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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 8797-8807, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CSF rhinorrhea is a type of CSF leakage caused by an aseptic abnormal passage between the subarachnoid space and the adjacent sinus and nasal cavity due to a cranial dural defect. At present, the value of computed tomography cisternography (CTC) in locating CSF rhinorrhea has been widely recognized, and magnetic resonance hydrography (MRH), as a heavy T2-weighted water imaging, plays a pivotal role in showing the location of the leak. In this paper, we retrospectively summarize the imaging manifestations seen at our hospital of patients with clinically confirmed CSF rhinorrhea at the skull base and evaluate the diagnostic value of different imaging methods in the localization of CSF rhinorrhea by means of preoperative imaging analysis using CTC and MRH. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with CSF rhinorrhea admitted to our department from October 2016 to January 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients' conventional CT, CTC, and MRH imaging data were compared, and the location of the leak determined preoperatively matched the location of the leak found during surgery. Moreover, there was no recurrence during the follow-up period of 4 months to 3 years. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the diagnostic positivity rate of CTC and spiral CT (χ2=16.755, P<0.00), and between the diagnostic positivity rate of cranial MRH and spiral CT (χ2=6.338, 6.338=0.01), and no statistically significant difference between the diagnostic positivity rate of CTC and cranial MRH (χ2=2.625, P=0.1). CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of imaging techniques has important practical significance for the proper treatment and prognostic evaluation of CSF rhinorrhea. CTC has the highest positive rate for the diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea, followed by MRH, while spiral CT is safer. CTC and MRH can promote the diagnostic rate in determining the location of CSF rhinorrhea, and selective combined application can be an important guide to surgery.


Assuntos
Rinorreia de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Rinorreia , Rinorreia de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 523: 38-44, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The early prediction of the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients with sepsis would facilitate early effective intervention. Recently, interest has focused on the biomarkers for AKI-linked iron metabolism. This study aimed to assess the early predictive values of hepcidin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and their combination for secondary AKI in patients with sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed in septic patients. Serum and urine hepcidin, and urine NGAL were analyzed at admission. The primary outcome measure was occurrence of sepsis-induced AKI based on 2011 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria during the first week of ICU stay. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients analyzed finally in the study, 44 (48.9%) patients developed AKI. Patients with AKI occurrence were more likely than those without AKI to have higher serum hepcidin and urine NGAL levels at admission (P < 0.01). Higher concentrations of these biomarkers were each independent predictor of the development of AKI in critically septic patients within the first week of their ICU stay. Serum hepcidin and urine NGAL (AUROC 0.787, 95% CI 0.688 to 0.8660 and AUROC 0.729, 95% CI 0.625 to 0.818, respectively) were comparable predictive indicators of AKI occurrence (P = 0.43 for DeLong's test). Combining both biomarkers increased the AUROC to 0.828(95% CI 0.733 to 0.899), and this performance was statistically significantly better than urine NGAL alone (P = 0.03 for DeLong's test). CONCLUSION: Serum hepcidin measured at admission predicts the development of AKI similarly to urine NGAL. However, serum hepcidin adds significant accuracy to this prediction in combination with urine NGAL alone and has a good predictive value in patients with sepsis. Larger studies are needed to validate and explain these findings.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 190: 130-140, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481848

RESUMO

Quinoa starch was developed as a new kind of Pickering emulsifier by enzymatic modification. The morphological structure, crystalline structure, lamellar structure, fractal structure, particle size distribution, contact angle, emulsion index (EI), and emulsion micromorphology were studied to explore the relationship between structure characteristics, hydrophilic property, and emulsifying properties of enzymatically modified (EM) quinoa starches. With the increasing enzymatic hydrolysis time in the test range of 0-9 h, particle size of EM quinoa starch decreased, and the broken starch and contact angle of EM quinoa starch increased; the EI value of emulsions with EM quinoa starch increased, and the oil droplet size of emulsions with EM quinoa starch decreased. It suggested that both the smallest particle size and the closest extent of the contact angle to 90° derived the best emulsifying property of EM-9. The EM quinoa starch had higher emulsifying capacity at higher oil volume fraction (Φ) (50%) than at lower Φ (20%), proving that the EM starch has potential to be used as Pickering emulsifiers in higher oil products, such as salad dressing.

4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 910: 174497, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508751

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular parasite that can cause liver diseases in the host, including hepatitis and hepatomegaly. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is the main inflammatory mediator causing cell injury or necrosis. HMGB1 binds to toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), then activates the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which promotes the release of inflammatory factors. Our previous studies showed that HMGB1 mediated TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway plays an important role in liver injury induced by T. gondii infection. Resveratrol (RSV) is a small polyphenol, which has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-T. gondii effect. However, the effect of RSV on liver injury caused by T. gondii infection is unclear. This study used the RH strain tachyzoites of T. gondii to infect murine liver line, NCTC-1469 cells to establish an in vitro model and acute infection of mice for the in vivo model to explore the protective effect of RSV on liver injury induced by T. gondii infection. The results showed that RSV inhibited the proliferation of T. gondii in the liver, reduced the alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase levels and pathological liver damage. Additionally, RSV inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase and HMGB1 by interfering with the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. These results indicate that RSV can protect liver injury caused by T. gondii infection by intervening in the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. This study will provide a theoretical basis for RSV treatment of T. gondii infection induced liver injury.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517344

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the role of embryonic gene Cripto-1 (CR-1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using hepatocyte-specific CR-1-overexpressing transgenic mice. The expression of truncated 1.7-kb CR-1 transcript (SF-CR-1) was significantly higher than the full-length 2.0-kb CR-1 transcript (FL-CR-1) in a majority of HCC tissues and cell lines. Moreover, CR-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in HCC tissues than adjacent normal liver tissues. Hepatocyte-specific over-expression of CR-1 in transgenic mice enhanced hepatocyte proliferation after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (2/3 PHx). CR-1 over-expression significantly increased in vivo xenograft tumor growth of HCC cells in nude mice and in vitro HCC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. CR-1 over-expression in the transgenic mouse livers deregulated HCC-related signaling pathways such as AKT, Wnt/ß-catenin, Stat3, MAPK/ERK, JNK, TGF-ß and Notch, as well as expression of HCC-related genes such as CD5L, S100A8, S100A9, Timd4, Orm2, Orm3, PDK4, DMBT1, G0S2, Plk2, Plk3, Gsta1 and Gsta2. However, histological signs of precancerous lesions, hepatocyte dysplasia or HCC formation were not observed in the livers of 3-, 6- or 8-month-old hepatocyte-specific CR-1-overexpressing transgenic mice. These findings demonstrate that liver-specific CR-1 overexpression in transgenic mice deregulates signaling pathways and genes associated with HCC.

6.
Int J Legal Med ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515836

RESUMO

The study aimed to explore the neutrophil's spatial distributions used to estimate the histological age of contused skeletal muscle, and assessed the accuracy of various indicators, such as the proportion of neutrophils, "neutrophil mean distance," and distribution of neutrophils in areas of "contiguous contour lines." Fifty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into a control group and contusion groups at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h, as well as 1, 3, 5, and 15 days, post-injury (n = 5 per group). Nuclei and neutrophils were detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. At 0-24 h after injury, the distribution of neutrophils at distances of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 µm from adjacent blood vessels was determined, and the best samples were screened to estimate wound age. To estimate wound age as accurately as possible, Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) of the proportion of neutrophils, neutrophil mean distance, and distribution of neutrophils was performed, and 100.0% and 95.0% of the original and cross-validated cases were correctly classified, respectively. The spatial distribution of neutrophils at different distances from adjacent blood vessels showed a strong correlation with the histological age of contusion skeletal muscle, and the combination of the proportion of neutrophils, neutrophil mean distance, and distribution of neutrophils could be used to accurately estimate wound age.

7.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482582

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Persistentacute kidney injury (AKI) has been shown to be closely associated with poor prognosis in critical patients. Recent studies have shown that procalcitonin (PCT) is valuable for the early prediction of AKI in critically patients.. Our aim was to determine whether PCT and its kinetic changes can predict the occurrence of persistent AKI in critical patients. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study. The definition of AKI was based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Persistent AKI was defined as renal function that does not return to baseline serum creatinine (SCr) levels within 48 h. Blood examples were obtained at the onset of AKI and two subsequent days of hospital stay. Twenty-four-hour PCT change (ΔPCT-24 h) was defined as 24 h PCT minus baseline PCT(day 0). RESULTS: A total of 91 critical patients with AKI were included in this study. The persistent AKI group had a stepwise increase in PCT concentration. ΔPCT-24 h was higher in the persistent AKI group (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that ΔPCT-24 h (P = 0.04) was independent predictors of persistent AKI. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that area under the curve (AUC) of ΔPCT-24 h was 0.84 (P < 0.01), and the cutoff value for PCT to predict persistent AKI was 0.56 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the observation of kinetic changes in PCT is more significant for the early prediction of persistent AKI than the index of PCT at a single time point. ΔPCT-24 h is a good predictor of persistent AKI in critical patients.

8.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(8): 710-6, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472759

RESUMO

The schematic diagram is an indispensable part of research article in life science,which can effectively and intuitively show the specific content of the article with simple composition. As an intuitive expression of the interdisciplinary subject at the early stage, the schematic diagram in the literature has gained an all-round improvement in the quality along with the deve-lopment of computer technology and modern drawing tools. In contrast,the level of the schematic diagram appears to be lagged behind in the field of acupuncture research papers. In order to improve the drawing level of this field, we took the Five Shu-points of Hand and Foot Jueyin Meridian as an example, and drew some vector diagrams of their anatomical structures including the body surface, skeleton, nerves, arteries and veins by using the Adobe Illustrator image software, through which we sum up a simple and easy-to-learn process including application skills and key points needing attention. We hope these methods can play a role in the acupuncture research in the future.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Meridianos , Pontos de Acupuntura , Software
9.
Cell Rep ; 36(9): 109641, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469716

RESUMO

The relationship between poor in vivo bioavailability and effective pharmacological activity are not yet fully clarified for many flavonoids. The analysis of flavonoids-induced alterations in the gut microbiota represents a promising approach to provide useful clues to elucidate the mechanism of action. Here, we investigate the effect of myricetin supplementation on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and explore the associations with the gut microbiota through high-throughput analyses. The 12-week myricetin supplementation and fecal microbiota transplantation outcomes suggest that myricetin significantly slows the development of NAFLD. Meanwhile, the anti-NAFLD effects of myricetin are associated with the modulation of the gut microbiota composition. Myricetin reduces hepatic lipid synthesis and inflammation through modulations in fecal butyric-acid-related gut microbiota and protection of the gut barrier function. This study may facilitate the elucidation of the action mechanism of flavonoids with low bioavailability.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126156, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492936

RESUMO

It is of great importance to safely dispose nuclear wastes with the development of nuclear industries. Past approaches to this problem have included immobilizing radioactive cesium in Portland cement-based matrices; however, the leaching rates of cesium are relatively high, especially as the leaching temperature increases. This paper explores a high-efficiency and cost-effective approach for encapsulating cesium using a sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) matrix, which was prepared via synergetic use of industrial solid wastes. Leaching results showed that, the apparent diffusion coefficient values of cesium were only ~1.4 × 10-15 cm2/s and ~5 × 10-18 cm2/s at 25 â„ƒ and 90 â„ƒ leaching conditions, respectively. These values were several orders of magnitude lower when compared with previously reported values, indicating the excellent encapsulation performance of the solid-waste-based SAC for cesium. Moreover, the heavy metals contained in the industrial solid waste were also effectively immobilized. A mechanistic analysis revealed that cesium was encapsulated in the SAC matrices stably by a physical effect. Finally, a life cycle assessment and economic analysis indicated that this approach was environmental-friendly, cost-effective, and energy-saving. This work provides a promising strategy for effective encapsulation of cesium and synergetic treatment of industrial solid wastes.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126166, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492942

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution is one of the primary challenges of water pollution, and the fabrication of highly effective, green and non-toxic adsorbents for heavy metals is urgently required on the basis of environmental and sustainable development strategies. Here, we report a novel fluorescent wood (FW) with effective adsorption ability (maximum theoretical adsorption capacity of 98.14 mg/g for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]), good fluorescence properties (absolute quantum yield of 12.8%), non-cytotoxicity (cell viability of >90%) and high detection sensitivity and selectivity for Cr(VI). The FW was formed using a process involving delignification, infiltration with carbon dots, and free-radical polymerization with acrylic acid. Mechanistic analysis confirmed that the reconstructed 3D porous structure of the FW provided many effective sorption sites, such as amino, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. This improved the adsorption ability and stabilized the fluorescence signal, which enhanced the detection ability. These factors give the novel FW considerable potential for use in the removal of Cr(VI) ions from wastewater.

12.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 452, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the medical importance of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles in the transmission of malaria and other human diseases, its phylogenetic relationships are not settled, and the characteristics of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are not thoroughly understood. METHODS: The present study sequenced and analyzed the complete mitogenomes of An. peditaeniatus and An. nitidus, investigated genome characteristics, and inferred the phylogenetic relationships of 76 Anopheles spp. RESULTS: The complete mitogenomes of An. peditaeniatus and An. nitidus are 15,416 and 15,418 bp long, respectively, and both include 13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, two tRNAs and one control region (CR). Mitogenomes of Anopheles spp. are similar to those of other insects in general characteristics; however, the trnR and trnA have been reversed to "trnR-trnA," as has been reported in other mosquito genera. Genome variations mainly occur in CR length (493-886 bp) with six repeat unit types identified for the first time that demonstrate an evolutionary signal. The subgenera Lophopodomyia, Stethomyia, Kerteszia, Nyssorhynchus, Anopheles and Cellia are inferred to be monophyletic, and the phylogenetic analyses support a new phylogenetic relationship among the six subgenera investigated, in that subgenus Lophopodomyia is the sister to all other five subgenera, and the remaining five subgenera are divided into two clades, one of which is a sister-taxon subgenera Stethomyia + Kerteszia, and the other consists of subgenus Nyssorhynchus as the sister to a sister-group subgenera Anopheles + Cellia. Four series (Neomyzomyia, Pyretophorus, Neocellia and Myzomyia) of the subgenus Cellia, and two series (Arribalzagia and Myzorhynchus) of the subgenus Anopheles were found to be monophyletic, whereas three sections (Myzorhynchella, Argyritarsis and Albimanus) and their subdivisions of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus were polyphyletic or paraphyletic. CONCLUSIONS: The study comprehensively uncovered the characteristics of mitogenome and the phylogenetics based on mitogenomes in the genus Anopheles, and provided information for further study on the mitogenomes, phylogenetics and taxonomic revision of the genus.

13.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 671-674, 2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490760

RESUMO

All extant species in the rodent family Spalacidae are subterranean and have evolved various traits for underground life. However, the phylogenomic relationships among its three subfamilies (Myospalacinae, Spalacinae, and Rhizomyinae) and the molecular basis underlying their adaptations to underground life remain poorly understood. Here, we inferred the phylogenomic relationships among these subfamilies based on de novo sequencing the genome of the hoary bamboo rat ( Rhizomys pruinosus). Analyses showed that ~50% of the identified 11 028 one-to-one orthologous protein-coding genes and the concatenated sequences of these orthologous genes strongly supported a sister relationship between Myospalacinae and Rhizomyinae. The three subfamilies diversified from each other within ~2 million years. Compared with the non-subterranean controls with similar divergence dates, the spalacids shared more convergent genes with the African subterranean mole-rats at the genomic scale due to more rapid protein sequence evolution. Furthermore, these convergent genes were enriched in the functional categories of carboxylic acid transport, vascular morphogenesis, and response to oxidative stress, which are closely associated with adaptations to the hypoxic-hypercapnic underground environment. Our study presents a well-supported phylogenomic relationship among the three subfamilies of Spalacidae and offers new insights into the molecular adaptations of spalacids living underground.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Roedores/genética , Animais , Genoma , Filogenia , Roedores/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498975

RESUMO

Five new glycosides including mimenghuasu A and B (1-2), isolinarin (3), cyclocitralosides A and B (4-5), along with forty-seven known compounds were isolated from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis. These structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, 1 D, 2 D NMR, and MS spectra). The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the expression of TNF-α (LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells) and MTT experiment on LPS-induced HUVECs proliferation effects. Good suppressive effects on the expression of TNF-α were shown by 4 and 5 with IC50 values of 19.35 and 22.10 µM, respectively, compared to positive control indomethacin (IC50 16.40 µM). In addition to this, some isolated compounds exhibited excellent antioxidant activities including compounds 16, 18, 29, 39, and 47 (IC50 µM: 82.59, 72.94, 33.65, 46.67, and 20.81, respectively) with almost the same or stronger potency with reference to vitamin C as positive control (IC50 81.83 µM).

15.
Transl Oncol ; 14(12): 101214, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500231

RESUMO

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) acts as a pump to transport cytotoxic drugs out of cells and is upregulated in cancer cells. Suppressing the expression of P-gp is an effective strategy to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the recommended drug for the standard treatment of patients with glioblastoma, but its clinical application is restricted due to drug resistance. Transient receptor potential channel-5 (TRPC5), a Ca2+-permeable channel, has been attributed to a different drug resistance mechanism except DNA repair system; therefore, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism regarding the role of TRPC5 in TMZ resistance. TRPC5 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are upregulated in TMZ-resistant glioblastoma cell lines. The downregulation of TRPC5 inhibited P-gp expression and led to a significant reversal of TMZ resistance in TMZ-resistant cell lines. TRPC5-siRNA restricted the growth of tumour xenografts in an athymic nude mouse model of TMZ-resistant cells. In specimens from patients with recurrent glioblastoma, TRPC5 was found to be highly expressed, accompanied by the upregulation of P-gp expression. The nuclear factor of activated T cell isoform c3 (NFATc3), which acts as a transcriptional factor, bridges TRPC5 activity to P-gp induction. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the functional role of the TRPC5-NFATc3-P-gp signalling pathway in TMZ resistance in glioblastoma cells.

16.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 1): 210-218, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500420

RESUMO

Facing the inherent defects of magnetic materials, the research of non-magnetic absorbers has gradually become a new direction in the research of microwave absorbers to fit the requirements of a new generation for high strength, wide effective absorption bandwidth. Herein, the liquid metal and copper (LC) composite micro-particles with multiple heterojunctions and core-shell structure, which have an excellent performance of microwave absorption (MA), were prepared by simply coating liquid metal on copper and then annealing. These special LC composite micro-particles exhibit excellent MA performance with the optimal reflection loss of -39.6 dB at thickness of 2.1 mm and a maximum effective absorption bandwidth of 4.96 GHz at thickness of 2.5 mm. The high MA performance of the LC composite particles are due to the enhancement of dielectric loss, including dipolar, interfacial, and dielectric polarization, which is caused by the special core-shell structure, multiple interfaces and heterojunctions. Furthermore, the multiple reflection/scattering of microwaves among particles or on the surface of particles also benefit to the high MA performance. Therefore, this study provides a facile method to construct multiple metal heterojunctions which have great prospects in microwave absorption applications.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048449, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433597

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the past three decades, China has made great strides in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). However, the TB burden remains high. In 2019, China accounted for 8.4% of global incident cases of TB, the third highest in the world, with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The Healthy China 2030 highlights the gate-keeping role of primary healthcare (PHC). However, the impact of PHC reforms on the future TB burden is unclear. We propose to use mathematical models to project and evaluate the impacts of different gate-keeping policies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will develop a deterministic, population-level, compartmental model to capture the dynamics of TB transmission within adult rural population. The model will incorporate seven main TB statuses, and each compartment will be subdivided by service providers. The parameters involving preference for healthcare seeking will be collected using discrete choice experiment (DCE) method. We will solve the deterministic model numerically over a 20-year (2021-2040) timeframe and predict the TB prevalence, incidence and cumulative new infections under the status quo or various policy scenarios. We will also conduct an analysis following standard protocols to calculate the average cost-effectiveness for each policy scenario relative to the status quo. A numerical calibration analysis against the available published TB prevalence data will be performed using a Bayesian approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Most of the data or parameters in the model will be obtained based on secondary data (eg, published literature and an open-access data set). The DCE survey has been reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University. The approval number is SYSU [2019]140. Results of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, media and conference presentations.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , China/epidemiologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 764, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV testing is an essential gateway to HIV prevention and treatment thus controlling the HIV epidemic. More innovative interventions are needed to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) since their testing rate is still low. We proposed an online HIV test results exchange mechanism whereby the one without a certified online HIV report will be asked to test HIV for exchanging HIV report with others. The exchange mechanism is developed as an extension to the existing online HIV testing service system. Through the extended system, MSM can obtain certified online HIV reports and exchange their reports with friends via WeChat. This study aims to assess effectiveness of the exchange mechanism to increase the HIV testing rate among MSM. METHODS: This study will use a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design. Participants are recruited based on the unit of individual social network, the sender and the receivers of the HIV report. An individual social network is composed of one sender (ego) and one or more receivers (alters). In this study, MSM in an HIV testing clinic are recruited as potential egos and forwarded online reports to their WeChat friends voluntarily. Friends are invited to participate by report links and become alters. Ego and alters serve as a cluster and are randomized to the group using the certified online HIV report with exchange mechanism (intervention group) or without exchange mechanism (control group). Alters are the intervention targeting participants. The primary outcome is HIV testing rate. Other outcomes are sexual transmitted infections, sexual behaviors, HIV testing norms, stigma, risk perception and HIV report delivery. The outcomes will be assessed at baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Analysis will be according to intention to treat approach and using mixed-effect models with networks and individuals as random effects. DISCUSSION: This is the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of an HIV test result exchange mechanism to increase the HIV testing among MSM. This assessment of the intervention will also provide scientific evidence on other potential effects. Findings from this study will yield insights for sustainability driven by communities' intrinsic motivation. Trail registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03984136. Registered 12 June 2019.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Follow-up study of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed. 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological, laboratory, radiological or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, liver functions are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 up to 12months post-discharge.

20.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392464

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is not only a biomarker of kidney injury but also a bone-derived factor involved in metabolism. We aimed to explore relationships between plasma NGAL and chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) parameters in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, a cross sectional observational study, including 105 MHD patients, was conducted to explore relationships between plasma NGAL levels and CKD-MBD parameters. Second, impact of parathyroidectomy and auto-transplantation (PTX + AT) on plasma NGAL was investigated in 12 MHD patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). RESULTS: According to Spearman correlation analysis, plasma NGAL levels were positively correlated with female (r = 0.243, P = 0.012), vintage (r = 0.290, P = 0.003), Klotho (r = 0.234, P = 0.016), calcium(Ca) (r = 0.332, P = 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (r = 0.401, P < 0.001) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (r = 0.256, P = 0.008); while inversely correlated with albumin(Alb) (r = - 0.201, P = 0.039). After adjusting for age, sex, vintage, Alb and all parameters of CKD-MBD(Ca, P, lg(ALP), lg(iPTH), Klotho and fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)), lg(NGAL) were positively correlated with Ca (r = 0.481, P < 0.001), P (r = 0.336, P = 0.037), lg(ALP) (r = 0.646, P < 0.001) in Partial correlation analysis; further multiple linear regression analysis showed same positive associations between lg(NGAL) and Ca (ß = 0.330, P = 0.002), P (ß = 0.218, P = 0.037), lg(ALP) (ß = 0.671, P < 0.001). During the 4-7 days after PTX + AT, plasma NGAL decreased from 715.84 (578.73, 988.14) to 688.42 (660.00, 760.26) ng/mL (P = 0.071), Klotho increased from 496.45 (341.73, 848.30) to 1138.25 (593.87, 2009.27) pg/mL (P = 0.099). CONCLUSION: Plasma NGAL levels were positively associated with ALP in MHD patients; and downtrends were shown after PTX + AT in patients with severe SHPT. These findings suggest that NGAL is a participant in CKD-MBD under MHD condition.

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