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2.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(8): e005609, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The necessity for rapid evaluation and treatment of acute ischemic stroke with intravenous tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) may increase the risk of administrating tPA to patients presenting with noncerebrovascular conditions that closely resemble stroke (stroke mimics). However, there are limited data on thrombolysis safety in stroke mimics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry, we identified 72 582 patients with suspected ischemic stroke treated with tPA from 485 US hospitals between January 2010 and December 2017. We documented the use of tPA in stroke mimics, defined as patients who present with stroke-like symptoms, but after workup are determined not to have suffered from a stroke or transient ischemic attack, and compared characteristics and outcomes in stroke mimics versus those with ischemic stroke. Overall, 3.5% of tPA treatments were given to stroke mimics. Among them, 38.2% had a final nonstroke diagnoses of migraine, functional disorder, seizure, and electrolyte or metabolic imbalance. Compared with tPA-treated true ischemic strokes, tPA-treated mimics were younger (median 54 versus 71 years), had a less severe National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (median 6 versus 8), and a lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, except for a higher prevalence of prior stroke/transient ischemic attack (31.3% versus 26.1%, all P<0.001). The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was lower in stroke mimics (0.4%) as compared with 3.5% in ischemic strokes (adjusted odds ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.17-0.50). In-hospital mortality rate was significantly lower in stroke mimics (0.8% versus 6.2%, adjusted odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.20-0.49). Patients with stroke mimics were more likely to be discharged to home (83.8% versus 49.3%, adjusted odds ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.59-3.42) and to ambulate independently at discharge (78.6% versus 50.6%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.61-2.14). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients treated with tPA, relatively few patients who received tPA for presumed stroke were ultimately not diagnosed with a stroke or transient ischemic attack. The complication rates associated with tPA in stroke mimics were low. Despite the potential risk of administering tPA to stroke mimics, opportunity remains for continued improvement in the rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke.

3.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329212

RESUMO

Importance: Current guidelines recommend direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) over warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who are at high risk. Despite demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials, real-world data of DOACs vs warfarin for secondary prevention in patients with ischemic stroke are largely based on administrative claims or have not focused on patient-centered outcomes. Objective: To examine the clinical effectiveness of DOACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban) vs warfarin after ischemic stroke in patients with AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included patients who were 65 years or older, had AF, were anticoagulation naive, and were discharged from 1041 Get With The Guidelines-Stroke-associated hospitals for acute ischemic stroke between October 2011 and December 2014. Data were linked to Medicare claims for long-term outcomes (up to December 2015). Analyses were completed in July 2018. Exposures: DOACs vs warfarin prescription at discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were home time, a patient-centered measure defined as the total number of days free from death and institutional care after discharge, and major adverse cardiovascular events. A propensity score-overlap weighting method was used to account for differences in observed characteristics between groups. Results: Of 11 662 survivors of acute ischemic stroke (median [interquartile range] age, 80 [74-86] years), 4041 (34.7%) were discharged with DOACs and 7621 with warfarin. Except for National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (median [interquartile range], 4 [1-9] vs 5 [2-11]), baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Patients discharged with DOACs (vs warfarin) had more days at home (mean [SD], 287.2 [114.7] vs 263.0 [127.3] days; adjusted difference, 15.6 [99% CI, 9.0-22.1] days) during the first year postdischarge and were less likely to experience major adverse cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.89 [99% CI, 0.83-0.96]). Also, in patients receiving DOACs, there were fewer deaths (aHR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82-0.95]; P < .001), all-cause readmissions (aHR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.97]; P = .003), cardiovascular readmissions (aHR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]; P = .02), hemorrhagic strokes (aHR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.50-0.95]; P = .02), and hospitalizations with bleeding (aHR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97]; P = .009) but a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (aHR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.01-1.30]; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF, DOAC use at discharge was associated with better long-term outcomes relative to warfarin.

4.
Stroke ; 50(6): 1497-1503, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035901

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Acute ischemic stroke patients with history of prior ischemic stroke plus concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) were excluded from the ECASS III trial (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study) because of safety concerns. However, there are few data on use of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage or outcomes in this population. Methods- Using data from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry between February 2009 and September 2017 (n=1619 hospitals), we examined characteristics and outcomes among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator within the 3- to 4.5-hour window who had a history of stroke plus diabetes mellitus (HxS+DM) (n=2129) versus those without either history (n=16 690). Results- Compared with patients without either history, those with both prior stroke and DM treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator after an acute ischemic stroke had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in addition to history of stroke, DM, and more severe stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: median, 8 [interquartile range, 5-15] versus 7 [4-13]). The unadjusted rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and in-hospital mortality were 4.3% (HxS+DM) versus 3.8% (without either history; P=0.31) and 6.2% versus 5.5% ( P=0.20), respectively. These differences were not statistically significant after risk adjustment (symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage: adjusted odds ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.51-1.21]; P=0.28; in-hospital mortality: odds ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.52-1.14]; P=0.19). Unadjusted rate of functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2) at discharge was lower in those with HxS+DM (30.9% HxS+DM versus 44.8% without either history; P≤0.0001), and this difference persisted after adjusting for baseline clinical factors (adjusted odds ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.59-0.99]; P=0.04). Conclusions- Among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator within the 3- to 4.5-hour window, HxS+DM was not associated with statistically significant increased symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage or mortality risk.

5.
Am Heart J ; 211: 1-10, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent condition among heart failure (HF) patients. The long-term morbidity and mortality among patients with and without diabetes with HF with reduced (HFrEF), borderline (HFbEF), and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are not well described. METHODS: Using the Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-HF Registry linked to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims data, we evaluated differences between HF patients with and without diabetes. Adjusted Cox proportional-hazard models controlling for patient and hospital characteristics were used to evaluate mortality and readmission outcomes. RESULTS: A cohort of 86,659 HF patients aged ≥65 years was followed for 3 years from discharge. Unadjusted all-cause mortality was between 4.4% and 5.5% and all-cause hospitalization was between 19.4% and 22.6% for all groups at 30 days. For all-cause mortality at 3 years from hospital discharge, diabetes was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% CI 1.07-1.49, P = .0051) for HFrEF, 0.95 (95% CI 0.55-1.65, P = .8536) for HFbEF, 1.02 (95% CI 0.87-1.19, P = .8551) for HFpEF. For all-cause readmission, diabetes was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 0.87-1.29, P = .5585) for HFrEF, 1.48 (95% CI 1.15-1.90, P = .0023) for HFbEF, and 1.06 (95% CI 0.91-1.22, P = .4747) for HFpEF. CONCLUSIONS: HFrEF and HFbEF patients with diabetes are at increased risk for mortality and rehospitalization after hospitalization for HF, independent of other patient and hospital characteristics. Among HFpEF patients, diabetes does not appear to be independently associated with significant additional risks.

6.
Circulation ; 139(12): 1497-1506, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve prescription of oral anticoagulation (OAC) drugs in patients with atrial fibrillation have had limited success in improving guideline adherence. METHODS: We evaluated adherence to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association performance measures for OAC in eligible patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 and trends in prescription over time in the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-AFIB (atrial fibrillation) registry. Adjusted associations with in-hospital outcomes were also determined. The cohort included 33 235 patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 who were admitted for atrial fibrillation and were enrolled at 115 sites between January 1, 2013, and September 31, 2017. RESULTS: The median (25th, 75th percentile) age was 73 years (65, 81 years); 51% were female; and the median (25th, 75th percentile) CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4 (3, 5). At admission, 16 206 (59.5%) of 27 221 patients with a previous diagnosis of atrial fibrillation were taking OAC agents, and OAC drug use at admission was associated with a lower adjusted odds of in-hospital ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24-0.59; P<0.0001). At discharge, prescription of OAC in eligible patients (no contraindications) was 93.5% (n=25 499 of 27 270). In a sensitivity analysis, when excluding only strict contraindications (4.6%, n=1497 of 32 806), OAC prescription at discharge was 80.3%. OAC prescription at discharge was higher in those aged ≤75 years, men, those with heart failure, those with previous atrial fibrillation ablation, and those with rhythm control ( P<0.0001 for all). OAC use was lowest in Hispanic patients (90.2%, P<0.0001). Prescription of OAC at discharge in eligible patients improved over time from 79.9% to 96.6% ( P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitals participating in the GWTG-AFIB quality improvement program, OAC prescription at discharge in eligible guideline-indicated patients increased significantly and improved consistently over time. These data confirm that high-level adherence to guideline-recommended stroke prevention is achievable.

7.
Circulation ; 139(2): 169-179, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular therapy (EVT) is standard of care in patients with acute disabling ischemic stroke attributable to large-vessel occlusion and is more effective when delivered quickly. It is currently unclear whether time targets achieved in clinical trials can be achieved in clinical practice. We describe interval times from patient arrival in the emergency department (door) to first pass (treatment initiation) in patients receiving EVT within Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals and analyze patient- and hospital-level variables associated with these times. METHODS: Data are from sites participating fully as Comprehensive Stroke Centers within Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals from October 2014 to September 2016. Workflow times analyzed include door to imaging, imaging to arterial access, arterial access to first pass, and the composite door to first pass time. Data are described overall and by calendar-year quarters. Multivariable modeling was used to identify patient- and hospital-level variables associated with workflow times. RESULTS: Among 2929 patients with EVT from 195 hospitals (median age, 71 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 60-81]; 50.7% female; median baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Score, 17 [IQR, 12-22]; median annual EVT administration number, 16 [IQR, 10-27]), median door to first pass time was 130 minutes (IQR, 101-170 minutes), door to imaging time was 12 minutes (IQR, 7-20 minutes), imaging to arterial puncture time was 93 minutes (IQR, 68-126 minutes), and arterial puncture to first pass time was 18 minutes (IQR, 4-31 minutes). Overall, 3% patients achieved a door to first pass time ≤60 minutes. A statistically significant linear time trend was noted for door to first pass time (quarter 4 year 2014 median time, 134.5 minutes to quarter 3 year 2016 median time, 128 minutes, P=0.002). In multivariable analysis, older age, arrival during nonregular hours, and history of diabetes mellitus were associated with longer door to first pass time. Hospitals achieving shorter door to intravenous alteplase administration (door to needle) times were more likely to achieve faster door to first pass time ( P<0.001). Each 5 cases/y increase in EVT case volume was associated with a 3% shorter door to first pass time, up to a case volume of 40 per year ( P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although EVT treatment times are modestly improving, additional efforts are needed to streamline workflow so that the true potential of this treatment is realized. These data may inform benchmark goals for EVT workflow times.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Tempo para o Tratamento/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benchmarking/normas , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Eficiência Organizacional , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/organização & administração , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Fluxo de Trabalho
8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(10): e005356, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) in the era of direct oral anticoagulants is not well characterized. Using data from American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-AFIB, we sought to evaluate oral anticoagulation (OAC) use at discharge among AF patients with concomitant HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF patients with a diagnosis of HF hospitalized from January 2013 to March 2017 were included. We compared patient characteristics and use of OAC at discharge among patients with reduced (redundant ejection fraction [EF], EF≤40%), borderline (40%

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(10): 917-926, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167645

RESUMO

Importance: While 1 in 10 older patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) die within 30 days, end-of-life care for this population is not well described. Objective: To assess rates of discharge to hospice, readmission after hospice, and survival in hospice in patients following hospital discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational cohort analysis of patients in the multicenter American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-HF registry linked to Medicare fee-for-service claims data, we analyzed patients 65 years and older discharged alive from the hospital between 2005 and 2014. We compared 4588 patients discharged to hospice with 4357 patients with advanced HF (ejection fraction ≤25% and any of the following: inpatient inotrope use, serum sodium level ≤130 mEq/L, blood urea nitrogen level ≥45 mg/dL [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.357], systolic blood pressure ≤90 mm Hg, or comfort measures during hospitalization) not discharged to hospice and with 113 045 other patients with HF in the GWTG-HF registry. Data were analyzed from October 2017 to June 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Discharge to hospice, rehospitalization, and mortality. Results: Of the 4588 patients discharged to hospice, 2556 (55.7%) were female and 4047 (88.2%) were white, and they had a median (interquartile range) age of 86 (80-90) years. Hospice accounted for 4588 of 121 990 discharges (3.8%), of which 2424 (52.8%) were discharges to home hospice and 2164 (47.2%) were to a hospice facility. Hospice discharges increased from 2.0% (109 of 5528) in 2005 to 4.9% (968 of 19 590) in 2014. Patients discharged to hospice were older, white, and more symptomatic compared with patients with advanced HF (n = 4357) and other patients in the GWTG-HF registry (n = 113 045). The median (interquartile range) postdischarge survival time in patients discharged to hospice was 11 (3-63) days compared with 318 (78-1105) days in patients with advanced HF and 754 (221-1868) days in other patients in the GWTG-HF registry. A total of 739 patients (34.1%) discharged to hospice facilities died in less than 72 hours, while 295 (12.2%) discharged to home hospice died in less than 72 hours; 690 patients (15.0%) discharged from hospice lived for 6 months or more. Among hospitals with more than 25 hospice discharges, the median (interquartile range) hospice discharge rate was 3.5% (2.0%-5.7%). Readmission at 30 days was lower in patients discharged to hospice (189 [4.1%]) compared with patients with advanced HF (1185 [27.2%]) and others in the GWTG-HF registry (25 022 [22.2%]). Nonwhite race and younger age were the strongest predictors of readmission from hospice. Conclusions and Relevance: Hospice use has grown to about 4.9% of Medicare HF hospital discharges, with significant hospital-level variation. Almost a quarter of patients discharged to hospice die within 3 days of discharge, and about 4.1% of patients are readmitted to the hospital within 30 days.

10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 6(5): 388-397, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze cumulative Medicare expenditures at index admission and after discharge by race or ethnicity. BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a growing proportion of heart failure (HF) admissions. Research on health care expenditures for patients with HFpEF is limited. METHODS: Records of patients discharged from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry between 2006 and 2014 were linked to Medicare data. The primary outcome was unadjusted payments for acute care services. Comparisons between race/ethnic groups were made using generalized linear mixed models. Cost ratios were reported by race/ethnicity, and adjustments were made sequentially for patient characteristics, hospital factors, and regional socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Median Medicare costs for index hospitalizations were $7,241 for the entire cohort, $7,049 for whites, $8,269 for blacks, $8,808 for Hispanics, $8,477 for Asians, and $8,963 for other races. Median costs at 30 days for readmitted patients were $9,803 and $17,456 for the entire cohort at 1-year. No significant differences were seen in index admission cost ratios by race/ethnicity. At 30 days among readmitted patients, costs were 9% higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1% to 17%; p = 0.020) for blacks in the fully adjusted model than whites. At 1 year, costs were 14% higher (95% CI: 9% to 18%; p < 0.001) for blacks, 7% higher (95% CI: 0% to 14%; p = 0.041) for Hispanics, and 24% higher (95% CI: 8% to 42%; p = 0.003) for patients of other races. No significant differences between white and Asian expenditures were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Minority patients with HFpEF have greater acute care service costs. Further research of improving care delivery is needed to reduce acute care use for vulnerable populations.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(8)2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) referral is recommended for eligible patients, regardless of sex or race. It is unclear whether inequality in CR referral practices was associated with patients' long-term survival. METHODS AND RESULTS: We linked the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines Coronary Artery Disease registry with Medicare claims data for 48 993 coronary artery disease patients from 365 hospitals across the United States between 2003 and 2009. We used generalized estimation equations to estimate the association between CR referral and mortality accounting for clustering within hospitals. Between 2003 and 2009, only 40% of eligible patients received CR referrals. Females were 12% less likely to receive CR referral compared with males. Black, Hispanic, and Asian patients were 20%, 36%, and 50% less likely, respectively, to receive CR referral than white patients. CR referral was associated with 40% lower 3-year all-cause mortality. Women and minorities who received CR referral at hospital discharge had significantly lower mortality compared with those who did not (odds ratios=0.61 [95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.66] for women, 0.75 [95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.88] for black, 0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.79] for Hispanic, and 0.63 [95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.85] for Asian patients). Seven percent of the black versus white mortality gap could potentially be reduced by equitable CR referral. CONCLUSIONS: CR referral rates at hospital discharge remained low. Gaps in receiving CR referral at hospital discharge were large for women and minorities, and the mortality gap could potentially be reduced through elimination of inequality in CR referral.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(7)2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication adherence improves outcomes for patients with heart failure, but adherence rates remain low. We examined the association between earlier postdischarge follow-up and medication adherence. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients ≥65 years who were hospitalized for heart failure, covered by Medicare Part D, and discharged alive from April 2006 to October 2012 using the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry linked to Medicare claims. Patients were categorized into 4 groups by timing of first postdischarge follow-up visit: ≤1, 1 to 2, 2 to 6, and >6 weeks. Medication adherence was defined by proportion of days covered of >80% at 90 days and 1-year posthospital discharge to 5 guideline-directed medical therapies (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, evidence-based ß-blocker, aldosterone antagonist, hydralazine/isosorbide dinitrate, and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation). Among 9878 patients with heart failure, 73% had left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, median age was 78 years (25th-75th percentile, 71-84), and 48% were male. Overall, 30% had a follow-up appointment within 1-week postdischarge and 25% >6 weeks. At 1 year, medication adherence was 53% for evidence-based ß-blockers, 48% for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and 8% for hydralazine/isosorbide dinitrate. We found no significant association between timing of first follow-up visit and medication adherence at 1 year (1.04, 0.92-1.17) when comparing follow-up visits >6 weeks to the earliest ones. CONCLUSIONS: Posthospital heart failure discharge, overall adherence to medical therapies in Medicare beneficiaries was low. Early follow-up was not associated with increased medication adherence to guideline-directed medical therapy in the short or long term.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 39(25): 2376-2386, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438515

RESUMO

Aims: There is a paucity of data on the influence of diabetes on long-term outcomes after ischaemic stroke (IS). We assessed whether outcomes after IS differ between patients with and without diabetes. Methods and results: Patients aged ≥65 years (n = 409 060) in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (nationwide registry of stroke patients from 1690 sites in the USA) were followed for 3 years post-discharge. The outcomes of interest were mortality, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular hospitalizations, heart failure (HF), and recurrence of IS/transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Patients with diabetes (29.6%) were younger and had more comorbidities. At 3 years post-discharge after IS, diabetes was associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes: all-cause mortality [cumulative incidence 46.0% vs. 44.2%, absolute difference (AD) 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.23-1.25], all-cause readmission (71.3% vs. 63.7%, AD 7.6%; aHR 1.22, 1.21-1.23), composite of mortality and all-cause readmission (84.1% vs. 79.3%, AD 4.8%; aHR 1.21, 1.20-1.22), composite of mortality and cardiovascular readmission (69.5% vs. 64.3%, AD 5.2%; aHR 1.19, 1.18-1.20), IS/TIA readmission (15.9% vs. 13.3%, AD 2.6%; aHR 1.18, 1.16-1.20), HF readmission (10.3% vs. 6.4%, AD 3.9%; aHR 1.60, 1.56-1.64), non-cardiovascular readmission (58.3% vs. 50.3%, AD 8.0%; aHR 1.28, 1.26-1.29), and non-IS/TIA readmission (67.6% vs. 59.7%, AD 7.9%; aHR 1.23, 1.22-1.25). Accounting for the initial severity of stroke using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale as well as using propensity score matching method as a sensitivity analysis, did not modify the results. Conclusion: Among older IS patients diabetes was associated with increased risks of death, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular hospitalizations, HF, and IS/TIA recurrence.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(20): 2476-2486, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) have a poor prognosis and are categorized by ejection fraction (EF). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize differences in outcomes in patients hospitalized with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (EF ≥50%), heart failure with borderline ejection fraction (HFbEF) (EF 41% to 49%), and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (EF ≤40%). METHODS: Data from GWTG-HF (Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure) were linked to Medicare data for longitudinal follow-up. Multivariable models were constructed to examine 5-year outcomes and to compare survival to median survival of the U.S. RESULTS: A total of 39,982 patients from 254 hospitals who were admitted for HF between 2005 and 2009 were included: 18,299 (46%) had HFpEF, 3,285 (8.2%) had HFbEF, and 18,398 (46%) had HFrEF. Overall, median survival was 2.1 years. In risk-adjusted survival analysis, all 3 groups had similar 5-year mortality (HFrEF 75.3% vs. HFpEF 75.7%; hazard ratio: 0.99 [95% confidence interval: 0.958 to 1.022]; HFbEF 75.7% vs. HFpEF 75.7%; hazard ratio: 0.99 [95% confidence interval: 0.947 to 1.046]). In risk-adjusted analyses, the composite of mortality and rehospitalization was similar for all subgroups. Cardiovascular and HF readmission rates were higher in those with HFrEF and HFbEF compared with those with HFpEF. When compared with the U.S. population, HF patients across all age and EF groups had markedly lower median survival. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized with HF, patients across the EF spectrum have a similarly poor 5-year survival with an elevated risk for cardiovascular and HF admission. These findings underscore the need to improve treatment of patients with HF.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital profiling is typically undertaken using risk-standardized 30-day mortality, but obtaining these data for hospitals can be difficult. We sought to determine whether risk-standardized in-hospital mortality could serve as an adequate proxy for risk-standardized 30-day mortality data for the purposes of identifying outlier hospitals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acute ischemic stroke cases entered into GWTG (Get With The Guidelines)-Stroke between 2003 and 2013 were linked to fee-for-service Medicare files to obtain 30-day mortality. Risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMR) for in-hospital and 30-day mortality were generated using previously developed risk score models, and the proportion of hospitals classified as statistical outliers compared. We also assessed the impact of using the combined outcome of in-hospital mortality or discharge to hospice. A total of 535 332 ischemic stroke patients from 1494 GWTG-Stroke hospitals were included; mean age was 80 years, 59% female, and 19% nonwhite. At the hospital level, mean in-hospital RSMRs and 30-day RSMRs were 6.0% and 14.6%, respectively, but the correlation between the 2 was modest (r=0.53). Overall agreement in the designation of outlier hospitals between in-hospital and 30-day RSMRs was 78%, but chance-corrected agreement was only fair (κ=0.29). However, when using the combined outcome of in-hospital mortality or discharge to hospice (risk-standardized mean =11.8%), the correlation with 30-day RSMR was much stronger (r= 0.83) and outlier agreement improved substantially (κ=0.60). CONCLUSIONS: When used to identify outlier hospitals with high or low mortality, the agreement between risk-standardized in-hospital mortality and 30-day mortality was modest. However, the combined outcome of in-hospital mortality or discharge to hospice showed much better agreement with 30-day mortality. This composite outcome could serve as a proxy for 30-day mortality when used to identify low- or high-performing hospitals.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/normas , Alta do Paciente , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(5)2017 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28512111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pokémon GO is a location-based augmented reality game. Using GPS and the camera on a smartphone, the game requires players to travel in real world to capture animated creatures, called Pokémon. We examined the impact of Pokémon GO on physical activity (PA). METHODS AND RESULTS: A pre-post observational study of 167 Pokémon GO players who were self-enrolled through recruitment flyers or online social media was performed. Participants were instructed to provide screenshots of their step counts recorded by the iPhone Health app between June 15 and July 31, 2016, which was 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after the Pokémon GO release date. Of 167 participants, the median age was 25 years (interquartile range, 21-29 years). The daily average steps of participants at baseline was 5678 (SD, 2833; median, 5718 [interquartile range, 3675-7279]). After initiation of Pokémon GO, daily activity rose to 7654 steps (SD, 3616; median, 7232 [interquartile range, 5041-9744], pre-post change: 1976; 95% CI, 1494-2458, or a 34.8% relative increase [P<0.001]). On average, 10 000 "XP" points (a measure of game progression) was associated with 2134 additional steps per day (95% CI, 1673-2595), suggesting a potential dose-response relationship. The number of participants achieving a goal of 10 000+ steps per day increased from 15.3% before to 27.5% after (odds ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.70-2.50). Increased PA was also observed in subgroups, with the largest increases seen in participants who spent more time playing Pokémon GO, those who were overweight/obese, or those with a lower baseline PA level. CONCLUSIONS: Pokémon GO participation was associated with a significant increase in PA among young adults. Incorporating PA into gameplay may provide an alternative way to promote PA in persons who are attracted to the game. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02888314.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Exercício , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Promoção da Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis , Jogos de Vídeo , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Adulto , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
JACC Heart Fail ; 5(7): 483-493, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28501527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed HFpEF patient characteristics and clinical outcomes according to race/ethnicity and adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics along with socioeconomic status (SES). BACKGROUND: The proportion of hospitalizations for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has increased over the last decade. Whether the short- and long-term outcomes differ between racial/ethnic groups is not well described. METHODS: The Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry was linked to Medicare administrative data to identify hospitalized patients with HFpEF ≥65 years of age with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% between 2006 and 2014. Cox proportional hazards models were used to report hazard ratios (HRs) for 30-day and 1-year readmission and mortality rates with sequential adjustments for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and SES. RESULTS: The final cohort included 53,065 patients with HFpEF. Overall 30-day mortality was 5.87%; at 1 year, it was 33.1%. The 30-day all-cause readmission rate was 22.2%, and it was 67.0% at 1 year. After adjusting for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and SES, 30-day mortality was lower for black patients (HR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 0.98; p = 0.031) and Hispanic patients (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p = 0.017) compared with white patients. One-year mortality was lower for black patients (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87 to 0.99; p = 0.031), Hispanic patients (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75 to 0.91; p < 0.001), and Asian patients (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.88; p < 0.001) compared with white patients. Black patients had a higher risk of readmission at 30 days (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.16; p = 0.012) and 1 year (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.20; p < 0.001) compared with white patients. CONCLUSIONS: Black, Hispanic, and Asian patients had a lower mortality risk after a hospitalization for HFpEF compared with white patients; black patients had higher readmission rates. These differences in mortality and readmission risk according to race/ethnicity persisted after adjusting for patient characteristics, SES, and hospital factors.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicare , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
18.
JAMA ; 317(10): 1057-1067, 2017 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291892

RESUMO

Importance: Antithrombotic therapies are known to prevent stroke for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) but are often underused in community practice. Objectives: To examine the prevalence of patients with acute ischemic stroke with known history of AF who were not receiving guideline-recommended antithrombotic treatment before stroke and to determine the association of preceding antithrombotic therapy with stroke severity and in-hospital outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective observational study of 94 474 patients with acute ischemic stroke and known history of AF admitted from October 2012 through March 2015 to 1622 hospitals participating in the Get With the Guidelines-Stroke program. Exposures: Antithrombotic therapy before stroke. Main Outcomes and Measures: Stroke severity as measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS; range of 0-42, with a higher score indicating greater stroke severity and a score ≥16 indicating moderate or severe stroke), and in-hospital mortality. Results: Of 94 474 patients (mean [SD] age, 79.9 [11.0] years; 57.0% women), 7176 (7.6%) were receiving therapeutic warfarin (international normalized ratio [INR] ≥2) and 8290 (8.8%) were receiving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) preceding the stroke. A total of 79 008 patients (83.6%) were not receiving therapeutic anticoagulation; 12 751 (13.5%) had subtherapeutic warfarin anticoagulation (INR <2) at the time of stroke, 37 674 (39.9%) were receiving antiplatelet therapy only, and 28 583 (30.3%) were not receiving any antithrombotic treatment. Among 91 155 high-risk patients (prestroke CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2), 76 071 (83.5%) were not receiving therapeutic warfarin or NOACs before stroke. The unadjusted rates of moderate or severe stroke were lower among patients receiving therapeutic warfarin (15.8% [95% CI, 14.8%-16.7%]) and NOACs (17.5% [95% CI, 16.6%-18.4%]) than among those receiving no antithrombotic therapy (27.1% [95% CI, 26.6%-27.7%]), antiplatelet therapy only (24.8% [95% CI, 24.3%-25.3%]), or subtherapeutic warfarin (25.8% [95% CI, 25.0%-26.6%]); unadjusted rates of in-hospital mortality also were lower for those receiving therapeutic warfarin (6.4% [95% CI, 5.8%-7.0%]) and NOACs (6.3% [95% CI, 5.7%-6.8%]) compared with those receiving no antithrombotic therapy (9.3% [95% CI, 8.9%-9.6%]), antiplatelet therapy only (8.1% [95% CI, 7.8%-8.3%]), or subtherapeutic warfarin (8.8% [95% CI, 8.3%-9.3%]). After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with no antithrombotic treatment, preceding use of therapeutic warfarin, NOACs, or antiplatelet therapy was associated with lower odds of moderate or severe stroke (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI], 0.56 [0.51-0.60], 0.65 [0.61-0.71], and 0.88 [0.84-0.92], respectively) and in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI], 0.75 [0.67-0.85], 0.79 [0.72-0.88], and 0.83 [0.78-0.88], respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with atrial fibrillation who had experienced an acute ischemic stroke, inadequate therapeutic anticoagulation preceding the stroke was prevalent. Therapeutic anticoagulation was associated with lower odds of moderate or severe stroke and lower odds of in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28096207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of Target: Stroke Phase I, the first stage of the American Heart Association's national quality improvement initiative to accelerate door-to-needle (DTN) times, was associated with an average 15-minute reduction in DTN times. TARGET: Stroke phase II was launched in April 2014 with a goal of promoting further reduction in treatment times for tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a second survey of Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals regarding strategies used to reduce delays after Target: Stroke and quantify their association with DTN times. A total of 16 901 ischemic stroke patients were treated with intravenous tPA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset from 888 surveyed hospitals between June 2014 and April 2015. The patient-level median DTN time was 56 minutes (interquartile range, 42-75), with 59.3% of patients receiving intravenous tPA within 60 minutes and 30.4% within 45 minutes after hospital arrival. Most hospitals reported routinely using a majority of Target: Stroke key practice strategies, although direct transport of patients to computed tomographic/magenetic resonance imaging scanner, premix of tPA ahead of time, initiation of tPA in brain imaging suite, and prompt data feedback to emergency medical services providers were used less frequently. Overall, we identified 16 strategies associated with significant reductions in DTN times. Combined, a total of 20 minutes (95% confidence intervals 15-25 minutes) could be saved if all strategies were implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals have initiated a majority of Target: Stroke-recommended strategies to reduce DTN times in acute ischemic stroke. Nevertheless, certain strategies were infrequently practiced and represent a potential immediate target for further improvements.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 5(11)2016 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27930356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insurance status affects access to care, which may affect health outcomes. The objective was to determine whether patients without insurance or with government-sponsored insurance had worse quality of care or in-hospital outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations stratified by age under or at least 65 years were adjusted for patient demographics and comorbidities, presenting factors, and hospital characteristics to determine differences in in-hospital mortality and postdischarge destination. We included 589 320 ischemic stroke patients treated at 1604 US hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program between 2012 and 2015. Uninsured patients with hypertension, high cholesterol, or diabetes mellitus were less likely to be taking appropriate control medications prior to stroke, to use an ambulance to arrive to the ED, or to arrive early after symptom onset. Even after adjustment, the uninsured were more likely than the privately insured to die in the hospital (<65 years, OR 1.33 [95% CI 1.22-1.45]; ≥65 years OR 1.54 [95% CI 1.34-1.75]), and among survivors, were less likely to go to inpatient rehab (<65 OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.6-0.67]; ≥65 OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.5-0.63]). In contrast, patients with Medicare and Medicaid were more likely to be discharged to a Skilled Nursing Facility (<65 years OR 2.08 [CI 1.96-2.2]; OR 2.01 [95% CI 1.91-2.13]; ≥65 years OR 1.1 [95% CI 1.07-1.13]; OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.35-1.46]). CONCLUSIONS: Preventative care prior to ischemic stroke, time to presentation for acute treatment, access to rehabilitation, and in-hospital mortality differ by patient insurance status.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/reabilitação , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medicaid , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
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