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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 375-381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893434

RESUMO

The value of optical redox imaging (ORI) of cells/tissues based on the intrinsic fluorescences of NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and oxidized flavoproteins (containing flavin adenine dinucleotide, i.e., FAD) has been demonstrated for potential biomedical applications including diagnosis, prognosis, and determining treatment response. However, the Chance redox scanner (a 3D cryogenic tissue imager) is limited by spatial resolution (~50 µm), and tissue ORI using fluorescence microscopy (single or multi-photon) is limited by the light penetration depth. Furthermore, viable or snap-frozen tissues are usually required. In this project, we aimed to study whether ORI may be achieved for unstained fixed tissue using a state-of-the-art modern Serial Two-Photon (STP) Tomography scanner that can rapidly acquire multi-plane images at micron resolution. Tissue specimens of mouse muscle, liver, and tumor xenografts were harvested and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) for 24 h. Tissue blocks were scanned by STP Tomography under room temperature to acquire the autofluorescence signals (NADH channel: excitation 750 nm, blue emission filter; FAD channel: excitation 860 nm, green emission filter). We observed remarkable signals with significant intra-tissue heterogeneity in images of NADH, FAD and redox ratio (FAD/(NADH+FAD)), which are worthy of further investigation for extracting biological information.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , NAD , Imagem Óptica , Animais , Tecnologia Biomédica/instrumentação , Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo , Xenoenxertos/diagnóstico por imagem , Camundongos , Oxirredução , Fótons
2.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 21(3): 399-400, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020510
3.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 21(3): 417-425, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Optical redox imaging (ORI) technique images cellular autofluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp containing FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide). ORI has found wide applications in the study of cellular energetics and metabolism and may potentially assist in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Fixed tissues have been reported to exhibit autofluorescence with similar spectral characteristics to those of NADH and Fp. However, few studies report on quantitative ORI of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) unstained tissue slides for disease biomarkers. We investigate whether ORI of FFPE unstained skeletal muscle slides may provide relevant quantitative biological information. PROCEDURES: Living mouse muscle fibers and frozen and FFPE mouse muscle slides were subjected to ORI. Living mouse muscle fibers were imaged ex vivo before and after paraformaldehyde fixation. FFPE muscle slides of three mouse groups (young, mid-age, and muscle-specific overexpression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) transgenic mid-age) were imaged and compared to detect age-related redox differences. RESULTS: We observed that living muscle fiber and frozen and FFPE slides all had strong autofluorescence signals in the NADH and Fp channels. Paraformaldehyde fixation resulted in a significant increase in the redox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) of muscle fibers. Quantitative image analysis on FFPE unstained slides showed that mid-age gastrocnemius muscles had stronger NADH and Fp signals than young muscles. Gastrocnemius muscles from mid-age Nampt mice had lower NADH compared to age-matched controls, but had higher Fp than young controls. Soleus muscles had the same trend of change and appeared to be more oxidative than gastrocnemius muscles. Differential NADH and Fp signals were found between gastrocnemius and soleus muscles within both mid-aged control and Nampt groups. CONCLUSION: Aging effect on redox status quantified by ORI of FFPE unstained muscle slides was reported for the first time. Quantitative information from ORI of FFPE unstained slides may be useful for biomedical applications.

4.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 21(3): 410-416, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Optical redox imaging (ORI), based on collecting the endogenous fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) containing a redox cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), provides sensitive indicators of cellular metabolism and redox status. ORI indices (such as NADH, FAD, and their ratio) have been under investigation as potential progression/prognosis biomarkers for cancer. Higher FAD redox ratio (i.e., FAD/(FAD + NADH)) has been associated with higher invasive/metastatic potential in tumor xenografts and cultured cells. This study is to examine whether ORI indices can respond to the modulation of oncogene DEK activities that change cancer cell invasive/metastatic potential. PROCEDURES: Using lentiviral shRNA, DEK gene expression was efficiently knocked down in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (DEKsh). These DEKsh cells, along with scrambled shRNA-transduced control cells (NTsh), were imaged with a fluorescence microscope. In vitro invasive potential of the DEKsh cells and NTsh cells was also measured in parallel using the transwell assay. RESULTS: FAD and FAD redox ratios in polyclonal cells with DEKsh were significantly lower than that in NTsh control cells. Consistently, the DEKsh cells demonstrated decreased invasive potential than their non-knockdown counterparts NTsh cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides direct evidence that oncogene activities could mediate ORI-detected cellular redox state.

5.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 21(3): 426-435, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151646

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fluorescence of co-enzyme reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) provides a sensitive measure of the mitochondrial redox state and cellular metabolism. By imaging NADH and Fp, we investigated the utility of optical redox imaging (ORI) to monitor cellular metabolism and detect early metabolic response to cancer drugs. PROCEDURES: We performed ORI of human melanoma DB-1 cells in culture and DB-1 mouse xenografts to detect the redox response to lonidamine (LND) treatment. RESULTS: For cultured cells, LND treatment for 45 min significantly lowered NADH levels with no significant change in Fp, resulting in a significant increase in the Fp redox ratio (Fp/(NADH+Fp)); 3-h prolonged treatment led to a decrease in NADH and an increase in Fp and a more oxidized redox state compared to control. Significant decrease in the mitochondrial redox capacity of LND-treated cells was observed for the first time. For xenografts, 45-min LND treatment resulted in a significant reduction of NADH content, no significant changes in Fp content, and a trend of increase in the Fp redox ratio. Intratumor redox heterogeneity was observed in both control and LND-treated groups. CONCLUSION: Our results support the utility of ORI for evaluating cellular metabolism and monitoring early metabolic response to cancer drugs.

6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1072: 177-181, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178342

RESUMO

Our previous studies indicate that the mitochondrial redox state and its intratumor heterogeneity are associated with invasiveness and metastatic potential in human breast cancer cell models and mouse xenografts. To further study the molecular basis of redox heterogeneity, we obtained the fluorescence images of Fp (oxidized flavoproteins containing flavin adenine dinucleotide, i.e., FAD), NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), and the Fp redox ratio (FpR = Fp/(Fp + NADH)) of MDA-MB-231 xenografts by the Chance redox scanner, then isolated the intratumoral redox subpopulations by dissection according to the redox ratio image. A total of 12 subpopulations were isolated from 4 tumors (2-4 locations from each tumor). The 12 subpopulations were classified into 3 FpR groups: high FpR (HFpR, n = 4, FpR range 0.78-0.92, average 0.85), medium FpR (MFpR, n = 5, FpR range 0.39-0.68, average 0.52), and low FpR (LFpR, n = 3, FpR range 0.15-0.28, average 0.20). The RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis on these redox subpopulations showed that PGC-1α is significantly upregulated in the HFpR redox group compared to the MFpR group (fold change 2.1, p = 0.008), but not significantly different between MFpR and LFpR groups, or between HFpR and LFpR groups. These results indicate that optical redox imaging (ORI)-based redox subpopulations exhibit differential expression of PGC1α gene and suggest that PGC1α might play a role in redox mediation of breast cancer progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/biossíntese , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Camundongos , NAD/metabolismo , Oxirredução
7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 147: w14456, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770550

RESUMO

The anti-inflammatory genes, haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1, HMOX1) rs2071746 (unrestricted model: p = 9.07 × 10-4; recessive model: p = 4.99 × 10-4; multiplicative model: p = 0.0009; and additive model: p = 1.87 × 10-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) rs1800872 (dominant model: p = 0.0277) have been associated with paediatric inflammatory bowel disease. The present family-based case-trio study (n = 52) examined HO-1 gene expression in the presence of proinflammatory lipopolysaccharide and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in four B lymphocyte cell lines established from children with inflammatory bowel disease and demonstrated that mutations in IL-10 and IL-10 receptor B reduced HO-1 messenger RNA expression. This observation supports our hypothesis that HO-1 is regulated by the IL-10/STAT3 pathway and that both genes (IL10 and STAT3) could be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We also compared HO-1 expression in diseased intestinal tissues with adjacent normal tissues from adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Of the 17 Crohn's disease patients, HO-1 expression in diseased tissues was downregulated in 9 patients (53%) and of the 10 ulcerative colitis patients HO-1 was downregulated in 7 patients (70%), compared with adjacent normal tissues. The downregulation of HO-1 gene expression may lower anti-inflammatory effects and worsen tissue injury in affected areas by inflammatory bowel disease.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
8.
J Biomed Opt ; 21(11): 114003, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27896360

RESUMO

Our long-term goal was to investigate the potential of incorporating redox imaging technique as a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis component to increase the positive predictive value of suspicious imaging finding and to reduce unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis. We previously found that precancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. We also revealed abnormal mitochondrial redox state in cancerous specimens from three BC patients. Here, we extend our study to include biopsies of 16 patients. Tissue aliquots were collected from both apparently normal and cancerous tissues from the affected cancer-bearing breasts shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen and scanned with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the three-dimensional cryogenic NADH/Fp (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoproteins) fluorescence imager. We found both Fp and NADH in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled that in the normal tissues ( p < 0.05 ). The redox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) was ? 27 % higher in the cancerous tissues ( p < 0.05 ). Additionally, Fp, or NADH, or the redox ratio alone could predict cancer with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest that the optical redox imaging technique can provide parameters independent of clinical factors for discriminating cancer from noncancer breast tissues in human patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/química , Biópsia , Mama/química , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/análise , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/química , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/química , NAD/análise , NAD/química , Oxirredução , Curva ROC
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: 121-127, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526133

RESUMO

The invasive/metastatic potential of cancer cells is an important factor in tumor progression. The redox ratios obtained from ratios of the endogenous fluorescent signals of NADH and FAD, can effectively respond to the alteration of cancer cells in its mitochondrial energy metabolism. It has been shown previously that the redox ratios may predict the metastatic potential of cancer mouse xenografts. In this report, we aimed to investigate the metabolic state represented by the redox ratios of cancer cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopic imaging technology was used to observe the changes of the endogenous fluorescence signals of NADH and FAD in the energy metabolism pathways. We measured the redox ratios (FAD/NADH) of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7, and SKBR3. We found that the more invasive cancer cells have higher FAD/NADH ratios, largely consistent with previous studies on breast cancer xenografts. Furthermore, by comparing the fluorescence signals of the breast cancer cells under different nutritional environments including starvation and addition of glutamine, pyruvate and lactate, we found that the redox ratios still effectively distinguished the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells from less invasive MCF-7 cells. These preliminary data suggest that the redox ratio may potentially provide a new index to stratefy breast cancer with different degrees of aggressiveness, which could have significance for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , NAD/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Oxirredução , Rotenona/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Desacopladores/farmacologia
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 923: 401-406, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526169

RESUMO

Developing imaging biomarkers for non-invasive measurement of the tissue redox state is a key research area. Recently, we presented the first non-invasive MR imaging method that demonstrated the correlation between the endogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast and the tissue redox state. It is well known that the broadband magnetization transfer (MT) can occur via chemical exchange (CEST) and/or dipole-dipole interactions. The present study investigated if the broadband MT also correlated with the tissue redox state. The preliminary result for the prostate tumor xenografts indeed showed a significant correlation between the broadband MT contrast and the NADH redox ratio quantified with the optical redox scanning. In vivo MT contrast, once calibrated, may potentially serve as an imaging biomarker for tissue redox state.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Meios de Contraste , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , NAD/metabolismo , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica , Oxirredução , Neoplasias da Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Hipóxia Tumoral
11.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 6(1): 57-66, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26981456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically translatable hyperpolarized (HP) (13)C-NMR can probe in vivo enzymatic reactions, e.g., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-catalyzed reaction by injecting HP (13)C-pyruvate into the subject, which is converted to (13)C labeled lactate by the enzyme. Parameters such as (13)C-lactate signals and lactate-to-pyruvate signal ratio are commonly used for analyzing the HP (13)C-NMR data. However, the biochemical/biological meaning of these parameters remains either unclear or dependent on experimental settings. It is preferable to quantify the reaction rate constants with a clearer physical meaning. Here we report the extraction of the kinetic parameters of the LDH reaction from HP (13)C-NMR data and investigate if they can be potential predictors of lung inflammation. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 controls, 14 treated) were used. One dose of bleomycin (2.5 U/kg) was administered intratracheally to the treatment group. The lungs were removed, perfused, and observed by the HP-NMR technique, where a HyperSense dynamic nuclear polarization system was used to generate the HP (13)C-pyruvate for injecting into the lungs. A 20 mm (1)H/(13)C dual-tuned coil in a 9.4-T Varian vertical bore NMR spectrometer was employed to acquire the (13)C spectral data every 1 s over a time period of 300 s using a non-selective, 15-degree radiofrequency pulse. The apparent rate constants of the LDH reaction and their ratio were quantified by applying ratiometric fitting analysis to the time series data of (13)C labeled pyruvate and lactate. RESULTS: The apparent forward rate constant kp =(3.67±3.31)×10(-4) s(-1), reverse rate constant kl =(4.95±2.90)×10(-2) s(-1), rate constant ratio kp /kl =(7.53±5.75)×10(-3) for the control lungs; kp =(11.71±4.35)×10(-4) s(-1), kl =(9.89±3.89)×10(-2) s(-1), and kp /kl =(12.39±4.18)×10(-3) for the inflamed lungs at the 7(th) day post treatment. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed that the medians of these kinetic parameters of the 7-day cohort were significantly larger than those of the control cohort (P<0.001, P=0.001, and P=0.019, respectively). The rate constants of individual lungs correlated significantly with the histology scores of neutrophils and organizing pneumonia foci but not macrophages. Both kp and kp /kl positively correlated with lactate labeling signals. No correlation was found between kl and lactate labeling signals. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate bleomycin-induced lung inflammation significantly increased both the forward and reverse reaction rate constants of LDH and their ratio at day-7 after bleomycin treatment.

12.
J Innov Opt Health Sci ; 7(2): 1350045, 2014 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24917891

RESUMO

The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo. Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD+ couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner - the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH (p = 0.038). No significant change in Fp was found (p = 0.4). The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076). The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the feasibility of 3D imaging of the mitochondrial redox state in the heart and provides a useful tool to study heart metabolism and function under normal, dietary-change and pathological conditions at tissue level.

13.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 16(5): 670-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24811957

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tissue redox state is an important mediator of various biological processes in health and diseases such as cancer. Previously, we discovered that the mitochondrial redox state of ex vivo tissues detected by redox scanning (an optical imaging method) revealed interesting tumor redox state heterogeneity that could differentiate tumor aggressiveness. Because the noninvasive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI can probe the proton transfer and generate contrasts from endogenous metabolites, we aim to investigate if the in vivo CEST contrast is sensitive to proton transfer of the redox reactions so as to reveal the tissue redox states in breast cancer animal models. PROCEDURES: CEST MRI has been employed to characterize tumor metabolic heterogeneity and correlated with the redox states measured by the redox scanning in two human breast cancer mouse xenograft models, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. The possible biological mechanism on the correlation between the two imaging modalities was further investigated by phantom studies where the reductants and the oxidants of the representative redox reactions were measured. RESULTS: The CEST contrast is found linearly correlated with NADH concentration and the NADH redox ratio with high statistical significance, where NADH is the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The phantom studies showed that the reductants of the redox reactions have more CEST contrast than the corresponding oxidants, indicating that higher CEST effect corresponds to the more reduced redox state. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggests that CEST MRI, once calibrated, might provide a novel noninvasive imaging surrogate for the tissue redox state and a possible diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer in the clinic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos Nus , NAD/metabolismo , Oxirredução
14.
Acad Radiol ; 21(2): 223-31, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24439336

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Cancer cells generate more lactate than normal cells under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions-exhibiting the so-called Warburg effect. However, the relationship between the Warburg effect and tumor metastatic potential remains controversial. We intend to investigate whether the higher lactate reflects higher tumor metastatic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare lactate (13)C-labeling in vivo in mouse xenografts of the highly metastatic (MDA-MB-231) and the relatively indolent (MCF-7) human breast cancer cell lines. We obtained the kinetic parameters of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-catalyzed reaction by three methods of data analysis including the differential equation fit, q-ratio fit, and ratio fit methods. RESULTS: Consistent results from the three methods showed that the highly metastatic tumors exhibited a smaller apparent forward rate constant (k(+) = 0.060 ± 0.004 s(-1)) than the relatively indolent tumors (k(+) = 0.097 ± 0.013 s(-1)). The ratio fit generated the greatest statistical significance for the difference (P = .02). No significant difference in the reverse rate constant was found between the two tumor lines. CONCLUSIONS: The result indicates that the less metastatic breast tumors may produce more lactate than the highly metastatic ones from the injected (13)C-pyruvate and supports the notion that breast tumor metastatic risk is not necessarily associated with the high levels of glycolysis and lactate production. More studies are needed to confirm whether and how much the measured apparent rate constants are affected by the membrane transporter activity and whether they are primarily determined by the LDH activity.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ácido Pirúvico/farmacocinética , Animais , Radioisótopos de Carbono/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
J Innov Opt Health Sci ; 7(2)2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827630

RESUMO

NAD+/NADH redox state has been implicated in many diseases such as cancer and diabetes as well as in the regulation of embryonic development and aging. To fluorimetrically assess the mitochondrial redox state, Dr. Chance and co-workers measured the fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) including flavin-adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and demonstrated their ratio (i.e. the redox ratio) is a sensitive indicator of the mitochondrial redox states. The Chance redox scanner was built to simultaneously measure NADH and Fp in tissue at submillimeter scale in 3D using the freeze-trap protocol. This paper summarizes our recent research experience, development and new applications of the redox scanning technique in collaboration with Dr.Chance beginning in 2005. Dr. Chance initiated or actively involved in many of the projects during the last several years of his life. We advanced the redox scanning technique by measuring the nominal concentrations (in reference to the frozen solution standards) of the endogenous fluorescent analytes, i.e., [NADH] and [Fp] to quantify the redox ratios in various biological tissues. The advancement has enabled us to identify an array of the redox indices as quantitative imaging biomarkers (including [NADH], [Fp], [Fp]/([NADH] + [Fp]), [NADH]/[Fp], and their standard deviations) for studying some important biological questions on cancer and normal tissue metabolism. We found that the redox indices were associated or changed with (1) tumorigenesis (cancer versus non-cancer of human breast tissue biopsies); (2) tumor metastatic potential; (3) tumor glucose uptake; (4) tumor p53 status; (5) PI3K pathway activation in premalignant tissue; (6) therapeutic effects on tumors; (7) embryonic stem cell differentiation; (8) the heart under fasting. Together, our work demonstrated that the tissue redox indices obtained from the redox scanning technique may provide useful information about tissue metabolism and physiology status in normal and diseased tissues. The Chance redox scanner and other redox imaging techniques may have wide-ranging potential applications in many fields, such as cancer, diabetes, developmental process, mitochondrial diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging.

16.
Biomark Res ; 1(1): 6, 2013 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24252270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic alteration is one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis. We aimed to identify certain metabolic biomarkers for the early detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) using the transgenic PTEN-null mouse model. Pancreas-specific deletion of PTEN in mouse caused progressive premalignant lesions such as highly proliferative ductal metaplasia. We imaged the mitochondrial redox state of the pancreases of the transgenic mice approximately eight months old using the redox scanner, i.e., the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoproteins (NADH/Fp) fluorescence imager at low temperature. Two different approaches, the global averaging of the redox indices without considering tissue heterogeneity along tissue depth and the univariate analysis of multi-section data using tissue depth as a covariate were adopted for the statistical analysis of the multi-section imaging data. The standard deviations of the redox indices and the histogram analysis with Gaussian fit were used to determine the tissue heterogeneity. RESULTS: All methods show consistently that the PTEN deficient pancreases (Pdx1-Cre;PTENlox/lox) were significantly more heterogeneous in their mitochondrial redox state compared to the controls (PTENlox/lox). Statistical analysis taking into account the variations of the redox state with tissue depth further shows that PTEN deletion significantly shifted the pancreatic tissue to an overall more oxidized state. Oxidization of the PTEN-null group was not seen when the imaging data were analyzed by global averaging without considering the variation of the redox indices along tissue depth, indicating the importance of taking tissue heterogeneity into account for the statistical analysis of the multi-section imaging data. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a possible link between the mitochondrial redox state alteration of the pancreas and its malignant transformation and may be further developed for establishing potential metabolic biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 789: 237-242, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23852500

RESUMO

In vivo imaging/spectroscopic biomarkers for solid tumor aggressiveness are needed in the clinic to facilitate cancer diagnosis and treatment strategies. In mouse models of human melanoma and breast cancer, we were able to detect the metabolic differences among tumors of different metastatic potential and between normal and cancer tissues by optical imaging of the mitochondrial redox state of snap-frozen tissue samples. Such metabolic differences indicate that tumors of different aggressiveness have different metabolic homeostasis, which supports that kinetic parameters such as rate constant(s) can also serve as biomarkers for cancer aggressiveness and treatment response. Here we present our preliminary study on the mouse xenografts of the aggressive and indolent human breast cancer cell lines using the hyperpolarized (13)C-NMR (HP-NMR) technique. By recording the time courses of (13)C-pyruvate tracer and its metabolite signals in vivo, particularly the (13)C-lactate signal, the apparent rate constants of both the forward and reverse reactions catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were extracted via the ratiometric modeling of the two-site exchange reaction that we developed. Data from four breast tumors (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-231 medium and large) with different aggressiveness are included. We demonstrate the feasibility to quantify the apparent rate constants of LDH reactions in breast tumor xenografts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Oxirredução , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 789: 243-249, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23852501

RESUMO

Drug treatment may alter the metabolism of cancer cells and may alter the mitochondrial redox state. Using the redox scanner that collects the fluorescence signals from both the oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in snap-frozen tumor tissues, we investigated the effects of chemotherapy on mouse xenografts of a human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line (DLCL2). The mice in the treatment group were treated with CHOP - cyclophosphamide (C) + hydroxydoxorubicin (H) + Oncovin (O) + prednisone (P) using the following regimen: CHO administration on day 1 followed by prednisone administration on day 1-5. On day 5 the mitochondrial redox state of the treated group was slightly more reduced than that of the control group (p = 0.049), and the Fp content of the treated group was significantly decreased (p = 0.033).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/metabolismo , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Acad Radiol ; 20(6): 764-8, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23664401

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The clinical gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis relies on invasive biopsies followed by tissue fixation for subsequent histopathological examination. This process renders the specimens to be much less suitable for biochemical or metabolic analysis. Our previous metabolic imaging data in tumor xenograft models showed that the mitochondrial redox state is a sensitive indicator that can distinguish between normal and tumor tissue. In this study, we investigated whether the same redox imaging technique can be applied to core biopsy samples of human breast cancer and whether the mitochondrial redox state may serve as a novel metabolic biomarker that may be used to distinguish between normal and malignant breast tissue in the clinic. Our long-term objective was to identify novel metabolic imaging biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both normal and cancerous tissue specimens were collected from the cancer-bearing breasts of three patients shortly after surgical resection. Core biopsies and tissue blocks were obtained from tumor and normal adjacent breast tissue, respectively. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen, embedded in chilled mounting medium with flavin adenine dinucleotide and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reference standards adjacently placed, and scanned using the Chance redox scanner (ie, cryogenic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoprotein fluorescence imager). RESULTS: Our preliminary data showed cancerous tissues had up to 10-fold higher oxidized flavoprotein signals and had elevated oxidized redox state compared to the normal tissues from the same patient. A high degree of tumor tissue heterogeneity in the redox indices was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggests that the identified redox imaging indices could differentiate between cancer and noncancer breast tissues without subjecting tissues to fixatives. We propose that this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples before tissue fixation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Flavoproteínas/análise , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
NMR Biomed ; 26(10): 1308-20, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23625472

RESUMO

Conventional methods for the analysis of in vivo hyperpolarized (13) C NMR data from the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction usually make assumptions on the stability of rate constants and/or the validity of the two-site exchange model. In this study, we developed a framework to test the validity of the assumption of stable reaction rate constants and the two-site exchange model in vivo via ratiometric fitting of the time courses of the signal ratio L(t)/P(t). Our analysis provided evidence that the LDH enzymatic kinetics observed by hyperpolarized NMR are in near-equilibrium and satisfy the two-site exchange model for only a specific time window. In addition, we quantified both the forward and reverse exchange rate constants of the LDH reaction for the transgenic and mouse xenograft models of breast cancer using the ratio fitting method developed, which includes only two modeling parameters and is less sensitive to the influence of instrument settings/protocols, such as flip angles, degree of polarization and tracer dosage. We further compared the ratio fitting method with a conventional two-site exchange modeling method, i.e. the differential equation fitting method, using both the experimental and simulated hyperpolarized NMR data. The ratio fitting method appeared to fit better than the differential equation fitting method for the reverse rate constant on the mouse tumor data, with less relative errors on average, whereas the differential equation fitting method also resulted in a negative reverse rate constant for one tumor. The simulation results indicated that the accuracy of both methods depends on the width of the transport function, noise level and rate constant ratio; one method may be more accurate than the other based on the experimental/biological conditions aforementioned. We were able to categorize our tumor models into specific conditions of the computer simulation and to estimate the errors of rate quantification. We also discussed possible approaches to the development of more accurate rate quantification methods for hyperpolarized NMR.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Cinética , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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