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1.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191396

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) occurs most commonly among older men, often accompanied by chronic tissue inflammation. Although its aetiology remains unclear, autoimmune dysregulation may contribute to BPH. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent autoimmune responses and maintain immune homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to investigate Tregs frequency, phenotype, and function in BPH patients and to evaluate adoptive transfer Tregs for immunotherapy in mice with BPH via CD39. Prostate specimens and peripheral blood from BPH patients were used to investigate Treg subsets, phenotype and Treg-associated cytokine production. Sorted CD39+/- Tregs from healthy mice were adoptively transferred into mice before or after testosterone propionate administration. The Tregs percentage in peripheral blood from BPH patients was attenuated, exhibiting low Foxp3 and CD39 expression with low levels of serum IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-ß. Immunohistochemistry revealed Foxp3+ cells were significantly diminished in BPH prostate with severe inflammatory. Although the Tregs subset was comprised of more effector/memory Tregs, CD39 was still down-regulated on effector/memory Tregs in BPH patients. Before or after testosterone propionate administration, no alterations of BPH symptoms were observed due to CD39- Tregs in mice, however, CD39+ Tregs existed more potency than Tregs to regulate prostatic hyperplasia and inhibit inflammation by decreasing IL-1ß and PSA secretion, and increasing IL-10 and TGF-ß secretion. Furthermore, adoptive transfer with functional Tregs not only improved prostate hyperplasia but also regulated muscle cell proliferation in bladder. Adoptive transfer with Tregs may provide a novel method for the prevention and treatment of BPH clinically.

2.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126451, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169695

RESUMO

A novel high-valent iron-oxo species (Fe(IV) = O) generated from Iron hexadecachlorophthalocyanine (FePcCl16)-mediated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation under visible light illumination for the degradation of a special group of compounds, indomethacine (IDM), containing methoxy, carboxyl, chloro, and amide groups was investigated. The experimental results indicate that Fe(IV) = O was able to selectively attack the carbonyl C-N bond on twisted amide groups, which exerts a strong toxic effect, and could therefore, effectively degrade and detoxify IDM and its byproducts. Twelve byproducts were identified by HPLC/MS/MS and calculation of frontier electron densities (FEDs), with all amide-group breakage products detected, and the possible pathways were deduced, which mainly consisted of Fe(IV) = O-induced cleavage of amide groups and radicals-induced reactions. Ecological risk assessment further confirmed a decrease in toxicity towards IDM degradation, which provides a promising Fe(IV) = O species for selective oxidation and detoxification of destabilized ground-state amides in drinking-water and wastewater treatment.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 393: 122390, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114130

RESUMO

Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), commonly occurring in soils, aquifers and subsurface sediments, may serve as important electron shuttles for the biotransformation of coexisting toxic metals. Here, we explored the impact of different IONPs (low-crystallinity goethite and ferrihydrite, high-crystallinity magnetite and hematite) on the reduction of Cu(II) by Geobacter sulfurreducens and the associated electron shuttle mechanisms. All four IONPs tested can function as electron shuttles to enhance long distance electron transfer from bacteria to Cu(II). Upon IONPs addition, the rate of Cu(II) reduction increased from 14.9 to 65.0-83.8 % in solution after 7 days of incubation. Formation of both Cu(I) and Cu(0) on the iron oxide nanoparticles was revealed by the X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The IONPs can be utilized as conduits by bacteria to directly transfer electrons and they can also reversibly accept and donate electrons as batteries through a charging-discharging cycle to transfer electron. The latter mechanism (geo-battery) played an important role in all four types of IONPs while the former one (geo-conductor) can only be found in the magnetite and hematite treatments due to the higher crystallinity. Our results shed new light on the biogeochemically mediated electron flux in microbe-IONPs-metal networks under anaerobic iron-reduction conditions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100927

RESUMO

The reaction of propargylic amines and CO2 can provide high-value-added chemical products. However, most of catalysts in such reactions employ noble metals to obtain high yield, and it is important to seek eco-friendly noble-metal-free MOFs catalysts. Here, a giant and lantern-like [Zn116 ] nanocage in zinc-tetrazole 3D framework [Zn22 (Trz)8 (OH)12 (H2 O)9 ⋅8 H2 O]n Trz=(C4 N12 O)4- (1) was obtained and structurally characterized. It consists of six [Zn14 O21 ] clusters and eight [Zn4 O4 ] clusters. To our knowledge, this is the highest-nuclearity nanocages constructed by Zn-clusters as building blocks to date. Importantly, catalytic investigations reveal that 1 can efficiently catalyze the cycloaddition of propargylic amines with CO2 , exclusively affording various 2-oxazolidinones under mild conditions. It is the first eco-friendly noble-metal-free MOFs catalyst for the cyclization of propargylic amines with CO2 . DFT calculations uncover that ZnII ions can efficiently activate both C≡C bonds of propargylic amines and CO2 by coordination interaction. NMR and FTIR spectroscopy further prove that Zn-clusters play an important role in activating C≡C bonds of propargylic amines. Furthermore, the electronic properties of related reactants, intermediates and products can help to understand the basic reaction mechanism and crucial role of catalyst 1.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 717: 137205, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062283

RESUMO

Soluble microbial products (SMPs), as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water treatment, are composed of polysaccharides, humic acid, proteins and DNA, and have caused widespread concerned. Pyrimidine bases (cytosine and thymine) are significant nitrogenous constituents of DNA, which could pose an adverse impact on water quality during chlorination. This study focused on the correlation between relative reactivity, formation of DBPs and combined toxicity in the chlorination of a binary pyrimidine base mixture. The relative reactivities of cytosine and thymine were quite different at a low disinfectant concentration; cytosine reacted more actively with chlorine than thymine did, at the chlorine/total pyrimidine bases molar ratio = 10. The chlorination of binary pyrimidine bases can produce both carbonous DBPs (C-DBPs) and nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs). In particular, the total yields of trichloromethane (TCM) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) were lower than the additive yields of monadic cytosine and monadic thymine ("monadic" refers to "separate"), whereas the total yields of haloacetic acids (HAAs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) were promoted evidently. High reactivity of cytosine with chlorine, greater potential of cytosine to produce specific DBPs and the alkylation of transformation products of thymine may synthetically account for the diversity in total DBPs yields, especially the increased formation of HAAs and HANs. In our toxicity trial, even though the antagonistic effect predominated at fa > 0.4 (fa refers to the affected fraction), the synergism at low concentration levels could enhance the combined toxicity by promoting the yields of N-DBPs.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 4045204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083129

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) plays a significant role in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level in eukaryotes. Flexibility and diversity of transcriptome and proteome can be significantly increased through alternative splicing of genes. In the present study, transcriptome data of peripheral immune organs including spleen and inguinal lymph nodes (ILN) were used to identify AS difference between PRRSV-resistant Tongcheng (TC) pigs and PRRSV-susceptible Large White (LW) pigs artificially infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vivo. The results showed that PRRSV infection induced global alternative splicing events (ASEs) with different modes. Among them, 373 genes and 595 genes in the spleen and ILN of TC pigs, while 458 genes and 560 genes in the spleen and ILN of LW pigs had significantly differential ASEs. Alternative splicing was subject to tissue-specific and lineage-specific regulation in response to PRRSV infection. Enriched GO terms and pathways showed that genes with differential ASEs played important roles in transcriptional regulation, immune response, metabolism, and apoptosis. Furthermore, a splicing factor associated with apoptosis, SRSF4, was significantly upregulated in LW pigs. Functional analysis on apoptosis associated genes was validated by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. These findings revealed different response to PRRSV between PRRSV-resistant TC pigs and PRRSV-susceptible LW pigs at the level of alternative splicing, suggesting the potential relationship between AS and disease resistance to PRRSV.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045988

RESUMO

The reaction between organic matter and disinfectants leads to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. With the improvement of detection technology and in-depth research, more than 1000 kinds of DBPs have been detected in drinking water. Nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs) are more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the regulated DBPs. The main methods are enhanced coagulation, pretreatment, and depth technologies which based are on conventional technology. Amino acids (AAs) are widely found in surface waters and play an important role by providing precursors from which toxic nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) are generated in chlorinated drinking water. The formation of N-DBPs, including dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), was investigated by analyzing chlorinated water using ozone (OZ), permanganate (PM), and ferrate (Fe(VI)) pre-oxidation processes. This paper has considered the control of pre-oxidation over N-DBPs formation of AAs, OZ, PM, and Fe(VI) pre-oxidation reduced the haloacetonitrile formation in the downstream chlorination. PM pre-oxidation decreased the TCNM formation during the subsequent chlorination, while Fe(VI) pre-oxidation had no significant influence on the TCNM formation, and OZ pre-oxidation increased the formation. OZ pre-oxidation formed the lowest degree of bromine substitution during subsequent chlorination of aspartic acid in the presence of bromide. Among the three oxidants, PM pre-oxidation was expected to be the best choice for reducing the estimated genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the sum of the measured haloacetonitriles (HANs) and TCNM without bromide. Fe(VI) pre-oxidation had the best performance in the presence of bromide.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 671-677, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that long-term exposure to job stress could result in burnout, and BDNF polymorphism may play an important role in its psychopathological mechanism. However, the inter-relationships between the job-related stress, serum BDNF level, BDNF genotype and job burnout have not been examined. This study was to explore the job stress × BDNF rs2049046 interaction and the role of serum BDNF level in job burnout in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 205 healthy subjects were recruited from a public institution in Beijing and assessed for job stress using the House and Rizzo's Work Stress Scale, and job burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The BDNF rs2049046 polymorphism was genotyped and serum BDNF (sBDNF) levels were assayed in all of subjects. RESULTS: The correlations between the job stress score and two burnout subscale scores (emotional exhaustion and cynicism) were significant (both p < 0.001), but not with professional efficacy. There were no significant main effects of the BDNF rs2049046 genotype on burnout, and no significant correlation was observed between sBDNF levels and job burnout. However, the interaction between the job stress and the BDNF rs2049046 genotype (F = 2.709, df = 2, 183, p = 0.032) or between the job stress and sBDNF levels on burnout was significant (t = -2.132, p = 0.035). To be specific, the individuals with the BDNF rs2049046 AT genotype showed a greater susceptibility to the burnout cynicism compared to AA homozygote only in medium-stress group (F = 4.327, df = 1,117, p = 0.015). The individuals who had lower sBDNF showed higher burnout level than those who had higher sBDNF in low-stress group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the BDNF system may interact with job stress to affect burnout, showing that interaction between BDNF rs2049046 and job stress or the interaction between BDNF levels with work stress on certain burnout dimensions.

9.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031958

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, numerous multi- and many-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs and MaOEAs) have been proposed to solve the multi- and many-objective optimization problems (MOPs and MaOPs), respectively. It is known that the difficulty of maintaining the convergence and diversity performances rapidly grows as the number of objectives increases. This phenomenon is especially evident for the Pareto-dominance-based EAs, because the nondominated sorting often fails to provide enough convergent pressure toward the Pareto front (PF). Therefore, many researchers came up with some non-Pareto-dominance-based EAs, which are based on indicator, decomposition, and so on. In this article, we propose a polar-metric (p-metric)-based EA (PMEA) for tackling both MOPs and MaOPs. p-metric is a recently proposed performance indicator which adopts a set of uniformly distributed direction vectors. In PMEA, we use a two-phase selection which combines both nondominated sorting and p-metric. Moreover, a modification is proposed to adjust the direction vectors of p-metric dynamically. In the experiments, PMEA is compared with six state-of-the-art EAs in total and is measured by three performance metrics, including p-metric. According to the empirical results, PMEA shows promising performances on most of the test problems, involving both MOPs and MaOPs.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019305

RESUMO

The heterogeneous Fenton-like process is regarded as a promising approach to produce reactive oxygen species for water purification and environmental remediation. Here, we report a simple and rational strategy for the design of an efficient catalyst by reducing the dimensionality instead of changing the composition or structure. Based on theoretical and experimental evidence, considerable active sites were exposed on the low-dimensional Ti3C2Tx monolayer surface and showed outstanding reactivity toward peroxymonosulfate activation, which was mainly because of the superior compatibility between the highest occupied molecular orbital of catalysts and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of Oxone. Stimulated emission depletion super-resolution microscopy innovatively provided visual insights into the spatiotemporal heterogeneous activation process and revealed that the unilaminar Ti3C2Tx nanosheet exhibited preferable reaction dynamics relative to its inert bulk counterpart, with an aqueous 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradation rate ∼376 times higher than that when using bulk Ti3C2Tx as the activator.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that cognitive impairment plays a key role in suicide, an important factor leading to premature death in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. Empathy has received extensive attention recently; however, the relationship of empathy with suicide in schizophrenia is still unknown. The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of suicide attempts and its association with empathy and other characteristics in Chinese chronic SCZ patients. METHODS: The suicide attempt data, together with demographic characteristics and clinical variables were collected from 627 chronic inpatients with schizophrenia. We utilized the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for the psychopathological symptoms, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) for affective and cognitive empathy in this study. RESULTS: We found a suicide attempt rate of 11.3% in chronic SCZ patients. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters were more likely to be women, had younger age and higher education levels, as well as higher positive symptoms and depressive factor score, but lower negative symptoms of PANSS (all p < .05). Moreover, after controlling the confounding factors, suicide attempters scored higher in Personal Distress subscale of IRI (F1, 455 = 5.446, p = .020) than non-attempters. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of suicide attempt is high in chronic SCZ patients. Its risk factors include some demographic and clinical variables. Moreover, suicide attempters experienced stronger personal distress, suggesting that stronger empathy may be a risk factor of suicide.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 209, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937807

RESUMO

The sarcomeric troponin-tropomyosin complex is a critical mediator of excitation-contraction coupling, sarcomeric stability and force generation. We previously reported that induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from patients with a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) mutation, troponin T (TnT)-R173W, display sarcomere protein misalignment and impaired contractility. Yet it is not known how TnT mutation causes dysfunction of sarcomere microdomains and how these events contribute to misalignment of sarcomeric proteins in presence of DCM TnT-R173W. Using a human iPSC-CM model combined with CRISPR/Cas9-engineered isogenic controls, we uncovered that TnT-R173W destabilizes molecular interactions of troponin with tropomyosin, and limits binding of PKA to local sarcomere microdomains. This attenuates troponin phosphorylation and dysregulates local sarcomeric microdomains in DCM iPSC-CMs. Disrupted microdomain signaling impairs MYH7-mediated, AMPK-dependent sarcomere-cytoskeleton filament interactions and plasma membrane attachment. Small molecule-based activation of AMPK can restore TnT microdomain interactions, and partially recovers sarcomere protein misalignment as well as impaired contractility in DCM TnT-R173W iPSC-CMs. Our findings suggest a novel therapeutic direction targeting sarcomere- cytoskeleton interactions to induce sarcomere re-organization and contractile recovery in DCM.

13.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 36(3): 279-287, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919580

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty (LAARP) is considered to benefit the patients with vesico-prostatic fistula. The aim of this study is to present the details of our LAARP technique for improving the short- and long-term outcomes in the patients with high and intermediate types of anorectal malformations (ARMs). METHODS: 330 patients with high-type (174 cases) and intermediate-type (156 cases) anorectal malformation (aged 8 days to 15 years) underwent LAARP from 2001 to 2019. LAARP was performed for full mobilization and resection of the dilated rectum, intra-rectal closure of the fistula, visualization, and enlargement of the center of the longitudinal muscle tube (LMT) from pelvic and perineal aspects. RESULTS: LAARP was performed in all patients and no patient was converted to open procedure. The urethral diverticulum was found in three patients (1.02%, 3/294) according to postoperative protocol voiding cystourethrogram but was not associated with any symptoms such as urinary tract infection and dysuria. Rectal prolapse requiring surgical intervention developed in 25 (7.6%) of 330 patients. Anal stricture occurred in three patients and re-do anoplasty was performed 5 months after LAARP. Anal retraction occurred in two patients and re-pull-through was conducted at 5 and 6 days, respectively, after LAARP. 228 patients who were older than 3 years were followed up. The median follow-up period was 5.8 years (range 3-15 years). 217 patients (95.2%) had voluntary bowel movements; 202 patients (88.6%) were free from soiling or with grade 1 soiling; 30 patients (13.6%) and 25 patients (11.3%) suffered from grade 1 and grade 2 constipation, respectively, while no patient had grade 3 constipation. CONCLUSION: Our experience demonstrates that the LAARP has advantages on rectal mobilization and resection, intra-rectal fistula closure and accurate tunnel formation in the LMT with minimal trauma. The improvement of the short-term and long-term outcomes after LAARP has been shown not only for high-type ARM but also for intermediate-type ARM.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1484-1492, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927953

RESUMO

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents a unique challenge in prechlorinated raw water distribution systems (PRWDSs) because of its contribution to the formation of harmful nitrogen-disinfection byproducts, influence upon biogeochemical processes, and unclear molecular characteristics. Here, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in combination with high-throughput sequencing was applied to elucidate the molecular changes of DON and biofilm microbial communities in a PRWDS in Yixing, China. Our study revealed that dynamic characteristics of DON are significantly correlated with the biofilm. The accumulation of refractory lignin-like compounds and CnHmOpN1 contributes to the higher recalcitrance molecular characteristics of DON in the effluent associated with Alphaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Bacteroidetes. Additionally, with the help of prechlorination, the biofilm may change the DON characteristics and lead to higher oxygenation, higher m/z, and lower saturation during transportation. Despite the promotion of CnHmOpN1 and CnHmOpN3 at the early stage, we suggest that appropriate concentration of chlorine can add to the front end of raw water distribution pipes. Prechlorination may control the nitrification process and stabilize the rapid growth of diversity and concentration of low molecular weight DON, especially the refractory CnHmOpN1 in the effluent, which may help to improve treatment efficiency of drinking water treatment plants.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Purificação da Água , China , Nitrogênio , Água
15.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125840, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927386

RESUMO

Sludge water was recycled using an ultrafiltration (UF) system. In order to control membrane fouling, three typical Fe(II)-activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) processes: Fe(II)/PMS-UF (FPUF), 1/4Fe(II) × 4/PMS-UF (F4PUF) (adding Fe(II) in small increments four times), and Fe(II)/thiosulfate/PMS-UF (FTPUF) (adding Fe(II) after complexing with thiosulfate), were employed as UF pretreatments. Their mitigating effects of UF membrane fouling caused by sludge water are systematically discussed and compared. The results showed that FTPUF system had the best membrane fouling control effect. The F4PUF system was more suitable for long-term operation than FPUF due to its lower irreversible resistance. The pretreatments can effectively remove contaminants from sludge water through the dual effects of coagulation and oxidation. Specifically, coagulation removed most of the particles and macromolecular organic matter. Oxidation effectively decomposed fluorescent and UV-absorbing organic components, and reduced bacterial proliferation on the membrane surface. Concentrations of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in FPUF permeate were dramatically increased, which was mainly due to the rupture of algal cells in sludge water. Both adhesion force date and extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory indicated that the pretreatments significantly reduced interactions between the membrane-organic colloid and cake layer-organic colloid. In contrast, the stronger membrane-organic colloid interaction was a major contributor to membrane fouling. The mitigation of irreversible fouling was mainly attributed to the fact that oxidation enhanced the hydrophilicity of the organic colloids, thereby reducing the Lewis acid-base interaction energy. The results demonstrated the potential application of different Fe(II)-activated PMS processes as pretreatments for membrane fouling control during sludge water treatment.

16.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(3): 725-733, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are core symptoms of schizophrenia; however, their pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. A sensory gating deficit, as reflected by P50 suppression, has been repeatedly shown in schizophrenia patients, which may be associated with cognitive deficits in this disorder. The present study was to examine the relationship between the P50 suppression and cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, which is still under-investigated. METHOD: We recruited 38 chronic schizophrenia patients and 32 matched healthy controls, and assessed their cognition with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and P50 suppression with the electroencephalography system. RESULTS: The total and its 4 index scores (all p < 0.05) except for the visuospatial/ constructional index of RBANS were significantly lower in patients compared with healthy controls. However, only the language and attention passed Bonferroni corrections. Patients displayed a significantly higher P50 ratio, higher S2 amplitude, and lower S1 amplitude (all p < 0.05) than healthy controls. Interestingly, only in the patients, the S1 amplitude was associated with both language and attention, and the S2 amplitude with both visuospatial/ constructional and language (all p < 0.05), although all of these significances did not pass the Bonferroni corrections. The P50 ratio was not associated with any of the RBANS scores (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the P50 suppression deficits in Chinese patients with schizophrenia, which may be associated with cognitive impairments of this illness. Moreover, the amplitude of S1 and the amplitude of S2 may be involved in the different cognitive domain deficits in schizophrenia patients. SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that the P50 components may possibly be effective biomarkers for cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

17.
Schizophr Res ; 215: 270-276, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653580

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity in schizophrenia patients is high, especially in chronic and medicated patients. Few studies have explored the relationships between obesity, cognition and clinical correlates in patients with schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and clinical correlates of obesity and its relationship to cognitive impairment in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. We recruited 633 inpatients and collected clinical, demographic data and lipid parameters. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and its five-factor model were adopted for psychopathological symptoms. The prevalence of comorbid obesity in schizophrenia patients was 16.4%. The plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein B, and cholesterol were higher, but high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were lower in obese patients than those in non-obese patients (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, obese patients had lower PANSS negative symptom, cognitive factor and total scores than non-obese patients (all p < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between BMI and the following variables: age, marriage, gender, negative symptoms, general psychopathological symptoms, cognitive factor, PANSS total score, glucose, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (all p < 0.05). Further multiple regression showed that PANSS cognitive factor, PANSS total score, and triglyceride were important independent predictors of obesity. Our results indicate a high prevalence of obesity in Chinese patients with chronic schizophrenia. Multiple demographics, clinical variables, and lipid parameters are associated with obesity in schizophrenia. Moreover, obesity appears to be a protective factor for psychological symptoms. However, not having objective assessments for cognition in this study is a limitation.

19.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 36(1): 103-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the anorectal musclulature in normal children and anorectal malformations (ARM) to evaluate its role in bowel control mechanism. METHODS: Pelves of 50 neonates died of ARM-unrelated diseases and 16 patients with anorectal malformations (8 high, 5 intermediate, and 3 low ARMs) were dissected and analyzed. RESULTS: Normal anorectal musculature was divided into three muscular tubes: the internal sphincter tube (IAST), longitudinal muscle tube (LMT) and transverse muscle tube (TMT). The LMT came from the outer longitudinal smooth muscle fiber of the rectum and the striated muscle fiber of the levator ani, and the TMT composed of the puborectalis and the external anal sphincter. However, in ARM, the IAST was absent and the LMT, the center of the sphincter muscle complex, was only from the levator ani and could be divided into the pelvic portion and the perineal portion. The former, from the upper rim of the puborectalis to the bulbar urethral, became narrowed and dislocated anteriorly near to the posterior urethra in high ARM and rectal pouch in intermediate ARM. The latter, below the bulbar urethra to the anal dimple, was fused to a column both in high and intermediate ARM. The columnar perineal LMT run downwards and then split, penetrated the superficial part of EAS and terminated at the deep aspect of the skin, to form the anal dimple, which represents the center of the perineal LMT from the perineal aspect. The length of the LMT was longer in high and intermediate ARM than the normal neonate. The columnar perineal LMT and narrowed pelvic LMT could be possibly identified by laparoscopic and perineal approaches retrospectively and widened to allow the passage of the rectum through. CONCLUSIONS: The anorectal musculature in ARM is composed of agenesic LMT and TMT and the narrowed LMT gives anatomical evidence of the center, where the neorectum should pull through.

20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D983-D991, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598699

RESUMO

Recent advances in genome sequencing and functional genomic profiling have promoted many large-scale quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies, which connect genotypes with tissue/cell type-specific cellular functions from transcriptional to post-translational level. However, no comprehensive resource can perform QTL lookup across multiple molecular phenotypes and investigate the potential cascade effect of functional variants. We developed a versatile resource, named QTLbase, for interpreting the possible molecular functions of genetic variants, as well as their tissue/cell-type specificity. Overall, QTLbase has five key functions: (i) curating and compiling genome-wide QTL summary statistics for 13 human molecular traits from 233 independent studies; (ii) mapping QTL-relevant tissue/cell types to 78 unified terms according to a standard anatomogram; (iii) normalizing variant and trait information uniformly, yielding >170 million significant QTLs; (iv) providing a rich web client that enables phenome- and tissue-wise visualization; and (v) integrating the most comprehensive genomic features and functional predictions to annotate the potential QTL mechanisms. QTLbase provides a one-stop shop for QTL retrieval and comparison across multiple tissues and multiple layers of molecular complexity, and will greatly help researchers interrogate the biological mechanism of causal variants and guide the direction of functional validation. QTLbase is freely available at http://mulinlab.org/qtlbase.

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