampus using BestKeeper, GeNorm, and NormFinder, to select the most stable compound reference genes. Furthermore, to verify the stability of the compound reference genes, we analyzed the expression of reference genes in the fetal rat hippocampus under the pathological model of prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE). Finally, we evaluated the accuracy of compound reference genes through detecting the expression of fetal rat hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under PDE model. This study determined that the combination of gapdh and hprt was the most stable and suitable compound reference genes in the fetal rat hippocampus. There was no significant difference between male and female fetal rats. We provided the support of accurate and reliable reference genes for the further study of diseases related to the fetal hippocampus.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21682, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872039

RESUMO

To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and relevant prognostic factors of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEP-NEN), to improve our understanding of GEP-NEN.This was a retrospective analysis of 155 patients (average age 53.7 ±â€Š13.6 years) pathologically diagnosed with GEP-NEN. We analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment, and prognostic factors of GEP-NEN.The most common primary site was the pancreas (41.9%), followed by the rectum, stomach and duodenum. Most cases were nonfunctional GEP-NENs (149/155) with nonspecific symptoms. TNM stage and histological grade were determined by the latest criteria. Surgical resection was the mainstay of treatment in 150 patients, and 22 patients received chemotherapy under different circumstances. A total of 130 patients were followed up for a median of 44 months, and 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 82.3% and 72.3%, respectively. According to univariate and multivariate analysis, incidental diagnosis, maximum tumor diameter, tumor stage, lymph node and distant metastasis, TNM stage, and histological grade were significantly correlated with overall survival, but histological grade was the only factor confirmed as an independent prognostic factor for long-term survival of GEP-NEN.GEP-NEN, with an increasing trend in incidence, occurred most frequently in the pancreas. Nonfunctional tumors with nonspecific symptoms comprised the majority of cases. The main treatment was surgical resection. Histological grade was confirmed as the only independent prognostic factor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Intestinais/mortalidade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/terapia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia
13.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951429

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using two-photon near-infrared light excitation is a very effective way to avoid the use of short-wavelength ultraviolet or visible light which cannot efficiently penetrate into the biological tissues and is harmful to the healthy cells. Herein, a series of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes with a structurally simple diimine ligand were designed and the synthetic route and preparation procedure were optimized, so that the complexes could be obtained in apparently higher yield, productivity, and efficiency in comparison to the traditional methods. Their ground state and excited singlet and triplet state properties were studied by spectroscopy and quantum chemistry theoretical calculations to investigate the effect of substituent groups on the photophysical properties of the complexes. The Ir(III) complexes, especially Ir1 and Ir3, showed very low dark toxicities and high phototoxicities under both one-photon and two-photon excitation, indicating their great potential as PDT agents. They were also found to be highly sensitive two-photon mitochondria dyes.

14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 532(4): 626-632, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907715

RESUMO

Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) is a photoallergic skin disease with complicated pathogenesis. However, skin barrier dysfunction may be involved according to clinical manifestation. To investigate the mechanism of CAD barrier dysfunction, noninvasive detection of skin barrier and small RNA sequencing were carried out. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression levels of hsa-miR-31-3p and CLDN1. The correlation between hsa-miR-31-3p and CAD severity was explored. Further, dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to identify the relationship between hsa-miR-31-3p and CLDN1. In addition, expression of hsa-miR-31-3p was detected after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Influences of hsa-miR-31-3p on primary human keratinocytes barrier were assessed by FITC-Dextran permeability assay. Moreover, western blot was used to detect the expression of claudin-1, filaggrin, loricrin and involucrin. Our results showed that transepidermal water loss (TEWL) significantly increased in CAD, while stratum corneum hydration (SCH) significantly decreased. The expression of hsa-miR-31-3p was up-regulated in CAD while CLDN1 was down-regulated. Hsa-miR-31-3p was correlated with TEWL, UV-MED (minimal erythema dose) and clinical severity scores of CAD (CSS-CAD). Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that hsa-miR-31-3p targeted the 3'UTR region of CLDN1. Moreover, hsa-miR-31-3p was induced by UVB (0-30 mJ/cm2) and UVA (0-4 J/cm2). Furthermore, overexpression of hsa-miR-31-3p increased FITC-Dextran flux of primary human keratinocytes and reduced the expression of claudin-1, filaggrin, loricrin and involucrin. In conclusion, we demonstrated that hsa-miR-31-3p induced by UV was correlated with CAD severity, which played an important role in regulating keratinocytes permeability barrier through targeting CLDN1.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(33): 8907-8914, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806122

RESUMO

Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactic acid bacteria improve the quality of bread; however, their functionality in steamed bread is unknown. This study aimed to compare the impact of EPS produced during sourdough fermentation on the quality of bread and steamed bread. Sourdoughs were fermented with EPS-producing Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Weissella cibaria, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides; Latilactobacillus sakei LS8 and chemically acidified sourdough were prepared as controls. EPS production generally enhanced the specific volume, improved the texture, and reduced the staling rate of bread. The effect of EPS on steamed bread quality was more pronounced when compared to its effect on bread quality. Remarkably, the beneficial effects of F. sanfranciscensis bread quality were largely independent of EPS formation and may relate to gluten modifications rather than EPS production. In conclusion, the direct comparison of sourdough and EPS functionality in steaming and baking provides novel insights for the optimization of commercial (steamed) bread production.

16.
Brain Res Bull ; 164: 1-13, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763283

RESUMO

Neurogenesis process in the chronic phase of ischemic stroke has become the focus of research on stroke treatment recently, mainly through the activation of related pathways to increase the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the brain sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) areas into neurons, promoting neurogenesis. While there is still debate about the longevity of active adult neurogenesis in humans, the SVZ and SGZ have the capacity to upregulate neurogenesis in response to cerebral ischemia, which opens discussion about potential treatment strategies to harness this neuronal regenerative response. Wnt signaling pathway is one of the most important approaches potentially targeting on neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia, appropriate activation of which in NSCs may help to improve the sequelae of cerebral ischemia. Various therapeutic approaches are explored on preclinical stage to target endogenous neurogenesis induced by Wnt signaling after stroke onset. This article describes the composition of Wnt signaling pathway and the process of neurogenesis after cerebral ischemia, and emphatically introduces the recent studies on the mechanisms of this pathway for post-stroke neurogenesis and the therapeutic possibility of activating the pathway to improve neurogenesis after stroke.

17.
Cell Biol Int ; 44(11): 2363-2369, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761926

RESUMO

10-O-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-ginkgolide B methanesulfonate (XQ-1H) is a new derivative of ginkgolide B and has previously been proven to exert neuroprotective effects on ischemic injury. However, it is not clear whether XQ-1H affects the cell survival and proliferation in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) damaged PC12 cells. Our results showed that OGD/R improved cell viability after 24 hr of posttreatment with XQ-1H (10 or 5 µM), inhibiting cell injury and apoptosis by upregulating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-extra large, while reducing proapoptotic cleaved caspase-3 protein. By introducing the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inhibitor XAV-939 and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining, it was proved that XQ-1H promoted the proliferation of PC12 cells in a Wnt-signal-dependent manner via inhibiting the activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß after phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal activation, thereby activating Wnt1, ß-catenin, and the expression of downstream neurogenic differentiation 1 and cyclin D1, which was comparable to Wnt/ß-catenin signaling agonist 4,6-disubstituted pyrrolopyrimidine. We conclude that XQ-1H, after OGD/R damage to PC12 cells, may limit cell apoptosis in a Wnt/ß-catenin signal-dependent manner, promoting cell proliferation and survival.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(15): 15446-15461, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741775

RESUMO

Chronic sleep restriction promotes neuroinflammation and cognitive deficits in neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases. The spleens of mice exposed to chronic and repeated psychological stress serve as a reservoir of inflammatory myeloid cells that are released into the blood and brain following secondary acute stress. Here, we tested whether chronic and repeated short-term sleep restriction (CRSR) would exacerbate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, and anxiety-like behavior in a spleen-dependent manner. LPS was administered to aged mice 14 days after exposure to CRSR consisting of three cycles of 7 days of sleep restriction with 7-day intervals in between. CRSR increased plasma proinflammatory cytokine levels, blood-brain barrier permeability, hippocampal proinflammatory cytokine levels, and transition of microglia to the M1 phenotype 24 h after LPS treatment. This in turn led to cognitive deficits and anxiety-like behavior. Interestingly, removal of the spleen 14 days prior to CRSR abrogated the enhancement of LPS-induced increases in systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, and anxiety-like behavior. These data indicate that the spleen was essential for CRSR-induced exacerbation of LPS-induced brain damage.

19.
J Med Chem ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845145

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to more than 20 million people infected worldwide with an average mortality rate of 3.6%. This virus poses major challenges to public health, as it not only is highly contagious but also can be transmitted by asymptomatic infected individuals. COVID-19 is clinically difficult to manage due to a lack of specific antiviral drugs or vaccines. In this article, Chinese therapy strategies for treating COVID-19 patients, including current applications of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), are comprehensively reviewed. Furthermore, 72 small molecules from natural products and TCM with reported antiviral activity against human coronaviruses (CoVs) are identified from published literature, and their potential applications in combating SARS-CoV-2 are discussed. Among these, the clinical efficacies of some accessible drugs such as remdesivir (RDV) and favipiravir (FPV) for COVID-19 are emphatically summarized. We hope this review provides a foundation for managing the worsening pandemic and developing antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Environ Res ; 191: 110122, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835676

RESUMO

This work investigated the effects of THP temperature (140-200 °C) and time (10-60 min) on the surface morphology, pyrolysis properties, and soluble compounds of dewatered sludge. Results indicate that higher temperature and longer pretreatment time considerably improve organics hydrolysis (the SCOD content increased 1.4-2.46 times, increasing 2.46 times at 200 °C). In addition, high temperature also improved the sludge pyrolysis efficiency (the highest at 200 °C), and reduced the harmful gas release, especially HCN. Moreover, the surface morphology of the sludge changed, the gap and floccules on the surface of the sludge increased. The carbohydrate content increased the highest; approximately 91.9% at 170 °C. THP promoted the decomposition of the nitrogen compounds in the sludge and facilitated their transition to a liquid phase. The total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen content doubled, and the organic nitrogen content decreased by 50% with time increased from 10 to 60 min.

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