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1.
Phytomedicine ; : 153077, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune system plays a decisive role for defending various pathogenic microorganisms. Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Panax ginseng (PG) are two tonic herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as immune booster and help to control diseases with their healthy synergistic effect on immune system. PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigate the promote effect and molecular mechanisms of AM and PG on immune system as booster and to control the target diseases using animal and computational systematic study. METHODS: Computational models including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) with weighted ensemble similarity (WES) algorithm-based models and ClueGo network analysis were used to find the potential bioactive compounds targets and pathways, which were responsible for immune regulation. Viscera index analysis, proliferation activity of splenic lymphocytes and cytotoxic activity of NK cells assays were performed to validate the effect of AM and PG on immune system of long-term administrated mice. Metabonomic study of mice plasma was conducted to investigate effect of AM and PG on the endogenous metabolic perturbations, together with correlation analysis. RESULTS: AM and PG simultaneously showed the ability to strengthen the immune system function including enhancement of spleen and thymus index, proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Besides, the different molecular mechanisms of AM and PG on immune regulation were also investigated by analyzing the potential bioactive compounds, enzymes actions and pathways. Quercetin, formononetin and kaempferol were the main immune-related compounds in AM, while ginsenoside Ra1, ginsenoside Rh1 and kaempferol in PG. About 10 target proteins were found close to immune regulation, including acetylcholinesterase (ACHE, common target in AM and PG), sphingosine kinase 1(SPHK1), cytidine deaminase (CDA), and Choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT). Glycerophospholipid metabolism was regulated in both AM and PG groups. Pyrimidine metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism were considered as the special pathway in AM groups. Energy metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism were the special pathways in PG groups. CONCLUSION: A novel comprehensive molecular mechanism analysis method was established and applied to clarify the scientific connotation of AM and PG as immune regulation, with similar herbal tonic effect provided in clinical practice of TCM, which can provide a new line of research for drug development (immune booster) using AM and PG.

2.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340453

RESUMO

Dendrobium officinale is a herb in traditional Chinese medicine where D. officinale polysaccharides (DOP) are the main active ingredient. This study aimed at evaluating DOP efficiency at inhibiting 1-Methyl-2-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced precancerous lesions of gastric cancer (PLGC) in rats through the Wnt/b-catenin pathway and analyzing the variations of serum endogenous metabolites. PLGC was established in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by administering 150 µg/mL MNNG in drinking water for 7 months and giving 0.1 mL of 10% NaCl once weekly during the initial 20 weeks. Treatment with DOP inhibited the progress of PLGC through decreasing the expression of ß-catenin by immunohistochemical analysis. The futher study indicated DOP downregulated gene expression of Wnt2ß, Gsk3ß, PCNA, CyclinD1, and ß-catenin, as well as protein expression of Wnt2ß, PCNA, and ß-catenin. On the other hand, there were nine endogenous metabolites identified after the DOP treatment. Among these, the most significant one is betaine because of its strong antioxidant activity, leading to an anti-tumor effect. DOP can inhibit MNNG-induced PLGC models via regulating Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and by changing endogenous metabolites.

3.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 317(3): H531-H540, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225989

RESUMO

As an inflammatory disease afflicting the heart muscle, autoimmune myocarditis (AM) represents one of the foremost causes of heart failure. Accumulating evidence has implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) in the process of inflammation and autoimmunity. Hence, the current study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which miR-141-3p influences experimental AM (EAM). An EAM mouse model was established using 6-wk old male BALB/c mice, after which the expression of miR-141-3p and STAT4 was measured. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function investigations were performed to identify the functional role of miR-141-3p and STAT4 in EAM. Heart weight-to-body weight ratio, cardiac function, and degree of inflammation, as well as the levels of inflammation factors (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17) in the serum were detected. STAT4 was subsequently verified to be upregulated, and miR-141-3p was downregulated in the EAM mice. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-141-3p or silencing of STAT4 was observed to reduce the heart weight-to-body weight ratio of EAM mice and improve cardiac function, while alleviating the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration in the myocardial tissue. Meanwhile, the overexpression of miR-141-3p was identified to diminish serum inflammatory factor levels by downregulating STAT4. Additionally, miR-141-3p could bind to STAT4 to downregulate its expression, ultimately mitigating inflammation and inducing an anti-inflammatory effect in EAM mice. Taken together, upregulation of miR-141-3p alleviates the inflammatory response in EAM mice by inhibiting STAT4, providing a promising intervention target for the molecular treatment of AM.NEW & NOTEWORTHY miR-141-3p is poorly expressed, and STAT4 is upregulated in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) mice. Overexpressing miR-141-3p inhibits EAM. miR-141-3p binds to and suppresses STAT4 expression. miR-141-3p overexpression inhibits inflammatory factors by downregulating STAT4. This study provides new insights into the treatment of autoimmune myocarditis.

4.
Nature ; 569(7757): 581-585, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043749

RESUMO

Methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is a prevalent DNA modification found in many organisms. Sequential oxidation of 5mC by ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases results in a cascade of additional epigenetic marks and promotes demethylation of DNA in mammals1,2. However, the enzymatic activity and function of TET homologues in other eukaryotes remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains a 5mC-modifying enzyme (CMD1) that is a TET homologue and catalyses the conjugation of a glyceryl moiety to the methyl group of 5mC through a carbon-carbon bond, resulting in two stereoisomeric nucleobase products. The catalytic activity of CMD1 requires Fe(II) and the integrity of its binding motif His-X-Asp, which is conserved in Fe-dependent dioxygenases3. However, unlike previously described TET enzymes, which use 2-oxoglutarate as a co-substrate4, CMD1 uses L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as an essential co-substrate. Vitamin C donates the glyceryl moiety to 5mC with concurrent formation of glyoxylic acid and CO2. The vitamin-C-derived DNA modification is present in the genome of wild-type C. reinhardtii but at a substantially lower level in a CMD1 mutant strain. The fitness of CMD1 mutant cells during exposure to high light levels is reduced. LHCSR3, a gene that is critical for the protection of C. reinhardtii from photo-oxidative damage under high light conditions, is hypermethylated and downregulated in CMD1 mutant cells compared to wild-type cells, causing a reduced capacity for photoprotective non-photochemical quenching. Our study thus identifies a eukaryotic DNA base modification that is catalysed by a divergent TET homologue and unexpectedly derived from vitamin C, and describes its role as a potential epigenetic mark that may counteract DNA methylation in the regulation of photosynthesis.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 906-915, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856506

RESUMO

Thallium (Tl) is a trace metal of severe toxicity. Its health concerns via consumption of contaminated vegetables have often been overlooked or underestimated. This study was designed to gain insight into the actual level and distribution characteristics of Tl and metal (loid)s (Pb, Cd, Cr, Sb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Co) in agricultural soils and common vegetables cultivated in different zones (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of a densely populated residential area in a typical mine city, which has been open-pit exploiting Tl-bearing pyrite minerals since 1960s. The results show that most of the agricultural soils exhibit contaminated levels of Tl, with Tl contents (upstream: 1.35-4.31 mg/kg, midstream: 2.43-5.19 mg/kg, and downstream: 0.65-2.33 mg/kg) mostly exceeding the maximum permissible level (MPL) for agricultural land use (1 mg/kg). Sequential extraction procedure indicates that even Tl is predominantly retained in the residual fraction, significant levels of Tl are still present in the geochemically mobile fractions. Besides, metals like Cu, Cd, Mn, and Co are mostly distributed in the labile fractions. Almost all metal (loid)s in edible parts of the vegetables exceed their corresponding MPL for consumption. The chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) values calculated for inhabitants at different ages indicate non-negligible Tl risks via consumption of local vegetables, especially for children. Therefore, it is critical to establish effective measures for hazardous waste management and enforceable regulations in Tl-polluted area to mitigate potential severe impacts of Tl on human health through food chain.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ferro , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfetos , Tálio/análise , Verduras/química , Criança , China , Cidades , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 237: 202-214, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807814

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scutellaria-coptis herb couple (SC) is one of the well-known herb couples in many traditional Chinese compound formulas used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM), which has been used to treat DM for thousands of years in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: Few studies have confirmed in detail the anti-diabetic activities of SC in vivo and in vitro. The present investigations aimed to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of SC in type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice and in RAW264.7 macrophages to understand its possible mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) and LC-LTQ-Orbitrap Pro mass spectrometry were used to analyze the active ingredients of SC extracts and control the quality. A type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice model was established by high-fat diet. Body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, fasting blood insulin levels, glycosylated hemoglobin and glycosylated serum protein were measured. The effects of SC on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were examined. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured. Gut microbial communities were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods. The expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88 protein in the colons were measured by western blot. In RAW264.7 macrophages, IL-6, TNF-α, TLR4 and MyD88 protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits or western blot, and the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α and TLR4 was examined by the real time PCR. RESULTS: The present results showed that the SC significantly increased blood HDL and significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, fasting blood insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, glycosylated serum protein, TC, TG, LPS, IL-6 and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) in type-2 diabetic KK-Ay mice. Furthermore, SC could regulate the structure of intestinal flora. Additionally, the expressions of TLR4 and MyD88 protein in the colons were significantly decreased in the model group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). However, SC had no significant effect on weight gain. In RAW264.7 macrophages, SC containing serum (SC-CS) (5%, 10% and 20%) significantly decreased IL-6, TNF-α, TLR4 and MyD88 protein levels and the mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α and TLR4 (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The anti-diabetic effects of SC were attributed to its regulation of intestinal flora and anti-inflammation involving the TLR4 signaling pathway. These findings provide a new insight into the anti-diabetic application for SC in clinical settings and display the potential of SC in the treatment of DM.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Coptis , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Scutellaria , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/microbiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-6/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/fisiologia
7.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669664

RESUMO

Decoction is one of the oldest forms of traditional Chinese medicine and it is widely used in clinical practice. However, the quality evaluation and control of traditional decoction is a challenge due to the characteristics of complicated constituents, water as solvent, and temporary preparation. ShenFu Prescription Decoction (SFPD) is a classical prescription for preventing and treating many types of cardiovascular disease. In this article, a comprehensive and rapid method for quality evaluation and control of SFPD was developed, via qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major components by integrating ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultra-fast-performance liquid chromatography equipped with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Consequently, a total of 39 constituents were tentatively identified in qualitative analysis, of which 21 compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing with reference substances. We determined 13 important constituents within 7 min by multiple reaction monitoring. The validated method was applied for determining five different proportion SFPDs. It was found that different proportions generated great influence on the dissolution of constituents. This may be one of the mechanisms for which different proportions play different synergistic effects. Therefore, the developed method is a fast and useful approach for quality evaluation of SFPD.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 579-586, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654292

RESUMO

Norgestrel (NGT) is a synthetic progestin used in human and veterinary medicine. Adult female mosquitofish were exposed to NGT for 42 d at 377 ng L-1. The fin morphology and the liver transcriptome were assessed. NGT exposure increased ray 4:6 length ratio. As compared to the control, NGT treatment affected the expression of 11,772 annotated transcripts in female mosquitofish. Specifically, we found 5780 were repressed while 5992 were significantly induced. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that 53 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways and 158 GO terms were significantly over expressed. Genes showing the largest magnitude of expression changes were related to fin development, androgen biosynthesis, and lipid and fatty acid metabolisms, suggesting the involvement of these biological processes in response to NGT exposure in G. affinis. This first comprehensive study on the transcriptomic alterations by NGT in G. affinis not only provides valuable information on the development of molecular markers but also opens new avenues for studies on the molecular mechanisms of effects of NGT in particular and possibly other progestins in G. affinis.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Norgestrel/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ciprinodontiformes/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo
9.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 36(1): 264-272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microwave ablation (MWA) has several advantages over radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of MWA with those of RFA for HCC from the perspectives of percutaneous and laparoscopic approaches. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane library, and China Biology Medicine databases were searched. Studies comparing the efficacy and safety of MWA with those of RFA in patients with HCC were considered eligible. Complete ablation (CA), local recurrence (LR), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and the major complication rate were compared between MWA and RFA. RESULTS: Four randomized controlled trials and 10 cohort studies were included. For percutaneous ablation, no significant difference was found between MWA and RFA regarding CA, LR, DFS, OS, and the major complication rate. A subgroup analysis of tumors measuring ≥3 cm revealed no difference in CA and LR for percutaneous ablation. For laparoscopic ablation, a significantly lower LR rate and a non-significant trend toward a higher major complication rate were observed for the MWA group (odds ratio [OR] 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-4.02, p = .01 for LR; OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.04-1.03, p = .05 for major complication rate). CA, DFS, and OS were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous (P)-MWA had similar therapeutic effects compared with P-RFA for HCC. Patients undergoing laparoscopic MWA had a lower LR rate; however, their major complication rate appeared to be higher. The superiority of MWA over RFA remains unclear and needs to be confirmed by high-quality evidence.

10.
Opt Express ; 27(2): 951-964, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696173

RESUMO

We develop a local birefringence determination method of measuring the distribution of external force-induced birefringence in spun high-birefringence (HiBi) fiber (spun HiBi fiber) using polarimetric optical frequency domain reflectometry (P-OFDR). By constructing the similarity between the measured Mueller matrices and fiber under test (FUT) matrices using two input states of polarization, the total phase retardance caused by the local birefringence of FUT can be determined from the trace of the measured matrices. We measure the local birefringence of spun HiBi fibers from two different manufacturers and telecom SMF (G652.D) caused by bending, twist, and transverse stress using our presented P-OFDR system. From the experimental results, we find that bending- and twist-induced birefringences of spun HiBi fiber are much lower than those of standard SMF. More remarkably, the coating package influences the transverse stress induced birefringence of spun HiBi fibers significantly. These experimental results verify that our presented method is beneficial to evaluating and improving spun HiBi fibers' quality.

11.
Mol Med Rep ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483737

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis­induced cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are accompanied by substantial morbidity and mortality. The loss and injury of endothelial cells is the primary cause of atherosclerosis. Rosuvastatin is an alternative agent used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Subsequently, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of rosuvastatin on oxidized­low­density lipoprotein (ox­LDL)­induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury. The viability of ox­LDL­cultured HUVECs with or without rosuvastatin (0.01, 0.1 and 1 µmol/l) pretreatment, and pretreatment at different time points (3, 6, 12 and 24 h) was determined using an MTT assay. Morphological changes and the extent of apoptosis were detected; the anti­oxidase activity, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was examined, and the contents of malondiahdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. The phosphorylation levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) were detected using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with 0.01­1 µmol/l rosuvastatin decreased cell apoptosis caused by ox­LDL. Notably, pretreatment with 1 µmol/l rosuvastatin for >12 h increased cell viability. Additionally, DAPI staining revealed that rosuvastatin inhibited HUVEC apoptosis. Rosuvastatin treatment also resulted in increased SOD and CAT activities and decreased MDA content in ox­LDL­stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, pretreatment with 0.01­1 µmol/l rosuvastatin significantly increased` the NO content compared with HUVECs treated with ox­LDL alone. Western blot analyses demonstrated that rosuvastatin upregulated the phosphorylation of eNOS, Akt and PI3K. These findings indicated that rosuvastatin could protect HUVECs against ox­LDL­induced injury through its anti­oxidant effect and its ability to upregulate the expression of vascular endotheliocyte­protecting factors.

12.
Nature ; 564(7734): 136-140, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487604

RESUMO

Postnatal growth of mammalian oocytes is accompanied by a progressive gain of DNA methylation, which is predominantly mediated by DNMT3A, a de novo DNA methyltransferase1,2. Unlike the genome of sperm and most somatic cells, the oocyte genome is hypomethylated in transcriptionally inert regions2-4. However, how such a unique feature of the oocyte methylome is determined and its contribution to the developmental competence of the early embryo remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the importance of Stella, a factor essential for female fertility5-7, in shaping the oocyte methylome in mice. Oocytes that lack Stella acquire excessive DNA methylation at the genome-wide level, including in the promoters of inactive genes. Such aberrant hypermethylation is partially inherited by two-cell-stage embryos and impairs zygotic genome activation. Mechanistically, the loss of Stella leads to ectopic nuclear accumulation of the DNA methylation regulator UHRF18,9, which results in the mislocalization of maintenance DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 in the nucleus. Genetic analysis confirmed the primary role of UHRF1 and DNMT1 in generating the aberrant DNA methylome in Stella-deficient oocytes. Stella therefore safeguards the unique oocyte epigenome by preventing aberrant de novo DNA methylation mediated by DNMT1 and UHRF1.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(33): 21552-21556, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094431

RESUMO

We study the electronic transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) fully-hydrogenated borophene (namely, borophane), using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function approaches. Borophane shows a perfect electrical transport anisotropy and is promising for applications. Along the peak- or equivalently the valley-parallel direction, 2D borophane exhibits a metallic characteristic and its current-voltage (I-V) curve shows a linear behavior, corresponding to the ON state in borophane-based nano-switches. In this case, electrons mainly propagate via the B-B bonds along the linear boron chains. In contrast, electron transmission is almost forbidden along the perpendicular buckled direction (i.e., the OFF state), due to its semi-conductor property. Our work demonstrates that 2D borophane could combine metal and semiconductor features and may be a promising candidate for nano-switching materials with a stable structure and high ON/OFF ratio.

14.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 38(1): 20, 2018 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enlarged retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLNs) are very common in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) undergoing radiotherapy. The most suitable treatment option for enlarged RLNs depends on the pathological results. However, RLN sampling is difficult and imminent in the clinic setting. We recently developed a novel minimally invasive technique termed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for sampling RLN tissues sufficient for pathological or cytological diagnosis. METHODS: We enrolled 30 post-radiotherapy patients with NPC with suspected RLN metastasis detected via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The EUS probe was introduced into the nasopharynx via the nostrils, and EUS was then used to scan the retropharyngeal space and locate the RLN in the anterior carotid sheath. EUS-FNA was subsequently performed. The safety and efficacy of using EUS-FNA to sample the RLN tissues were assessed. RESULTS: Strips of tissue were successfully sampled from all patients using EUS-FNA. Of the 30 patients, 23 were confirmed to have cancer cells in the biopsied tissues via pathology or cytology examinations with 1 EUS-FNA biopsy session. The seven cases without confirmed cancer cells were subsequently reanalyzed by using another EUS-FNA biopsy session, and two more cases were confirmed possessing cancer cells. The other five patients without confirmed cancer cells were closely followed with MRI every month for 3 months. After follow-up for 3 months, three patients were still considered cancer-free due to the presence of RLNs with stable or shrinking diameters. The rest two patients who showed progressive disease underwent a third EUS-FNA biopsy procedure and were further confirmed to be cancer cell-positive. In the whole cohort reported here, the EUS-FNA procedure was not associated with any severe complications. CONCLUSION: EUS-FNA is a safe and effective diagnostic approach for sampling tissues from the RLNs in patients with suspected recurrent NPC.

15.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(3): 1951-1959, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707351

RESUMO

Background: Invasive mediastinal lymph node staging is essential to resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This retrospective study aimed to compare the diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) against cervical mediastinoscopy (CMS) in radiologically enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods: Retrospective data were collected from January 2009 to March 2016. Suspected lung cancer patients with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (short axis ≥10 mm), underwent EBUS-TBNA or CMS for invasive mediastinal staging were enrolled. Substantial radical resection with systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy (SML) was used as the gold standard. Mediastinal lymph nodes diagnostic comparison and N staging analysis were conducted in this study. Results: Fifty-five patients received EBUS-TBNA and one hundred and ninety patients received CMS were included into the analysis set. In per case analysis, no significant differences were seen between EBUS-TBNA and CMS in N staging accuracy (83.6% vs. 78.9%, P=0.444). EBUS-TBNA had significantly higher sensitivity than CMS (82.4% vs. 47.6%, P=0.039) in malignant lymph nodes diagnosis. In lymph nodes diagnosis comparison (station #2, #4 and #7), both EBUS-TBNA and CMS showed high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (82.4% vs. 94.7%, P=0.130; 97.4% vs. 100%, P=0.173; 98.8% vs. 92.9%, P=0.025; respectively), CMS had slightly better diagnostic accuracy rate than EBUS-TBNA. Malignant lymph nodes had longer short axis than benign nodes (mean 14.2 vs. 6.5 mm, P<0.001). In lymph nodes with a short axis ≥15 mm, the malignant rate was 48.8%. More complications and injuries were found in patients receiving CMS. Conclusions: For clinically suspected lung cancers with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, both EBUS-TBNA and CMS are favorable invasive mediastinal staging options. EBUS-TBNA may be preferred for its higher malignant diagnostic sensitivity and fewer complications.

16.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 25(7): 2075-2082, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for determining T category is variable for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We aimed to assess the efficacy of EUS in accurately identifying T category for ESCC based on the 8th AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using a prospectively collected ESCC database from January 2003 to December 2015, in which all patients underwent EUS examination followed by esophagectomy. The efficacy of EUS was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy compared with pathological T category as gold standard. Overall survival of different EUS-T (uT) categories was assessed. RESULTS: In total, 1434 patients were included, of whom 58.2% were correctly classified by EUS, with 17.9% being overstaged and 23.9% being understaged. The sensitivity and accuracy of EUS for Tis, T1a, T1b, T2, T3, and T4a categories were 15.8 and 98.8%, 16.3 and 95.7%, 33.1 and 89.3%, 56.8 and 65.0%, 65.8 and 70.0%, and 27.3 and 97.5%, respectively. The survival difference between uT1a and uT1b was not statistically significant (p = 0.90), nor was that between uT4a and uT4b (p = 0.34). However, when uT category was integrated as uTis, uT1, uT2, uT3, and uT4, overall survival was clearly distinguished between the categories (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: EUS is in general feasible for classifying clinical T category for ESCC. However, EUS should be used with caution for discriminating between Tis, T1a, and T1b disease, as well as T4 disease.

17.
Chin J Integr Med ; 24(10): 758-762, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of dampness-heat (DH) on the development of mammary tumors in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rats. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into 3 groups in a randomized block design, including the control group (n=13), DMBA group (n=14), and DMBA plus DH group (n=13). Rats in the DMBA group and DMBA plus DH group were intragastrically administrated with DMBA (100 mg/kg) for twice, once per week, while rats in the control group were treated with equivalent volumes of sesame oil. After DMBA administration, rats in the DMBA plus DH group were exposed to a simulated climate chamber with ambient temperature (33.0±0.5°C) and humidity (90%±5%) for 8 weeks, 8 h per day. The body weight, time of tumor formation, and number of tumors were measured weekly to calculate tumor incidence, average latency period, average number of tumors, and average tumor weight. At the end of the experiment, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in serum, and the contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1ß in serum and tumor tissue were measured, respectively. Some tumor tissues were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining to determine the histopathological changes. RESULTS: Compared with DMBA, DMBA plus DH significantly increased the average number of tumors, average tumor weight, levels of serum MMP-9, TIMP-1, TNF-α and IL-1ß, and contents of tumor tissue TNF-α and IL-1ß (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION: DH could accelerate the development of mammary tumors through increasing the expressions of MMP-9, TIMP-1, TNF-α and IL-1ß in DMBA-induced rats.

18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(8): 1314-1321, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needles with side fenestrations are used to collect aspirates for cytology analysis and biopsy samples for histologic analysis. We conducted a large, multicenter study to compare the accuracy of diagnosis via specimens collected with fine-needle biopsy (FNB) versus fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for patients with pancreatic and nonpancreatic masses. METHODS: We performed a prospective single-blind study at 5 tertiary care centers in China. The study comprised 408 patients undergoing EUS for a solid mass (>1 cm) in the pancreas, abdomen, mediastinum, or pelvic cavity, from December 2014 through January 2016. Patients were randomly assigned to groups (1:1) for assessment by FNA (n = 190) or FNB (n = 187). After lesions were identified by EUS, samples were collected in a total of 4 passes by each needle. All procedures were performed by experienced endosonographers; cytologists and pathologists were blinded to the sample collection method. Patients were followed for at least 48 weeks, and final diagnoses were obtained after surgery, imaging analysis, or resolution of lesion. The primary aim was to compare diagnostic yields of EUS-FNA with EUS-FNB for all solid masses, then separately as pancreatic and nonpancreatic masses. The secondary endpoint was the quality of histologic specimen. RESULTS: Findings from FNB analysis were accurate for 91.44% of all cases, compared with 80.00% for all FNA cases, based on final patient diagnoses (P = .0015). In patients with pancreatic masses (n = 249), findings from histologic analysis of FNBs were accurate for 92.68% of the cases, compared with 81.75% for FNAs (P = .0099). In cytology analysis of pancreatic masses, samples collected by FNB accurately identified 88.62% of all pancreatic lesions, whereas samples collected by FNA accurately identified 79.37% (P = .00468). Analyses of samples of nonpancreatic masses collected by FNA versus FNB produced similar diagnostic yields. CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of patients with pancreatic masses, we found EUS-guided FNB samples to produce more accurate diagnoses than samples collected by EUS-guided FNA samples. No difference in diagnostic yield was seen between EUS-FNA and EUS-FNB for nonpancreatic masses. Clinical Trials.gov no: NCT02327065.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15972, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162868

RESUMO

Abnormal thickened lesions of the gastric wall are usually covered with normal mucosa. Conventional endoscopic biopsies often do not yield sufficient positive histological results for clinical treatment. To increase the rate of diagnosis of conventional endoscopic biopsy-negative gastric wall thickening, we used an endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)-like sampling method under endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance to obtain tissue of gastric wall-thickening lesions. Between 2012 and 2016, patients with gastric wall thickening (as identified by computed tomography (CT), EUS or other imaging methods that showed no positive findings in repeating conventional endoscopic biopsy) underwent via mucosa incision EUS-guided sampling. Final diagnosis was determined after surgical or biopsy pathology. A total of 10 patients with gastric wall thickening were included in this study. Eight cases received definite results, whereas in two cases the biopsy results were ambiguous and in these two patients poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was determined by postoperative pathology. The results of the cases presented in this study demonstrated that via mucosa incision EUS-guided sampling provided a complementary option for the diagnosis of conventional endoscopic biopsy-negative gastric wall thickening.

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