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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 149, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in the process of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid with chaperone properties, is an inhibitor of ER stress. This study aimed to investigate the preventive effects of TUDCA on BLM-induced EMT and lung fibrosis. METHODS: The model of lung fibrosis was established by intratracheal injection with a single dose of BLM (3.0 mg/kg). In TUDCA + BLM group, mice were intraperitoneally injected with TUDCA (250 mg/kg) daily. RESULTS: BLM-induced alveolar septal destruction and inflammatory cell infiltration were alleviated by TUDCA. BLM-induced interstitial collagen deposition, as determined by Sirius Red staining, was attenuated by TUDCA. BLM-induced elevation of pulmonary α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and reduction of pulmonary E-cadherin were attenuated by TUDCA. BLM-induced pulmonary Smad2/3 phosphorylation was suppressed by TUDCA. BLM-induced elevation of Ki67 and PCNA was inhibited by TUDCA in mice lungs. In addition, BLM-induced elevation of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) and 3-NT (3-nitrotyrosine) was alleviated by TUDCA. Finally, BLM-induced upregulation of pulmonary GRP78 and CHOP was attenuated by TUDCA. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence that TUDCA pretreatment inhibits Smad2/3-medited EMT and subsequent lung fibrosis partially through suppressing BLM-induced ER stress and oxidative stress.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107716, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951559

RESUMO

Several experiments confirmed that vitamin D3 protected against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury (ALI). This research aimed to evaluate the influence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) on APAP-induced ALI. In VDD and VDD + APAP groups, mice were fed with VDD diet. In APAP and VDD + APAP groups, mice were intraperitoneally injected with a sublethal dose of APAP (150 mg/kg). A sublethal dose of APAP caused a slight elevation of ALT and AST. Interestingly, APAP-induced elevation of ALT and AST was aggravated in VDD-fed mice. APAP-induced hepatic necrosis was exacerbated in VDD-fed mice. In addition, APAP-induced hepatocyte death, measured using TUNEL assay, was exacerbated in VDD-fed mice. Additional experiment showed that APAP-induced hepatic GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation were exacerbated in VDD-fed mice. Moreover, APAP-induced upregulation of antioxidant genes, such as hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), glutathione peroxidase (Gshpx), superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1) and catalase enzymes (Cat), was aggravated in VDD-fed mice. Although a sublethal dose of APAP did not cause hepatic inflammation, hepatic proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as Tnf-α, Kc, Mcp-1 and Mip2, were upregulated in VDD-fed mice treated with APAP. These results provide experimental data that VDD exacerbates hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation during APAP-induced ALI.

3.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(11): 2449-2456, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967623

RESUMO

Parkinson protein 7 (PARK7)/DJ-1 (DJ-1) is a redox sensitive molecular and stabilizer of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). Nrf-2 regulates the downstream antioxidant defense system and exerts a significant function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is the nuclear receptor that regulates the downstream target genes. This study aimed to analyze the associations among pulmonary function, DJ-1, VDR and Nrf-2 in COPD patients. Serum was collected from 180 COPD patients and control subjects. Thirty-five lung tissues were obtained. DJ-1 was measured using ELISA and western blotting. Nrf-2 and VDR were detected by immunohistochemistry. Serum and pulmonary DJ-1 levels were lower in COPD patients than those in control subjects. Pulmonary VDR-positive nuclei were reduced in COPD patients. Nrf-2-positive nuclei were reduced in lung tissues of COPD patients. On the contrary, Nrf-2-related downstream target proteins were elevated in COPD patients. Further correlation analysis indicated that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was positively associated with pulmonary DJ-1, VDR and Nrf-2 in patients with COPD. In addition, there were positive correlations among DJ-1, VDR and Nrf-2 in lung tissues of COPD patients. In conclusion, DJ-1, VDR and Nrf-2 were decreased in COPD patients compared with control subjects. The reduction of DJ-1 and VDR associating with Nrf-2 downregulation may be involved in the process of COPD.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117134, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866216

RESUMO

1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) is one component of atmospheric fine particles. Previous report revealed that acute 1-NP exposure induced respiratory inflammation. This study aimed to investigate whether chronic 1-NP exposure induces pulmonary fibrosis. Male C57BL6/J mice were intratracheally instilled to 1-NP (20 µg/mouse/week) for 6 weeks. Diffuse interstitial inflammation, a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA)-positive cells, a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and an extensive collagen deposition, measured by Masson staining, were observed in 1-NP-exposed mouse lungs. Pulmonary function showed that lung dynamic compliance (Cydn-min) was reduced in 1-NP-exposed mice. Conversely, inspiratory resistance (Ri) and expiratory resistance (Re) were elevated in 1-NP-exposed mice. Mechanistically, cell migration and invasion were accelerated in 1-NP-exposed pulmonary epithelial cells. In addition, E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, was downregulated, and vimentin, a-SMA and N-cadherin, three mesenchymal markers, were upregulated in 1-NP-exposed pulmonary epithelial cells. Although TGF-ß wasn't altered, phosphorylated Smad2/3 were enhanced in 1-NP-exposed pulmonary epithelial cells. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was activated in 1-NP-exposed pulmonary epithelial cells. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, attenuated 1-NP-evoked excess ROS, ER stress and EMT in pulmonary epithelial cells. Similarly, pretreatment with NAC alleviated 1-NP-caused pulmonary EMT and lung fibrosis in mice. These results demonstrate that ROS-evoked ER stress contributes, at least partially, to 1-NP-induced EMT and pulmonary fibrosis.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146730, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798882

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated that microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) disrupted testosterone (T) synthesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. This study aims to explore the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated GCN2/eIF2α activation on MC-LR-induced disruption of testicular T synthesis. Male mice were intraperitoneally injected with MC-LR (0 or 20 µg/kg) daily for 5 weeks. Serum T was decreased in MC-LR-exposed mice (0.626 ± 0.122 vs 24.565 ± 8.486 ng/ml, P < 0.01), so did testicular T (0.667 ± 0.15 vs 8.317 ± 1.387 ng/mg protein, P < 0.01). Steroidogenic proteins including StAR, CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 were downregulated in MC-LR-exposed mouse testes and TM3 cells. Mechanistically, p-GCN2 and p-eIF2α were elevated in MC-LR-exposed TM3 cells. GCN2iB attenuated MC-LR-induced GCN2 and eIF2α phosphorylation in TM3 cells. Moreover, GCN2iB attenuated MC-LR-induced downregulation of steroidogenic proteins in TM3 cells. Further analysis found that cellular ROS were elevated and HO-1 was upregulated in MC-LR-exposed TM3 cells. PBN rescued MC-LR-induced activation of GCN2/eIF2α signaling in TM3 cells. Additionally, pretreatment with PBN attenuated MC-LR induced downregulation of steroidogenic proteins and synthases in TM3 cells. These results suggest that ROS-mediated GCN2/eIF2α activation contributes partially to MC-LR-caused downregulation of steroidogenic proteins and synthases. The present study provides a new clue for understanding the mechanism of MC-LR-induced endocrine disruption.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 777: 146006, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677283

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), a noxious heavy metal, is widespread in the living environment. Gestational exposure to Cd at environmental dose has been shown to cause fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, the long-term effects and the mechanisms underlying environmental Cd exposure on glucose metabolism in offspring remain unclear. Here, we established a murine model to study the impacts of gestational exposure to environmental Cd on glucose metabolism at different life stages of offspring. Results demonstrated that the offspring mice developed hyperglycemia in puberty and impaired glucose tolerance in adulthood following maternal Cd exposure during gestation. Further mechanistic investigation showed that Cd exposure upregulated the expression of key proteins in hepatic gluconeogenesis, including p-CREB, PGC-1α and G6PC, in pubertal and adult offspring. In addition, we demonstrated that Cd exposure during pregnancy markedly elevated the level of oxidative stress-related proteins, including NOX2, NOX4 and HO-1, in the fetal liver. The effects of gestational exposure to N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a free-radical scavenging antioxidant, presented that NAC supplementation alleviated hepatic oxidative stress in fetuses, and thereby reversed hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in mouse offspring. Collectively, our data suggested that gestational exposure to environmental Cd caused diabetes-like phenotypes via enhancing hepatic gluconeogenesis, which is associated with oxidative stress in fetal livers. This work provides new insights into the protective effects of antioxidants on fetal-originated diabetes triggered by environmental toxicants.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(5): 768-774, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with some adverse pregnant outcomes. However, it remains controversial whether maternal Se deficiency during gestation enhances the risks for low-birth-weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns. METHODS: For our cohort study, total 3133 mother-and-infant pairs were selected. Maternal serum Se concentration was detected by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. According to international references for maternal serum Se concentration, subjects were divided into Se deficiency (<45.0 µg/L), Se insufficiency (45.0-94.9 µg/L) and Se sufficiency (≥95.0 µg/L). RESULTS: There was a positive relation of maternal serum Se concentration in gestation and neonatal birth weight. Further analysis showed that the risks for LBW and SGA in SD group were significantly higher than that in SI and SS group, the adjusted ORs for LBW and SGA newborns were 1.87 (95%CI: 1.02, 3.45; P = 0.04) and 1.47 (95%CI: 1.07, 2.02; P = 0.02) in SI group, and 3.92 (95%CI: 2.03, 7.57; P < 0.001) and 2.77 (95%CI: 1.92, 4.02; P < 0.001) in SD group compared to SS group. In different gender subgroup, positive relations were observed between maternal Se deficiency and the risk for LBW girls, as well as the risks for both SGA girls and boys. CONCLUSION: Maternal Se deficiency in gestation was positively associated with the risk for LBW girls, as well as the risks for both SGA girls and boys.

8.
J Nutr Biochem ; 91: 108601, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548476

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with adverse pregnant outcomes. Several studies investigated the effects of maternal vitamin D3 supplementation on fetal development with inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal supplementation with different doses of vitamin D3 on fetal development. Pregnant mice were administered with different doses of cholecalciferol (0, 2,000, 10,000, 40,000 IU/kg/day) by gavage throughout pregnancy. Fetal weight and crown-rump length were measured. Placental proliferation and mesenchymal characteristics were detected. HTR-8/SVneo cells were incubated in the absence or presence of calcitriol (500 nmol/L) to evaluate the effects of active vitamin D3 on migration and invasion of human trophoblast cells. Although a low dose of cholecalciferol was safe, fetal weight and crown-rump length were decreased in dams treated with high-dose cholecalciferol throughout pregnancy. Placental weight and labyrinth thickness were reduced in mice administered with high-dose cholecalciferol. An obvious calcification was observed in placentae of mice administered with high-dose cholecalciferol. Ki67-positive cells, a marker of placental proliferation, were reduced in mice administered with high-dose cholecalciferol. N-cadherin and vimentin, two mesenchymal markers, were decreased in cholecalciferol-treated mouse placentae and calcitriol-treated human trophoblast cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9, two matrix metalloproteinases, were downregulated in cholecalciferol-treated mouse placentae and calcitriol-treated human trophoblast cells. In addition, trophoblast migration and invasion were suppressed by calcitriol. Supplementation with high-dose cholecalciferol induces fetal growth restriction partially through inhibiting placental proliferation and trophoblast epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(17): 21696-21705, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411269

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a male reproductive toxicant. This research is aimed at investigating the effect of pubertal DEHP exposure on testicular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and germ cell apoptosis. Five-week-old male mice were orally administered with DEHP (0, 0.5, 50, or 500 mg/kg/day) for 35 days. Testis weight and sperm count were reduced in mice exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. The number of seminiferous tubules in stages VII-VIII, mature seminiferous tubules, was reduced and the number of seminiferous tubules in stages IX-XII, immature seminiferous tubules, was elevated in mice treated with 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. Numerous apoptotic germ cells were observed in mouse seminiferous tubules exposed to 50 and 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. Moreover, cleaved caspase-3 was elevated in mouse testes exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. In addition, Bcl-2 was reduced and Bax/Bcl-2 was elevated in mouse testes exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. Additional experiment showed that GRP78, an ER molecular chaperone, was downregulated in mouse testes exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. Testicular p-IRE-1α, p-JNK, and CHOP, three markers of ER stress, were upregulated in mice exposed to 500 mg/kg/day DEHP. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to high doses of DEHP induces germ cell apoptosis partially through initiating ER stress in testes.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Testículo , Animais , Apoptose , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Células Germinativas , Masculino , Camundongos , Ácidos Ftálicos
10.
Redox Biol ; 40: 101854, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454563

RESUMO

Gestational exposure to environmental stress induces fetal growth restriction (FGR), and thereby increasing the risk of infant death and chronic noncommunicable diseases in adults. However, the mechanism by which environmental stress induces FGR remains unclear. Based on case-control study, we found that the reduced level of melatonin (MT), a major secretory product from the pineal gland, was observed in placentae of FGR. This work was to investigate the protective effect of MT on environmental stress-caused FGR and its mechanisms. We used cadmium (Cd) as an environmental stressor to stimulate pregnant mice and thereby establishing a FGR model. The data showed that maternal Cd exposure lowered the P4 concentration in maternal sera, placentae and amniotic fluid, and caused FGR. Correspondingly, the expression of CYP11A1, a critical P4 synthase, was markedly downregulated in Cd-treated placentae. Simultaneously, Cd triggered BNIP3-dependent mitophagy in placental trophoblasts, as determined by the degradation of mitochondrial proteins, including HSP60 and COX IV, and the accumulation of puncta representing co-localization of TOM20 with LC3B or BNIP3 with LC3B. Based on our case-control study, we also found that activated BNIP3-dependent mitophagy and P4 synthesis inhibition occurred in SGA placentae. Most importantly, BNIP3 siRNA reversed Cd-induced P4 synthesis suppression in human placental trophoblasts. It is noteworthy that MT alleviated Cd-caused P4 synthesis suppression and FGR via antagonizing BNIP3-dependent mitophagy in placental trophoblasts. Further results confirmed that MT attenuated Cd-triggered BNIP3-dependent mitophagy via blocking GCN2/ATF4 signaling. Amusingly, Cd triggered oxidative stress and then activating GCN2/ATF4 signaling in placental trophoblasts. As expected, MT obviously suppressed Cd-caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. In the present study, we propose a neoteric mechanism by which MT protects against environmental stress-impaired P4 synthesis and fetal growth via suppressing ROS-mediated GCN2/ATF4/BNIP3-dependent mitophagy in placental trophoblasts. As above, MT is a potential therapeutic agent antagonizing environmental stress-induced developmental toxicity.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116241, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321432

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) was an environmental pollutant, which could result in germ cell apoptosis in testes. Sertoli-germ cell communication was vital for germ cell development and maturity. However, little was known about the effect of Sertoli cell autophagy on Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis. Here, we used male Amh-Cre+/Atg5flox/flox (Atg5-/-) mice, loss of autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) in testicular Sertoli cells, to explore the obscure effects. Atg5-/- and Wild-type (WT) mice were given with cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 2.0 mg/kg) for 0-24 h. Our results showed that Cd triggered testicular germ cell apoptosis, as evidenced by the increment of TUNEL-labeled germ cells, cleaved caspase3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein level. Additionally, Cd induced testicular autophagy, as determined by elevating the level of autophagy-related proteins, including Atg5, Atg7, LC3B-II, and the gathering of LC3 puncta. 3-methyladenine, a specific autophagy inhibitor, exacerbated Cd-caused germ cell apoptosis. Inversely, rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, relieved Cd-stimulated germ cell apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that autophagy in Sertoli cells was activated in Cd-treated WT mouse testes as evidenced by the increment of LC3 puncta surrounding SOX9, a specific Sertoli cell marker. More importantly, loss of autophagy in Sertoli cells aggravated Cd-triggered germ cell apoptosis. Taken together, these data indicate that autophagy in Sertoli cells alleviates Cd-triggered germ cell apoptosis in mouse testes.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Células de Sertoli , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Células Germinativas , Masculino , Camundongos , Testículo
12.
Environ Int ; 147: 106319, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348103

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), an environmental toxicant, is positively associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, the mechanism by which gestational exposure to Cd induces FGR remains unclear. This study designed in vitro and in vivo experiments to explore the role of placental mitophagy in Cd-impaired fetal growth. Based on our case-control study, we also investigated the association of placental mitophagy with reduced progesterone (P4) level and all-cause FGR. We firstly found environmental Cd exposure lowered the P4 content in maternal sera, placentae and amnioticfluids of mice. The level of three mitochondrial P4 synthases, including StAR, CYP11A1 and 3ß-HSD, was also reduced in Cd-treated placentae. Furthermore, Cd triggered mitophagy, as determined by the degradation of two mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and COX IV, and the accumulation of co-localizations of TOM20 with LC3B or Parkin in placental trophoblasts. Correspondingly, Cd elevated mitochondrial Parkin level in placental trophoblasts. Mdivi-1, a mitophagy inhibitor, obviously attenuated Cd-induced reduction of placental P4 and FGR in mice. Moreover, mdivi-1 and Parkin siRNA (siR) markedly reversed Cd-caused P4 synthesis inhibition in human placental trophoblasts. Interestedly, the PERK/ATF4 signaling was activated in Cd-stimulated placental trophoblasts. PERK siR inhibited mitochondrial proteins degradation in Cd-stimulated placental trophoblasts. In particularly, mitophagy activation and P4 synthesis suppression occurred in small-for-gestational-age placentae based on our case-control study. Environmental Cd exposure induced FGR via activating PERK-regulated mitophagy and inhibiting P4 synthesis in placentaltrophoblasts. Furthermore, placental mitophagy was related to the reduced progesterone level and all-cause fetal growth restriction based on our case-control study. As above, placental mitophagy maybe the common mechanism of environmental toxicants-impaired fetal growth.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Trofoblastos , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Mitofagia , Placenta , Gravidez
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123438, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763717

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), a well-known environmental pollutant, can lead to placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. The purpose of our study is to explore the effect of Cd on placental angiogenesis and its mechanism using in vitro and in vivo models. Results found that gestational Cd exposure obviously decreased placental weight and impaired placental vascular development in mice. Correspondingly, Cd exposure evidently downregulated the expression of VEGF-A protein (a key indicator of angiogenesis) and progesterone receptor (PR) in placental trophoblasts. Further experiment showed that lentivirus PR overexpression reversed Cd-caused the reduction of VEGF-A level in human placental trophoblasts. In addition, Cd significantly reduced progesterone level, down-regulated the expression of key progesterone synthase (StAR, CYP11A1), and activated mitochondrial stress response and GCN-2/p-eIF2α signaling in placental trophoblasts. Additional experiment showed that GCN-2 siRNA pretreatment markedly alleviated Cd-activated mitochondrial stress response, restored Cd-downregulated the expression of CYP11A1, reversed Cd-reduced the level of progesterone and VEGF-A in human placental trophoblasts. Finally, our case-control study confirmed that impaired placental angiogenesis and reduced progesterone level occurred in all-cause small for gestational age placenta. Taken together, environmental exposure to Cd impairs fetal growth and placental angiogenesis via GCN-2-mediated mitochondrial stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Camundongos , Placenta , Gravidez , Trofoblastos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 406: 124768, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310327

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether genotoxic stress mediates arsenic (As)-induced decline in sperm quality. Mice drank ultrapure water containing NaAsO2 (15 mg/L) for 70 days. The mature seminiferous tubules and epididymal sperm count were reduced in As-exposed mice. Cell proliferation, determined by immunostaining with Ki67, was suppressed in As-exposed seminiferous tubules and GC-1 cells. PCNA, a proliferation marker, was reduced in As-exposed mouse testes. Cell growth index was decreased in As-exposed GC-1 cells. Flow analysis showed that As-exposed GC-1 cells were retarded at G2/M phase. CDK1 and cyclin B1 were reduced in As-exposed GC-1 cells and mouse testes. Additional experiment revealed that p-ATR, a marker of genotoxic stress, was elevated in As-exposed mouse testes and GC-1 cells. Accordingly, p-p53 and p21, two downstream molecules of ATR, were increased in As-exposed GC-1 cells. Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), measured by immunofluorescence, and DNA-strand break, determined by Comet assay, were observed in As-exposed GC-1 cells. γH2AX, a marker of DNA-strand break, was elevated in As-exposed seminiferous tubules and GC-1 cells. NAC alleviated As-evoked DNA damage, genotoxic stress, cell proliferation inhibition and sperm count reduction. In conclusion, ROS-evoked genotoxic stress mediates As-induced germ cell proliferation inhibition and decline in sperm quality.

15.
J Immunol ; 206(3): 515-523, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361208

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, the mechanisms remain unknown. This study analyzed the correlations between vitamin D levels and inflammation in COPD patients. One hundred and one patients with COPD and 202 control subjects were enrolled. Serum 25(OH)D level and inflammatory cytokines were detected. Serum 25(OH)D was decreased and inflammatory cytokines were increased in COPD patients. According to forced expiratory volume in 1 s, COPD patients were divided into three grades. Furthermore, serum 25(OH)D was gradually decreased in COPD patients ranging from grade 1-2 to 4. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with inflammatory cytokines in COPD patients. Further analysis found that NF-κB and AP-1 signaling were activated in COPD patients. Besides, inflammatory signaling was gradually increased in parallel with the severity of COPD. By contrast, pulmonary nuclear vitamin D receptor was decreased in COPD patients. In vitro experiments showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited LPS-activated inflammatory signaling in A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell). Mechanically, 1,25(OH)2D3 reinforced physical interactions between vitamin D receptor with NF-κB p65 and c-Jun. Our results indicate that vitamin D is inversely correlated with inflammatory signaling in COPD patients. Inflammation may be a vital mediator of COPD progress in patients with low vitamin D levels.

16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 590688, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195480

RESUMO

Background: There are growing evidence demonstrating that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is companied by acute myocardial injury. However, the associations of SARS-CoV-2-induced myocardial injury with the risk of death and prognosis after discharge in COVID-19 patients are unclear. Methods: This prospective cohort study analyzed 355 COVID-19 patients from two hospitals in different regions. Clinical and demographic information were collected and prognosis was followed up. Results: Of 355 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 213 were mild, 90 severe, and 52 critically ill patients. On admission, 59 (16.7%) patients were with myocardial injury. Myocardial injury was more popular in critically ill patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression revealed that male, older age and comorbidity with hypertension were three crucial independent risk factors predicting myocardial injury of COVID-19 patients. Among 59 COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury, 25 (42.4%) died on average 10.9 days after hospitalization. Mortality was increased among COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury (42.4 vs. 3.38%, RR = 12.542, P < 0.001). Follow-up study observed that 4.67% COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury were not fully recovered in 14 days after discharge. Conclusion: Myocardial injury at early stage elevates mortality of COVID-19 patients. Male elderly patients with hypertension are more vulnerable to myocardial injury. SARS-CoV-2-induced myocardial injury has not completely recovered in 14 days after discharge.

17.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025530

RESUMO

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is usually associated with pregnant and neonatal complications. Most of the PROM cases are caused by ascending asymptomatic genital infection. In China, PROM (15.3%) is more common than spontaneous preterm labor (7.3%) and leads to more adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here, we designed a prospective cohort study to measure the metabolomics changes in vaginal swab samples and explored their potential contribution to PROM. A total of 260 differentially expressed metabolites were identified and further analyzed. In the PROM group, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and sucrose were downregulated (P = 0.0025, P = 0.0195, respectively), both of which are the upstream metabolites of the glycolysis pathway. Furthermore, estriol 3-sulfate 16-glucuronide (P = 0.0154) and 2-methoxy-17beta-estradiol 3-glucosiduronic acid (P = 0.004), two final metabolites in steroid hormone biosynthesis, were both downregulated in the PROM group. Finally, we found two catechin metabolites (epigallocatechin-7-glucuronide, P = 0.0009; 4'-methyl-epigallocatechin-7-glucuronide, P = 0.01) as well as DL-citrulline (P = 0.0393) were also significantly downregulated in the PROM group compared with the healthy control (HC) group, which are related to important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in the human body. Altogether, metabolite changes in glycolysis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory pathways may contribute to (or be a consequence of) vaginal dysbiosis and PROM. Metabolite pathway analysis is a new and promising approach to further investigate the mechanism of PROM and help prevent its unfavorable pregnant outcomes at a functional level. Trial registration number: ChiCTR2000034721.

18.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 8(3): 246-254, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083246

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new respiratory infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (commonly known as SARS-CoV-2) with multiple organ injuries. The aim of this study was to analyze COVID-19-associated liver dysfunction (LD), its association with the risk of death and prognosis after discharge. Methods: Three-hundred and fifty-five COVID-19 patients were recruited. Clinical data were collected from electronic medical records. LD was evaluated and its prognosis was tracked. The association between LD and the risk of death was analyzed. Results: Of the 355 COVID-19 patients, 211 had mild disease, 88 had severe disease, and 51 had critically ill disease. On admission, 223 (62.8%) patients presented with hypoproteinemia, 151(42.5%) with cholestasis, and 101 (28.5%) with hepatocellular injury. As expected, LD was more common in critically ill patients. By multivariate logistic regression, male sex, older age and lymphopenia were three important independent risk factors predicting LD among COVID-19 patients. Risk of death analysis showed that the fatality rate was higher in patients with hypoproteinemia than in those without hypoproteinemia (relative risk=9.471, p<0.01). Moreover, the fatality rate was higher in patients with cholestasis than those without cholestasis (relative risk=2.182, p<0.05). Follow-up observation found that more than one hepatic functional index of two-third patients remained abnormal at 14 days after discharge. Conclusions: LD at early disease stage elevates the risk of death of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19-associated LD does not recover completely by 14 days after discharge.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111436, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039867

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies reported that chronic arsenic exposure increased risk of prostate cancer. This study aimed to investigate whether chronic NaAsO2 exposure elevates stemness and chemoresistance in prostate cancer cells. DU145 (wild-type p53) and PC-3 (p53-null) cells were exposed to NaAsO2 (2 µmol/L) for 30 generations. IC50s to docetaxel and cisplatin were increased in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 and PC-3 cells. The number of tumor spheres was elevated in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 and PC-3 cells. Nanog, SOX-2 and ALDH1A1, three markers of cancer stemness, were upregulated in NaAsO2-exposed PC-3 spheres. Moreover, NaAsO2-exposed DU145 and PC-3 cells were arrested in G2/M phase. Histone H2AX phosphorylation on Ser139, an indicator for DNA double-strand break, was upregulated in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 and PC-3 cells. ATM phosphorylation on Ser1981, a key sensor of genotoxic stress, was rapidly elevated in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 cells. Phosphor-p53, a downstream molecule of ATM signaling, and p21, a direct target of p53, were upregulated in NaAsO2-exposed DU145 cells. Unexpectedly, p21 was also elevated in NaAsO2-exposed p53-null PC-3 cells. Antioxidant NAC alleviated NaAsO2-induced ATM phosphorylation, cell cycle arrest, and subsequent stemness enhancement and chemoresistance in both DU145 and PC-3 cells. These results suggest that ROS-mediated genotoxic stress is involved in NaAsO2-induced cell cycle arrest, stemness enhancement and chemoresistance of prostate cancer cells in a p53-independent manner.

20.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 203: 105733, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784046

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Here, we explored the mechanism through which VDD induced fetal IUGR. Pregnant mice were fed with VDD diet to establish VDD model. Cyp27b1+/- mice were generated to develop a model of active vitamin D3 deficiency. Cyp27b1+/- mice were injected with either 1α,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle once a day throughout pregnancy. As expected, fetal weight and crown-rump length were reduced in VDD diet-fed mice. Correspondingly, fetal weight and crown-rump length were lower in cyp27b1+/- mice. 1α,25(OH)2D3 elevated fetal weight and crown-rump length, and protected cyp27b1+/- mice from fetal IUGR. Further analysis found that placental proliferation was inhibited and placental weight was decreased in VDD diet-fed mice. Several growth factors and nutrient transfer pumps were downregulated in the placentas of VDD diet-fed mice. Mechanistically, several inflammatory cytokines were upregulated and placental NF-κB was activated not only in VDD diet-fed mice but also in VDD pregnant women. Interestingly, 1α,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the downregulated of placental nutrient transfer pumps and the upregulated of placental inflammatory cytokines in Cyp27b1+/- mice. These results provide experimental evidence that gestational VDD causes placental insufficiency and fetal IUGR may be through inducing placental inflammation.

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